IRW Chapter 11

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  • Generally, you will write several drafts of an essay before submitting the final version. There are several strategies for composing a draft:Leave time between drafts. Do not compose too many in one sitting.Think of drafting as a chance to experiment. You can write your essay using different approaches, organizational patterns, and content to see what works best.Focus on ideas, not correctness. If you see an obvious mistake, fix it; however, most editing can wait until the proofreading stage. For now, focus on expressing your thoughts and ideas about the content/topic.Be prepared to make major changes. As the essay develops, you may want to change the direction and some of the content of the essay.
  • It is important to read and reread what you have written. Rereading will help you:Stay focused on the topicRealize where to add more support or informationDecide where to start new paragraphsKnow when to use transitions to connect ideasRecognize repetitionRecognize when you need to focus more on organization
  • The thesis should explain what your essay is about and give insight to the essay’s organization. You may have to write several drafts before you are certain of the essay’s organizational structure. A thesis should:State the essay’s main point. It should not focus on details, but rather give an overview of the topic.Assert an idea about the topic; the thesis should express a viewpoint or state an approach to the topic.Be as specific and detailed as possible. Don’t make your thesis too general.Suggest the organization of the essay. The thesis may mention key points to be discussed in the essay. The order in which they are mentioned should be the order in which they are discussed.The thesis should NOT be an announcement. Do not state, “This paper will discuss” or “This essay is about”, etc.Offer a fresh, original, interesting take on the topic. A thesis that is dull or predictable needs more work.Activity: Exercise 11-1 (Evaluating Thesis Statements) on page 340. With a partner, evaluate what is wrong with the listed thesis statements, and revise them.
  • Your essay should provide substantial evidence to support your thesis statement.Guidelines for using evidence:1. Make sure the evidence is relevant.2. Make the evidence specific.3. Be sure the evidence is accurate. You may need to check facts or verify sources.4. Locate sources that provide evidence.5. Be sure to document any information used from other sources.
  • To create a well-written essay, make sure your ideas clearly relate to one another. Table 11-2 on page 345 provides multiple examples of transitions for each pattern of organization.Transitional sentences are often the first sentence of a paragraph. They may come before a topic sentence, or they may be the topic sentence. Their purpose is to link the paragraph in which they appear with the previous paragraph.Key words or terms keep the reader on track. These terms often appear in your thesis, and repeating them reiterates the essay’s purpose to the reader. The reader can then connect new ideas to the thesis.
  • The introduction, conclusion, and title each serve a specific function in your essay.The introduction presents the thesis, interests the reader, and provides necessary background information (see the chart on page 346 for examples of how to interest the reader).The conclusion emphasizes the thesis statement and draws the essay to a close. Effective ways to write a conclusion include considering outcomes/effects, returning to the thesis to prove a point, asking questions, raising issues, and summarizing key points.The title of an essay should identify the topic in an interesting way and provide some insight on the essay’s focus. Strategies for writing titles include:Creating a question your essay answersUsing key words that appear in the thesis statementBrainstorming options
  • Thinking critically about your draft involves examining, evaluating, and revising your ideas as well as the content and structure of the draft.Do your ideas accomplish your purpose?Refer to page 349 for a detailed revision map with tips.Make sure the essay accomplishes your purpose, is appropriate for the audience, and clearly expresses the thesis. Ensure paragraphs are logically arranged and that each supports the overall thesis. Use transitions to link ideas, and verify that the title, introduction, and conclusion are effective.
  • The final revision step for your essay is editing: checking for clarity in grammar, spelling, punctuation, mechanics, and format.Many of these are the same revision strategies we reviewed for paragraphs.
  • Answers:FalseTrue
  • Answers:False—Edit for these things in the proofreading stage. For now, focus on ideas and content.True
  • Answer: D—All of the above
  • Answer: D—All of the above
  • Answer: A—State “This essay will explain…”Do not “announce” the thesis.
  • Answer: A—State “This essay will explain…”Do not “announce” the thesis.
  • Answer: B—statistics without a source. Any outside information must have an accurate, documented source to be usable.
  • Answer: B—statistics without a source. Any outside information must have an accurate, documented source to be usable.
  • Answer: Both examples are true.
  • Answer: Both examplesare true.
  • Answers:introductionconclusion
  • Answers:introductionconclusion
  • Answer:TrueFalse
  • Answers:TrueFalse
  • Answers:FalseTrue
  • Answers:FalseTrue
  • IRW Chapter 11

    1. 1. In Concert: An Integrated Reading and Writing Approach by Kathleen T. McWhorter Part Three: Reading and Writing Essays Chapter 11: Drafting and Revising Essays PowerPoint by Sarah Gilliam, Instructor of English Mountain Empire Community College
    2. 2. Chapter 11: Drafting and Revising Essays Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    3. 3. A draft is a tentative or preliminary version of your essay. What are some strategies for writing a draft of an essay? Helpful Tip: Refer back to draft tips on pages 68–69 in Chapter 2 of the textbook. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    4. 4. How will reading help while drafting an essay? Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    5. 5. The Essay Thesis Should: 1. State the main point of the essay 2. Assert an idea about the topic 3. Be as specific and detailed as possible 4. Suggest the organization of the essay 5. NOT be a direct announcement 6. Offer a fresh, original, interesting take on the topic Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    6. 6. Evidence can consist of personal experiences, anecdotes, examples, reasons, descriptions, facts, statistics, and quotations (from sources). Helpful Tip: See Table 11-1 on page 341 of the textbook for different ways to add evidence to your essay. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    7. 7. Strategies for Using Transitions: 1. Use transitional words and phrases related to the pattern of organization. 2. Write a transitional sentence. 3. Repeat key terms. Helpful Tip: Refer to Table 11-2 on page 345 for examples of transitions for various organizational patterns. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    8. 8. What are the functions of the introduction, conclusion, and title of an essay? Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    9. 9. Revision Strategies for Drafts: 1. Examine your ideas 2. Create a revision map (see page 349) 3. Examine content and structure Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    10. 10. Strategies for Editing and Proofreading: 1. Check for common errors (see Table 11-3 on page 354). 2. Use grammar and spell check 3. Use a proofreading checklist (page 359) 4. Make sure the essay format is correct 5. Keep an error log Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    11. 11. Goal 1: Draft an Essay Review Questions True or False: You should edit for grammar and punctuation while drafting your essay. True or False: A draft is a preliminary version of your essay, not the final version. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    12. 12. Goal 1: Draft an Essay Review Questions True or False: False: You should edit for grammar and punctuation while drafting your essay. True or False: True: A draft is a preliminary version of your essay, not the final version. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    13. 13. Goal 2: Read While Drafting an Essay Review Questions Rereading an essay while drafting will help the writer: A. Stay on topic B. Recognize repetition C. Recognize organizational errors D. All of the above Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    14. 14. Goal 2: Read While Drafting an Essay Review Questions Rereading an essay while drafting will help the writer: A. Stay on topic B. Recognize repetition C. Recognize organizational errors D. All of the above Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    15. 15. Goal 3: Write and Revise a Thesis Statement Review Questions Which of the following should a thesis statement NOT do? A. State “This essay will explain….” B. State the essay’s main point C. Be specific and detailed D. Suggest the essay’s organization Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    16. 16. Goal 3: Write and Revise a Thesis Statement Review Questions Which of the following should a thesis statement NOT do? A. State “This essay will explain….” B. State the essay’s main point C. Be specific and detailed D. Suggest the essay’s organization Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    17. 17. Goal 4: Support Your Thesis with Substantial Evidence Review Questions Which of the following can NOT be considered reliable evidence? A. Personal experience B. Statistics without a source C. Quotations from a relevant journal D. Examples Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    18. 18. Goal 4: Support Your Thesis with Substantial Evidence Review Questions Which of the following can NOT be considered reliable evidence? A. Personal experience B. Statistics without a source C. Quotations from a relevant journal D. Examples Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    19. 19. Goal 5: Use Transitions to Make Connections Review Questions True or False: A transitional sentence links the ideas in the previous paragraph with those in the current paragraph. True or False: Repeating key words or terms is an effective strategy for making transitions and connections. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    20. 20. Goal 5: Use Transitions to Make Connections Review Questions True or False: True: A transitional sentence links the ideas in the previous paragraph with those in the current paragraph. True or False: True: Repeating key words or terms is an effective strategy for making transitions and connections. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    21. 21. Goal 6: Write Introductions, Conclusions, and Titles Review Questions Fill in the blank: The ________ presents the thesis, interests the reader, and provides necessary background information. The __________ emphasizes the thesis statement and draws the essay to a close. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    22. 22. Goal 6: Write Introductions, Conclusions, and Titles Review Questions Fill in the blank: The introduction presents the thesis, interests the reader, and provides necessary background information. The conclusion emphasizes the thesis statement and draws the essay to a close. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    23. 23. Goal 7: Think Critically as You Revise Your Draft Review Questions True or False: Content and structure are important critical thinking elements when revising a draft. True or False: Determining if your essay is appropriate for the audience is not a critical thinking tactic in revising a draft. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    24. 24. Goal 7: Think Critically as You Revise Your Draft Review Questions True or False: True: Content and structure are important critical thinking elements when revising a draft. True or False: False: Determining if your essay is appropriate for the audience is not a critical thinking tactic in revising a draft. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    25. 25. Goal 8: Edit and Proofread Review Questions True or False: Proofreading checks for errors in content and ideas. True or False: Proofreading should check to make sure the essay is properly formatted. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    26. 26. Goal 8: Edit and Proofread Review Questions True or False: False: Proofreading checks for errors in content and ideas. True or False: True: Proofreading should check to make sure the essay is properly formatted. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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