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  • Reading essays teaches you about a topic and the author’s perspective, viewpoint, or approach towards that topic.Writing essays allows you to present your ideas about a topic, explain those ideas, and support them.You will write many essays throughout your college career. Knowing how to structure essays will help you write them more effectively.
  • To read essays effectively, one must understand the parts that make up the structure of an essay. Essays tend to follow a standard organization. Each component of an essay serves a specific function. See the chart on page 306 for further details:The title of the essay suggests the subject and may create interest in the topic.& 3. The introduction introduces the topic and contains the Thesis Statement—the main point the essay is trying to make. The introduction also interests the reader, provides background information, and defines terms related to the topic.4. Supporting information is contained in the paragraphs that make up the body of the essay. There may be multiple body paragraphs depending on the nature and length of the essay. Each paragraph presents a separate main point that supports and explains the thesis statement. Each paragraph provides details that make its main point clear and understandable.5. The conclusion of the essay reemphasizes the thesis statement and draws the essay to a close.
  • To read essays effectively, you must remember what you have read so that you can react and respond to it. These strategies will help build your retention and response skills.Sorting the more important ideas from the less important ideas will help you identify which ideas to respond to.Record your thoughts as you read so you do not lose track of your reactions to the material as you encounter new ideas. Writing the ideas will cement them in your mind and create a good starting point for review.Connecting what you read to your own experiences creates memory links that help you recall the information. This also helps in responding to the essay.Patterns will help guide your reading and allow you to see how ideas connect. It is easier to remember ideas when you understand how they connect.When you finish reading an essay, do a quick review of its main points by reading your highlighted passages and your annotations. Reviewing will help you see the big picture: the essay as a whole rather than separate paragraphs.Activity:Exercise 10-6 (Strengthening Recall) on page 314.
  • In order to write about and discuss essays, you must be able to think about them critically, analyzing and evaluating the information presented. The following are important critical thinking questions related to analyzing and evaluating.Determine if the essay’s author has the appropriate background to write about the subject. Try to find information about the author’s qualifications. Is the writer presenting information to inform, entertain, persuade, or express an opinion?Are a variety of examples and information presented? Is there research, or is the essay based on personal experience?Any information from outside sources (not the author’s opinion) should be cited on a reference page. Any information that cannot be verified is not useable.What is the purpose of the visual, and how does it relate to the essay?
  • Oftentimes, an instructor will assign an essay topic, or he or she might allow you to choose your own topic. There are several strategies to assist you in choosing the right topic for your essay and for working with assigned topics.Assigned Topics:Determine as precisely as possible WHAT the instructor wants you to do, such as present information, explore an issue, express feelings/opinions, or persuade the reader.What recently taught skills does the instructor want you to implement in this assignment? What have you been learning in class that is relevant to this particular essay. Look for specific terms, techniques, and skills.Teachers often suggest what you should write about and how to organize that information. Look at the assignment handout and sample assignments for key terms and examples you are expected to utilize.
  • Strategies for Choosing Essay Topics:Take time and think about your choice. Weigh the pros and cons of the topic. Think of several ideas, and choose the one you are most comfortable writing about.Choose a topic that interests you because you will have more to say.Write about something familiar unless you plan to do significant research.Use journals as an idea source.Discuss topics with a friend or classmate.
  • Try to make your topics more specific by narrowing them. Make sure you have three or four main points to discuss in your essay.Narrow your topic to avoid:Writing generallyBecoming unfocusedWandering between topicsNot fully exploring ideasActivity:Exercise 10-10 (Narrowing Topics) on page 320. Work with a classmate to narrow three of the topics listed. Use this as a basis for class discussion or an online discussion follow-up.
  • We have covered many of the strategies necessary for planning an essay in previous chapters.To form your thesis: look for categories, organize ideas chronologically, note similarities/differences, separate causes/effects, separate pros and cons, utilize various organizational methods.Determine who your intended audience is, what they already know, and what they need to know. Also determine your reason for writing this essay.Use these visuals to connect the relationships and related ideas in your essay.Make sure you cite credible sources for any information that is not your own opinion or idea.Toneis how you sound to your audience. Make sure the tone of your essay reflects the relationship to your audience. Do you want to sound informative? Humorous? Knowledgeable? For college essays, make sure your essay tone is more formal than casual. Avoid use of slang, first person, and casual conversation.Activity:Exercise 10-17 (Revising Tone) on page 326. Give each provided example a more formal tone appropriate for a college paper.
  • Organize your essay by utilizing one of the patterns of organization discussed in chapters 7 and 8: chronological order, process, narration, description, cause and effect, compare and contrast, example, definition, or classification.
  • Answer: paragraphs
  • Answer: paragraphs
  • Answers:1. False. There is no standard number of required paragraphs for an essay.2. True. Essays should have both an introduction and conclusion.
  • Answers:1. False. There is no standard number of required paragraphs for an essay.2. True. Essays should have both an introduction and conclusion.
  • Answer: C—Where the author went to school is not relevant. His or her background regarding the topic (experience, work, or education) are relevant to his or her qualifications.
  • Answer: C—Where the author went to school is not relevant. His or her background regarding the topic (experience, work, or education) are relevant to his or her qualifications.
  • Answers:FalseTrue
  • Answers:FalseTrue
  • Answer: C
  • Answer: C
  • Answers: 1. audience2.A—Formal
  • Answers: 1. audience2.A—Formal
  • Answer: pattern
  • Answer: pattern

Transcript

  • 1. In Concert: An Integrated Reading and Writing Approach by Kathleen T. McWhorter Part Three: Reading and Writing Essays Chapter 10: Reading, Planning, and Organizing Essays PowerPoint by Sarah Gilliam, Instructor of English Mountain Empire Community College
  • 2. Chapter 10: Reading, Planning, and Organizing Essays Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 3. An essay is a group of paragraphs about one subject. Why should I read and write essays? Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 4. The Components of an Essay 1. Title 2. Introduction 3. Thesis Statement 4. Supporting Information in Body Paragraphs 5. Conclusion Helpful Tip: There is NOT a standard number of paragraphs required for an essay. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 5. Reading Essays for Retention, Recall, and Response 1. Highlight as you read 2. Annotate as you read 3. Connect ideas to your background experience 4. Identify the organizational patterns used 5. Review and write after reading Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 6. Critical Thinking Questions for Essays: 1. Who is the author, and is he/she qualified to speak on the topic? 2. Determine the author’s purpose. 3. Does the author present adequate support for his/her ideas? 4. Does the author supply proper sources for information that is not his/her own? 5. Analyze visuals that accompany the essay. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 7. Helpful Tip: Always be knowledgeable of due dates, specific requirements, lengths, and formatting for essays. Strategies for Assigned Essay Topics: 1. Determine the purpose of the assignment. 2. Connect the assignment with class instruction. 3. Look for clues about organizing and writing your essay (see Table 10-1 on page 316). Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 8. What Are Some Strategies for Choosing Your Own Essay Topics? Helpful Tips: • Brainstorm topics using the prewriting techniques learned in Chapter 2 of the textbook. • Refer to Chart 10-2 on page 317 for more strategies. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 9. Helpful Tip: Narrow your topic down Review the Four Methods from Chapter 2: • Freewriting • Brainstorming • Questioning • Branching Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 10. Strategies for Planning Your Essay: 1. Group ideas to form a thesis statement 2. Consider your audience and purpose 3. Use outlining and idea mapping 4. Obtain complete and correct information 5. Choose an appropriate tone Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 11. How do I organize my essay? Helpful Tip: See Table 10-3 on page 326 in the textbook to choose an appropriate pattern of organization. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 12. Goal 1: Understand the Purpose of an Essay Review Questions Fill in the blank: An essay is a group of _________________ written about one subject. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 13. Goal 1: Understand the Purpose of an Essay Review Questions Fill in the blank: An essay is a group of paragraphs written about one subject. Copyright @ 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 14. Goal 2: Read Essays Effectively Review Questions True or False: All essays must have five paragraphs. True or False: Essays must have an introduction and conclusion. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 15. Goal 2: Read Essays Effectively Review Questions True or False: False: All essays must have five paragraphs. True or False: True: Essays must have an introduction and conclusion. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 16. Goal 3: Analyze and Evaluate Essays Review Questions Which of the following is NOT necessary information to analyze and evaluate an essay? A. The author’s qualifications related to the topic B. The author’s sources of information C. The universities the author attended D. The author’s purpose in the essay Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 17. Goal 3: Analyze and Evaluate Essays Review Questions Which of the following is NOT necessary information to analyze and evaluate an essay? A. The author’s qualifications related to the topic B. The author’s sources of information C. The universities the author attended D. The author’s purpose in the essay Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 18. Goal 4: Choose a Topic Review Questions True or False: When using your own topic, it is not necessary to apply skills or information used in the classroom. True or False: When using an assigned topic, one should refer to sample assignments and handouts. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 19. Goal 4: Choose a Topic Review Questions True or False: False: When using your own topic, it is not necessary to apply skills or information used in the classroom. True or False: True: When using an assigned topic, one should refer to sample assignments and handouts. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 20. Goal 5: Generate Ideas About Your Topic Review Questions Which of the following is NOT an effective strategy for generating topic ideas? A. Brainstorming B. Freewriting C. Choosing a broad topic D. Questioning Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 21. Goal 5: Generate Ideas About Your Topic Review Questions Which of the following is NOT an effective strategy for generating topic ideas? A. Brainstorming B. Freewriting C. Choosing a broad topic D. Questioning Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 22. Goal 6: Plan Your Essay Review Questions Fill in the blank: The tone of the essay is how the writer sounds to the ________________. The tone of your college essay should be: A. Formal B. Humorous C. Casual D. Sarcastic Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 23. Goal 6: Plan Your Essay Review Questions Fill in the blank: The tone of the essay is how the writer sounds to the audience. The tone of your college essay should be: A. Formal B. Humorous C. Casual D. Sarcastic Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 24. Goal 7: Organize Your Essay Review Questions Fill in the blank: Essays should be organized using a _____________ of organization such as comparison and contrast. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 25. Goal 7: Organize Your Essay Review Questions Fill in the blank: Essays should be organized using a pattern of organization such as comparison and contrast. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.