Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
IRW Chapter 13
IRW Chapter 13
IRW Chapter 13
IRW Chapter 13
IRW Chapter 13
IRW Chapter 13
IRW Chapter 13
IRW Chapter 13
IRW Chapter 13
IRW Chapter 13
IRW Chapter 13
IRW Chapter 13
IRW Chapter 13
IRW Chapter 13
IRW Chapter 13
IRW Chapter 13
IRW Chapter 13
IRW Chapter 13
IRW Chapter 13
IRW Chapter 13
IRW Chapter 13
IRW Chapter 13
IRW Chapter 13
IRW Chapter 13
IRW Chapter 13
IRW Chapter 13
IRW Chapter 13
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

IRW Chapter 13

164

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
164
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
10
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Benefits of Critical Thinking:Allows you to distinguish good information from incomplete, inaccurate, or misleading informationAllows you to write paragraphs, essays, and exams that exhibit a strong understanding of what you’ve readCritical thinking can be used when reading textbooks/newspapers or writing an essay or research paper
  • Strategies for Making Inferences:Be sure you understand the literal meaning. You need to understand the writer’s main point.Notice details. Sometimes a detail will provide clues for you to make an inference. Ask yourself why the author included the detail, and think about the different kinds of details.Add up the facts. Consider all the facts and ask yourself what the author is trying to suggest with the facts. What do they point towards?Look at the writer’s choice of words. Word choice can suggest the author’s attitude toward the subject. Pay attention to emotionally charged words.Understand the writer’s purpose.Be sure your inference is supportable, as inferences must be based on fact.Activities:Exercise 13-1 (Understanding Inferences) on pages 398-399 and Exercise 13-2 (Using Inferences) on pages 399-400.
  • Evaluating a Source:What reputation does the source have?What is the audience for whom the material is intended?Are references or documentation required?Consider the author’s credentials. What authority does he or she have on the subject? Author credentials are often listed in textbooks, nonfiction books, newspapers, magazines, and reference books.
  • Evaluating Websites:Evaluate appropriateness. Does the site provide the detailed information that you need?Evaluate the source. Who sponsors the site? What is the site’s purpose? If you are unsure, search the link or search for the site’s homepage.Evaluate the level of technical detail. Do you need to know a certain amount of background information? Evaluate the presentation. Is the information well-written and clearly presented?Evaluate completeness. Does the site provide complete information? Does it address all aspects of the topic?Evaluate the links. Reputable sites are linked to other reputable sites. Make sure the links are current and that they provide reliable information.
  • Is the author’s name and credentials provided?Is contact information for the author provided?Is the information complete or in summary form?Are opinions represented as opinions and not facts?Does the author make unsubstantiated assumptions or base his/her ideas on misconceptions?Check the date the website was publishedCheck the date the document you are using was addedCheck the date the site was last updatedCheck the date the links were checked
  • Opinions are often signaled by key words or terms: apparently, it is likely, this suggests, it is likely that, one explanation is, seemingly, etc.Informed opinions are made by people whose learning and experience qualify them to provide expert opinion.Uninformed opinions are made by people who do not have these qualifications.The following questions can distinguish between informed and uninformed opinions:What experience does this person have with the subject matter?What do respected authorities think of this person?Is the opinion expressed respectfully?Is the opinion in a respected publication?Activities:Exercise 13-6 (Identifying Facts and Opinions) and 13-7 (Distinguishing Between Fact and Opinion) pages 406–407
  • Analyzing Provided Evidence:Be concerned with the type of evidence presentedBe concerned with the relevance of the evidence presentedTypes of Evidence:Personal observation/experienceStatisticsExamples, descriptions of particular events, illustrative solutionsAnalogiesHistorical documentationExperimental evidenceReasonsWhat might an author omit? There are ways an author may mislead the reader:Essential details—omitting these can allow the author to create a biased perspective.Contradictory evidence or details that could support another perspective—writers should present all relevant information, not just the information he or she wants the audience to hear.Make an incomplete comparison. It’s easy to claim something is better without an appropriate comparison.Using passive voice. Passive voice allows the author to avoid revealing information by using sentence structure that doesn’t specify action.Using unspecified nouns and pronouns.
  • Tone is directly tied to the author’s purpose.Activity: Exercise 13-10 (Recognizing Tone) on pages 411–412.
  • Make inferences in a manner that is understandable to the reader.Make sure your paper is error-free and neatly presented.Make sure your sources are documented appropriately.Be honest about the topic. If you are not an expert, don’t present yourself as one.Clearly distinguish between fact and opinion.Use evidence and data that is accurate and reliable.Use appropriate tone.
  • Answers:TrueFalse
  • Answers:TrueFalse
  • Answer: C
  • Answer: C
  • Answers:TrueFalse
  • Answers:TrueFalse
  • Answer: C—The webmaster
  • Answer: C—The webmaster
  • Answer:InformedUninformed
  • Answer:InformedUninformed
  • Answers:TrueFalse
  • Answers:TrueFalse
  • Answer: True
  • Answer: True
  • Answers:TrueFalse
  • Answers:TrueFalse—You should clearly distinguish fact from opinion. The reader may not be able to do this without clarification.
  • Transcript

    • 1. In Concert: An Integrated Reading and Writing Approach by Kathleen T. McWhorter Part Four: Critical Thinking, Reading, and Writing Chapter 13: Critical Thinking: Making Inferences and Analyzing the Author’s Point PowerPoint by Sarah Gilliam, Instructor of English Mountain Empire Community College
    • 2. Chapter 13: Critical Thinking: Making Inferences & Analyzing the Author’s Point Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 3. Critical Thinking: • Is analytical thinking • Requires you to evaluate what you read • Sometimes requires you to disagree with the author • Sometimes requires you to express a different opinion Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 4. An inference is an educated guess or prediction about something unknown based on available facts or information. What are some strategies for making inferences? Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 5. Important Considerations: • The source in which the material is printed • The authority/qualifications of the author How do I assess a source? Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 6. The internet contains a fair amount of valuable information; however, it also contains misinformation. How do I evaluate internet sources? Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 7. How do I evaluate the accuracy and timeliness of a website? Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 8. Facts are statements that can be proven or verified. Opinions are statements that express feelings, attitudes, or beliefs. Opinions are not necessarily true or false. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 9. The reader must determine what evidence the author has chosen to include in a writing and what information the author has omitted. Why do authors pick and choose what to use and omit in a particular writing? Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 10. The tone of an author’s writing helps the reader interpret what he or she is saying. Types of Tone: Instructive Sympathetic Convincing Entertaining Nostalgic Outraged Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 11. What are some strategies for thinking critically while writing? Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 12. Goal 1: Understand the Benefits of Critical Thinking Review Questions True or False: Critical thinking allows you to distinguish good information from inaccurate or incomplete information. True or False: “Critical” refers to “negative” in terms of critical thinking. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 13. Goal 1: Understand the Benefits of Critical Thinking Review Questions True or False: True: Critical thinking allows you to distinguish good information from inaccurate or incomplete information. True or False: False: “Critical” refers to “negative” in terms of critical thinking. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 14. Goal 2: Make Inferences Review Questions Which of the following is NOT a strategy for making inferences? A. Notice details B. Pay attention to word choice C. The inference does not need to be fact-based D. Understand the writer’s purpose Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 15. Goal 2: Make Inferences Review Questions Which of the following is NOT a strategy for making inferences? A. Notice details B. Pay attention to word choice C. The inference does not need to be fact-based D. Understand the writer’s purpose Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 16. Goal 3: Assess Sources and Author Qualifications Review Questions True or False: It is important to consider the source in which the material is printed. True or False: Authors would not be published if they were not credible. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 17. Goal 3: Assess Sources and Author Qualifications Review Questions True or False: True: It is important to consider the source in which the material is printed. True or False: False: Authors would not be published if they were not credible. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 18. Goal 4: Evaluate Internet Sources Review Questions Which of the following is NOT necessary for evaluating a website? A. Site sponsors B. Presentation of well-written information C. The webmaster D. Appropriateness of the site Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 19. Goal 4: Evaluate Internet Sources Review Questions Which of the following is NOT necessary for evaluating a website? A. Site sponsors B. Presentation of well-written information C. The webmaster D. Appropriateness of the site Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 20. Goal 5: Distinguish Between Fact and Opinion Review Questions Fill in the blank: _________ opinions are expressed by people who have authority related to the subject and offer expert opinions. ___________ opinions are expressed by people who do not have authority related to the subject. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 21. Goal 5: Distinguish Between Fact and Opinion Review Questions Fill in the blank: Informed opinions are expressed by people who have authority related to the subject and offer expert opinions. Uninformed opinions are expressed by people who do not have authority related to the subject. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 22. Goal 6: Evaluate Data, Evidence, and Omissions Review Questions True or False: When evaluating evidence, one must be concerned with the type of evidence presented. True or False: When evaluating information, authors should omit certain details so the reader only receives a certain perspective. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 23. Goal 6: Evaluate Data, Evidence, and Omissions Review Questions True or False: True: When evaluating evidence, one must be concerned with the type of evidence presented. True or False: False: When evaluating information, authors should omit certain details so the reader only receives a certain perspective. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 24. Goal 7: Analyze Tone Review Questions True or False: Tone is directly related to the author’s purpose. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 25. Goal 7: Analyze Tone Review Questions True or False: True: Tone is directly related to the author’s purpose. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 26. Goal 8: Think Critically When Writing Review Questions True or False: Using appropriate tone is a critical thinking strategy. True or False Readers can easily distinguish fact from opinion without explanation or clarification. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 27. Goal 8: Think Critically When Writing Review Questions True or False: True: Using appropriate tone is a critical thinking strategy. True or False False: Readers can easily distinguish fact from opinion without explanation or clarification. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    ×