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# IRW Chapter 8

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• See the chart on page 241 for additional examples of these patterns.Definition: Explains a topic by discussing its characteristicsClassification: Explains a topic by organizing into categories and partsComparison and contrast: Shows how things are similar and/or differentCause and effect: Explains why things happen or what happens as a result of an event or actionOther Patterns (briefly mentioned in Chapter 8):Statement and ClarificationSummaryAdditionSpatial Order
• Refer to pages 242–243 for visual and paragraph descriptions of the three parts of a definition.The term is the word itself.The group is the general category of which something is a part. For example, if you were defining the term “Dalmatian,” you might categorize it as a dog.Distinguishing characteristics are details that allow you to tell something apart from others in its group or category. If you were to define the distinguishing characteristics of a Dalmatian compared to other dogs, you might note that it has black and white spots and is often used as a mascot for fire departments.Definitions also have common transitional phrases. See the chart on page 245 for these examples.Activities:Exercise 8-1 (Classifying Terms) on page 243. Ask students to categorize the terms provided. Then, ask them to list distinguishing characteristics of the terms. This can be done individually or as a quick group activity.Exercise 8-2 (Understanding the Definition Pattern) on pages 245-247.
• Give examples: the more descriptive, the better.Break the term into subcategories: this strategy will help organize the definition.Explain what the term is not: provide counter-examples or discuss how the term means something different than one might expect.Trace the term’s meaning over time: if the term’s meaning has changed or expanded over time, use this to explain the term’s current meaning.Compare unfamiliar terms to familiar ones: make clear connections to readers by using a term they can relate to (for example, rugby is a sport somewhat like football).
• See pages 249–250 for paragraph and visual depictions of classification.Classification is used in reading and writing to explain a topic by describing its parts. For example, a scientist might classify the different types of plants. Classification is often used to explain difficult or complex topics.Common classification transitional phrases are listed in a chart on page 251.Activity:Exercise 8-5 (Analyzing Classification Paragraphs) on pages 251–252. Students must identify the topics of passages and the categories/parts in which each is classified. This exercise would be effective as a group or individual activity.
• Choose a topic that can easily be broken into categories. A narrow topic would be difficult to break down.Think of the different ways to break the subject into categories depending on the focus of your writing.Choose a basis of classification that is interesting to the audience.A basis that is complicated or too long will make your topic difficult to write about.Choose a basis of classification that you are familiar with. An unfamiliar basis may require additional research.
• See pages 254–255 for paragraph and visual depictions of comparison and contrast.When writing longer works, it is easier focus on similarities and differences; however, in a paragraph it is difficult to accurately cover both.Common transitional phrases/words for comparison and contrast are listed in a chart on page 257. Activity:Exercise 8-10 (Understanding Comparison and Contrast Patterns) on page 256. Ask students to follow the sample provided to list the similarities and differences between two restaurants.
• Points of comparison and contrast should depend on what the writer wants the paragraph to show—the purpose of the writing. For example, if the focus of comparing two jobs is to show that one job is a safer working environment than the other, one might want to compare the equipment used on both jobs, the published safety procedures, the enforcement of safety, and how many documented injuries or incidents occurred at each place.Subject-by-subject organization completely covers one subject, then covers the other subject in its entirety. To develop each subject, focus on the same types of details when writing about each. Most to least or least to most arrangement is an effective format for this type of organization.Point-by-point organization means the writer discusses both subjects at each point of comparison or contrast. For example, if you are comparing the two jobs, you might contrast the safety procedures of Job A with those of Job B.Visuals for subject-by-subject and point-by-point organization are located on pages 260–261.Activity:Provide (or ask students to bring) advertisements for two similar products (different brands—for example, two different perfume ads). Put students in groups and ask them to write a brief comparison and contrast of the two advertisements. In doing this, they must devise a topic sentence and the points of comparison and contrast. At the end of the activity, have the groups present their advertisements to the class so they can see how others have compared and contrasted the information.
• See pages 261–263 for paragraph and visual depictions of cause and effect.Explanation: Cause and effect patterns explain why one event or action caused another event or action. For example, if there is a car accident, cause and effect could explain that icy road conditions caused a car to slide off the road and hit a guard rail.Common transitional terms/phrases for cause and effect are listed in a chart on page 264.Activity:Exercise 8-15 (Understanding Cause and Effect Patterns) on page 264.
• To determine the difference between cause and effect, ask the following (see visuals on pages 266–267): Cause: Why did this happen? Effect: How did this happen?2. To create the topic sentence: Clarify the cause/effect relationship Decide whether to emphasize causes or effects or both Determine whether the events are related or independent—was there a series of events leading to the occurrence? Was there a chain reaction of some type?3. Each cause or effect must be relevant to the situation described in the topic sentence. Remember that each cause or reason needs explanation. Create a list of reasons/causes and consider how you will support each with details.
• Statement and clarification: Opening a paragraph with a statement, then composing a sentence explaining that statement. The rest of the paragraph should discuss the statement and make its meaning clear using specific examples.A summary is a condensed statement that recaps the main points of a piece of writing. Writers sometimes need to summarize information they or someone else has already stated. This is often done for purposes of clarification or emphasizing a point.Addition: Introducing an idea or making a statement, then supplying additional information to supplement the idea or statement. This pattern expands, elaborates, and discusses an idea in greater detail.Spatial order is concerned with the physical location or position in space. This pattern is often used in areas where physical descriptions (such as parts of a camera in photography) are important.
• Definition: If you determine the definition is subjective (biased), ask yourself if you agree with the author and if he or she provides enough support for his or her opinion.Classification: Examine the categories the author has chosen. Are they complete? Do they cover the subject thoroughly? What might be left out? Are each of the categories treated equally and provided sufficient amounts of support? Are the classifications appropriate? If not, what would you have changed?Comparison and contrast: Are the same points covered for each subject? Do each get the same amount of coverage? Are all points approached with the same level of objectivity and subjectivity? If not, why do you think this is?Cause and effect: Are there errors in logic? Are the events actually related, or could there be other factors involved? What commonsense reasoning might explain what has occurred? Is the author’s description complete and objective? Has the author identified all reasonable causes and effects? If not, what else might be considered?
• Answers:TrueFalse: Comparison and contrast shows how things are similar and different. Cause and effect explains why things happen or what happens as a result of an event or action.
• Answers:TrueFalse: Comparison and contrast shows how things are similar and different. Cause and effect explains why things happen or what happens as a result of an event or action.
• Answers:1. False—Point by point or subject by subject are both effective methods for writing a comparison/contrast.2. False—the writer needs to develop a focused topic that is a basis for the comparison. You can’t just compare apples and oranges because they’re different types of fruit. You have to focus the topic; argue that one is healthier/better. If comparing advertisements, you might make the statement that one ad is targeted at a younger audience than the other and choose points of comparison that demonstrate this.
• Answers:1. False—Point by point or subject by subject are both effective methods for writing a comparison/contrast.2. False—the writer needs to develop a focused topic that is a basis for the comparison. You can’t just compare apples and oranges because they’re different types of fruit. You have to focus the topic; argue that one is healthier/better. If comparing advertisements, you might make the statement that one ad is targeted at a younger audience than the other and choose points of comparison that demonstrate this.
• Answer: Both statements are false. Reverse the definitions.
• Answer: Both statements are false. Reverse the definitions.
• Answers:TrueFalse—this is the definition of statement and clarification. Summary is a brief restatement of the key points of a piece of writing.
• Answers:TrueFalse—this is the definition of statement and clarification. Summary is a brief restatement of the key points of a piece of writing.
• Answer: D—all of the above
• Answer: D—all of the above
• ### IRW Chapter 8

1. 1. In Concert: An Integrated Reading and Writing Approach by Kathleen T. McWhorter Part Two: Reading, Writing, and Organizing Paragraphs Chapter 8: Organization: Additional Patterns PowerPoint by Sarah Gilliam, Instructor of English Mountain Empire Community College
3. 3. Important Terms to Remember: 1. Definition 2. Classification 3. Comparison and Contrast 4. Cause and Effect Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
4. 4. A definition is an explanation of what something is. The three parts of a definition: 1. The term being defined 2. The group or category to which the term belongs 3. Distinguishing characteristics Helpful Tip: Definitions are often combined with examples. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
5. 5. Strategies for Adding Explanatory Details: 1. Give examples 2. Break the term into subcategories 3. Explain what the term is not 4. Trace the term’s meaning over time 5. Compare an unfamiliar term to a familiar one Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
6. 6. Classification explains a subject by identifying and describing its types or categories. Helpful Tip: When reading a textbook with material that has been classified into categories, be sure to determine how and why it is classified in a particular manner. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
7. 7. Writing a Classification Paragraph 1. Choose a general topic 2. Brainstorm ways to break the topic into subgroups 3. Consider the audience 4. Choose an uncomplicated basis 5. Choose a familiar basis Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
8. 8. Important Terms to Remember: 1. Comparison focuses on similarities 2. Contrast focuses on differences Helpful Tip: When writing a paragraph, it is best to concentrate on either comparison OR contrast. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
9. 9. Writing Using Comparison and Contrast 1. Compose a topic sentence identifying the two topics 2. State whether the topic will be compared, contrasted, or both 3. Develop points of comparison and contrast 4. Organize the information subject by subject or point by point Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
10. 10. Important Terms to Remember: 1. Causes are explanations of why things happen. 2. Effects are explanations of what happens as the result of an action or event. Helpful Tip: Cause and effect patterns explain why an event or action caused another event or action. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
11. 11. Writing Using Cause and Effect 1. Distinguish between cause and effect 2. Create a topic sentence 3. Provide relevant, sufficient details Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
13. 13. How do I think critically about the different patterns of organization? 1. Definition: Is the definition subjective? 2. Classification: Examine the categories 3. Comparison and Contrast: Are both topics equally covered? 4. Cause and Effect: Are there errors in logic? Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
14. 14. Goal 1: Identify Additional Patterns of Organization Review Questions True or False: Classification is explaining a topic by breaking it into categories. True or False: Cause and effect shows how things are similar or different. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
15. 15. Goal 1: Identify Additional Patterns of Organization Review Questions True or False: True: Classification is explaining a topic by breaking it into categories. True or False: False: Cause and effect shows how things are similar or different. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
16. 16. Goal 2: Read and Write Using Definition Review Questions Which of the following is NOT a part of a definition? A. Distinguishing characteristics B. The term C. Synonyms D. Groups and categories to which the term belongs Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
17. 17. Goal 2: Read and Write Using Definition Review Questions Which of the following is NOT a part of a definition? A. Distinguishing characteristics B. The term C. Synonyms D. Groups and categories to which the term belongs Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
18. 18. Goal 3: Read and Write Using Classification Review Questions Which of the following is NOT an example of classification? A. Dalmatians, Greyhounds, Beagles B. Roses, Tulips, Daffodils C. Sports D. Cardiologist, General Physician, Surgeon Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
19. 19. Goal 3: Read and Write Using Classification Review Questions Which of the following is NOT an example of classification? A. Dalmatians, Greyhounds, Beagles B. Roses, Tulips, Daffodils C. Sports D. Cardiologist, General Physician, Surgeon Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
20. 20. Goal 4: Read and Write Using Comparison and Contrast Review Questions True or False: It is best to organize a comparison and contrast essay using the point-by-point method. True or False: In a comparison and contrast, the writer simply has to discuss the similarities and differences of a topic Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
21. 21. Goal 4: Read and Write Using Comparison and Contrast Review Questions True or False: False: It is best to organize a comparison and contrast essay using the point-by-point method. True or False: False: In a comparison and contrast, the writer simply has to discuss the similarities and differences of a topic Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
22. 22. Goal 5: Read and Write Using Cause and Effect Review Questions True or False: Effect explains why things happen. True or False: Cause explains how things happen. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
23. 23. Goal 5: Read and Write Using Cause and Effect Review Questions True or False: False: Effect explains why things happen. True or False: False: Cause explains how things happen. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
24. 24. Goal 6: Read and Write Using Other Patterns of Organization Review Questions True or False: Addition is introducing an idea or making a statement, then supplying additional information to supplement the idea or statement. True or False: A summary is opening a paragraph with a statement, then composing a sentence explaining that statement. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
25. 25. Goal 6: Read and Write Using Other Patterns of Organization Review Questions True or False: True: Addition is introducing an idea or making a statement, then supplying additional information to supplement the idea or statement. True or False: False: A summary is opening a paragraph with a statement, then composing a sentence explaining that statement. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
26. 26. Goal 7: Think Critically About Patterns of Organization Review Questions Which of the following should be utilized when thinking critically about patterns of organization? A. The author’s objectivity or subjectivity B. Categorization of subjects C. Whether all information is equally presented D. All of the above Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
27. 27. Goal 7: Think Critically About Patterns of Organization Review Questions Which of the following should be utilized when thinking critically about patterns of organization? A. The author’s objectivity or subjectivity B. Categorization of subjects C. Whether all information is equally presented D. All of the above Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
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