IRW Chapter 15

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  • Advertising can be considered a common type of argument—trying to sway a viewer to buy a product.
  • An issue is the problem or controversy that the argument addresses. It is also the topic of an argument essay or paragraph.A claim is the particular point of view the writer has on the issue. Issues have at least two points of view—pros and cons. However, there are often many points of view about an issue.Support consists of the details that prove a claim is correct and should be accepted. Reasons, evidence, and emotional appeals are all types of support for an issue.Refutation considers opposing viewpoints and attempts to disprove or discredit them.See the charts and visual idea maps explaining the parts of argument on pages 451–452.
  • Types of Supporting Evidence:FactsStatisticsQuotations and CitationsExamplesPersonal ExperienceComparisons and Analogies
  • Read once for initial impression. Try to get a general feel of the argument.Read the argument several more times. Identify the specific claim made by the author, then try to identify reasons or evidence supporting it. Does the author acknowledge or oppose other views?Annotate as you read.Highlight key terms.Diagram or map the argument to analyze its structure.
  • Is the evidence relevant, sufficient, and does it support the claim?Does the author fairly and clearly address opposing viewpoints? Does the author refute the opposing viewpoint with logic and relevant evidence?Emotional appeals are targeted at needs or values the reader is likely to care about. Is the author doing this in an unfair way to attempt to control the reader’s attitude about the subject?Errors in reasoning are also called logical fallacies. Activities:Exercises 15-10 and 15-11 (Evaluating an Argument) using the sample argument essay on pages 464–466 of the textbook.
  • Strategies for Writing an Argument Essay:Write a thesis that identifies the issue and states your claim about it. Place the thesis effectively.Provide adequate supporting evidence. Make sure the evidence is recent and from a reliable source. Be sure to define terms and any units of measurement.Analyze the audience. There are three types of audience: those who agree with your claim, those who disagree, and those who are neutral. Think carefully about the approach you take to addressing your respective audience.For reference, see the sample essay on pages 474–477.
  • Answer: persuade (sway or convince would also be acceptable answers)
  • Answer: persuade (sway or convince would also be acceptable answers)
  • Answer: B—Arguments can have refutation, but they don’t always have it.
  • Answer: B—Arguments can have refutation, but they don’t always have it.
  • Answer: False. This is an effective strategy for reading the argument effectively.
  • Answer: False. This is an effective strategy for reading theargument effectively.
  • Answer: D—All of the above.
  • Answer: D—All of the above.
  • Answer: Topic sentences
  • Answer:Topic sentences
  • Answer: C—It is unlikely someone agrees and disagrees strongly with a claim.
  • Answer: C—It is unlikely someone agrees and disagrees strongly with a claim.
  • IRW Chapter 15

    1. 1. In Concert: An Integrated Reading and Writing Approach by Kathleen T. McWhorter Part Four: Critical Thinking, Reading, and Writing Chapter 15: Critical Thinking: Reading and Writing Arguments PowerPoint by Sarah Gilliam, Instructor of English Mountain Empire Community College
    2. 2. Chapter 15: Critical Thinking: Reading and Writing Arguments Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    3. 3. An argument is a line of reasoning intended to persuade a reader or listener to agree with a particular viewpoint or action. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    4. 4. An Argument Contains: • An Issue • A Claim • Support • Refutation Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    5. 5. Recognizing types of supporting evidence is crucial in reading an argument effectively. What are some types of supporting evidence? Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    6. 6. What are strategies for reading arguments effectively? Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    7. 7. Critical Thinking Strategies for Argument: 1. Evaluating Evidence 2. Examining Opposing Viewpoints 3. Considering Emotional Appeals 4. Identifying Errors in Reason Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    8. 8. Helpful Tips: • Review the paragraph writing strategies from Chapter 5 and Chapter 6 of your textbook. • Topic sentences in an argument paragraph should identify the issue and state the author’s claim about the issue. • Support your position with evidence and reasons. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    9. 9. Helpful Tip: • Review the essay writing techniques from Chapter 10 and Chapter 11 of the textbook. What are some strategies specifically for writing argument essays? Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    10. 10. Goal 1: Understand the Use of Argument Review Questions Fill in the Blank: An argument is a line of reasoning intended to _____________ a reader or listener to agree with a particular viewpoint or action. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    11. 11. Goal 1: Understand the Use of Argument Review Questions Fill in the Blank: An argument is a line of reasoning intended to persuade a reader or listener to agree with a particular viewpoint or action. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    12. 12. Goal 2: Recognize the Parts of an Argument Review Questions Which of the following does an argument NOT always contain? A. Claim B. Refutation C. Support D. Issue Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    13. 13. Goal 2: Recognize the Parts of an Argument Review Questions Which of the following does an argument NOT always contain? A. Claim B. Refutation C. Support D. Issue Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    14. 14. Goal 3: Read an Argument Effectively Review Questions True or False: Identifying the author’s claim and any supporting evidence is not reading the argument effectively. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    15. 15. Goal 3: Read an Argument Effectively Review Questions True or False: False: Identifying the author’s claim and any supporting evidence is not reading the argument effectively. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    16. 16. Goal 4: Think Critically About Arguments Review Questions Which of the following is an effective strategy for thinking critically about arguments? A. Examining other views B. Evaluating the evidence C. Finding errors in logic D. All of the above E. None of the above Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    17. 17. Goal 4: Think Critically About Arguments Review Questions Which of the following is an effective strategy for thinking critically about arguments? A. Examining other views B. Evaluating the evidence C. Finding errors in logic D. All of the above E. None of the above Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    18. 18. Goal 5: Write Argument Paragraphs Review Questions Fill in the Blank: ____________ _____________ in an argument paragraph should identify the issue and state the author’s claim about the issue. Copyright@ 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    19. 19. Goal 5: Write Argument Paragraphs Review Questions Fill in the Blank: Topic sentences in an argument paragraph should identify the issue and state the author’s claim about the issue. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    20. 20. Goal 6: Write Argument Essays Review Questions Which of the following is NOT one of the types of audience? A. Those who agree B. Those who disagree C. Those who agree and disagree strongly D. Neutral audiences Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    21. 21. Goal 6: Write Argument Essays Review Questions Which of the following is NOT one of the types of audience? A. Those who agree B. Those who disagree C. Those who agree and disagree strongly D. Neutral audiences Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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