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IRW Chapter 2
IRW Chapter 2
IRW Chapter 2
IRW Chapter 2
IRW Chapter 2
IRW Chapter 2
IRW Chapter 2
IRW Chapter 2
IRW Chapter 2
IRW Chapter 2
IRW Chapter 2
IRW Chapter 2
IRW Chapter 2
IRW Chapter 2
IRW Chapter 2
IRW Chapter 2
IRW Chapter 2
IRW Chapter 2
IRW Chapter 2
IRW Chapter 2
IRW Chapter 2
IRW Chapter 2
IRW Chapter 2
IRW Chapter 2
IRW Chapter 2
IRW Chapter 2
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IRW Chapter 2

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IRW

IRW

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  • Generate ideas: Come up with ideas that explain and support your topic.Plan and organize your ideas: Decide which of the ideas you want to use and in what order you want to write about them.Write a first draft: Put your ideas into sentence, paragraph, and essay form in the order you decided.Revise: Rewriting your ideas, rearranging their order to make them more clear, deleting some ideas, adding other ideas.Proofread: Look for typos and errors in your grammar, spelling, and punctuation.
  • Freewriting is writing nonstop for a set amount of time such as five to ten minutes. Write whatever comes to mind and don’t worry about grammar, spelling, or organization. Try to stay focused and get your ideas on the paper. Once you’ve finished writing, read over what you’ve written. Try to determine if you have a main point and enough details to begin your paper. Highlight or mark everything you can use.Freewriting Activity (Refer to Exercise 2-1 on page 60)Either using the topics in Exercise 2-1, or providing your own, ask students to individually freewrite on a topic for five minutes. Place students with the same topics in pairs or groups and have them review common ideas. This will allow students to compare their own ideas with those of others and see how the ideas may link to form an essay.2. Brainstorming: Brainstorming involves making a list of everything you can think of about a topic. These ideas might be feelings, facts, examples, or ideas regarding the topic. Like freewriting, there is no need to focus on organization, grammar, spelling, or punctuation while brainstorming. Simply list as many ideas as you can. Brainstorming can be done individually or in groups. When you finish brainstorming, review your list and see how many of your ideas seem usable. Brainstorming is a good way to narrow a broad topic down to a more focused topic.Brainstorming Activity (Refer to Exercise 2-2 on page 61):Either using your own topics or those in Exercise 2-2, ask students to spend five minutes individually brainstorming on one of the topics. When they finish, ask them to mark the ideas (either individually or in groups) that seem closely connected enough to use in a paragraph.3. Branching: Branching is a visual way to generate ideas. Begin by writing your topic in the center of a blank sheet of paper and circling it. Then, write ideas related to the topic near the circle. Connect these ideas to the circle with a line. These lines are the primary branches. Your topic is the main idea and, like a tree, your connecting ideas branch out from it. You can connect other related ideas to the primary branches. These are called secondary branches. You will use this visual to connect ideas and organize them into your paper.Branching Activity (See Exercise 2-3 on page 63):Using your own topics or the topics provided in Exercise 2-3, ask students to choose a topic and create a visual diagram using branching. Refer them to the diagrams on page 62 for a reference visual.4. Questioning: Questioning is exactly as it sounds, writing down questions about the topic. Write any question that comes to mind, and as always, do not worry about organization, punctuation, spelling, or grammar. Remember to use phrases such as “Who, What, Where, When, Why, and How?” to begin your questions. When you finish, review your questions and choose which ones would make the most interesting points in an essay.Questioning Activity (Refer to Exercise 2-4 on page 63):Using your own topics or those provided in Exercise 2-4, ask students to create questions using one or two of the topics. Then, ask that they choose the top 3 questions that could be used as the basis for a paragraph in an essay. This activity can be done individually or in groups. Sometimes when starting out, students work better when they can generate ideas together.
  • After generating ideas using one of the four techniques of brainstorming, freewriting, branching, or questioning, review your ideas. Arrange them in the order that seems most logical. The goal is for a person to be able to read your essay and follow your train of thought easily.
  • Organization ActivityUsing the topic of a paragraph, ask students to create an idea map to outline the ideas they plan to include in that paragraph. Ask that they try to put the ideas in the most logical order possible. This may be done individually or in small groups.
  • Review your ideas and write one sentence that expresses the main point of your paragraph (topic sentence) or your essay (thesis sentence).Use ideas from your prewriting to explain your topic or thesis statement.Think of the draft as a way to experiment with your ideas and how to organize them.Feel free to change your focus or topic as you develop your draft. Students often find that they wish to change the direction of a paper once they’ve organized the ideas and begun to write. Don’t expect success right away. This is not your final paper; this is the beginning of that paper. Revisions must be made to drafts. Review your essay to ensure that you have a thesis and supporting details and that the organization is logical.
  • Revising is more than just changing a few words and rearranging a few sentences. Revision is the opportunity to make significant changes to a draft. This may involve removing complete paragraphs or ideas from the essay and adding new ones. Revision may also involve reorganizing the content or paragraphs of an essay in a more logical manner. Checking spelling, grammar, and punctuation will come later with proofreading.Tips for Revision:1. Reread the thesis sentence to make sure it is clear, direct, and complete. Are there ways to improve it?2. Reread all of the other sentences. Do they relate to the main point? If not, revise them so that they do or omit them.3. Make sure your writing has a clear beginning and ending. A paragraph should have a topic sentence and concluding sentence. An essay should have an introduction and conclusion.4. Replace vague or unclear words with more specific terms.5. Seek help. If you are unsure how to revise any aspect of your paper, see your instructor or a writing tutor.6. When you finish, you should feel satisfied with what you’ve written. If you don’t, you should revisit the paper.
  • Peer Review Activity:Using the “Tips for Revising” on page 70 of In Concert, pair up with a classmate to do a peer review of an assigned draft.
  • Proofreading Tips:Review your paper once for each type of error. Read it first for sentence structure, then grammar. Take a break, and read it a third time for spelling. Do the same for capitalization and grammar.To find spelling errors, read your paper from the last sentence to the first sentence and from the last word to the first word (read it backwards). This will keep you from focusing on the flow of ideas so that you may focus on the errors.Read each sentence out loud, slowly. This will help you hear any errors in verb tense. Having someone else read your paper to you is also a useful technique.Check for errors one more time after printing the essay.Proofreading Activity:Using the listed tips (also on page 71 of In Concert, proofread an assigned writing. The instructor may also use a sample essay and do this activity in groups.
  • Good writers consider their audience(s). Look at the example used on page 72 of In Concert. In an email to a friend, the student uses very casual and personal language. In the note to the professor, the student uses a much more formal and academic tone to explain the same situation.Questions to Remember When Considering Audience:How many details and what kind are appropriate?What format (paragraph, essay, memo, email, text) is appropriate?How many and what kinds of examples should be used?How formal should the writing be?What kind of words should be used (technical, formal, informal)?What tone should the writing have? How should it sound to readers?Who is the audience, and what is your relationship with that audience?How is the audience likely to react?What does the audience already know about the topic? What does the audience need to know about the topic?
  • In addition to audience, students must consider the purpose of the essay. What is the reason for writing it? To explain a viewpoint? To inform? To argue? To describe? Knowing the purpose of the essay will guide its organization.
  • Answer: C—You should write a draft of your paper, then revise and proofread to create the final version. There may be many drafts before the essay is complete.
  • Answer: C—You should write a draft of your paper, then revise and proofread to create the final version. There may be many drafts before the essay is complete.
  • Answers: False: The two are similar; however, freewriting centers around writing down all your ideas in a paragraph style form, while brainstorming means putting your ideas into a list. True: Some students are visual learners, meaning they learn better when they can actually see how ideas and concepts work or connect. Branching is a very effective technique for visual learners.
  • Answers: False: The two are similar; however, freewriting centers around writing down all your ideas in a paragraph style form, while brainstorming means putting your ideas into a list. True: Some students are visual learners, meaning they learn better when they can actually see how ideas and concepts work or connect. Branching is a very effective technique for visual learners.
  • Brief class discussion/review. Answers will vary.
  • Brief class discussion/review. Answers will vary.
  • Answer: D—All of the above.
  • Answer: D—All of the above.
  • Answers:1. False: Revision is the opportunity to make significant changes to a draft. This may involve removing complete paragraphs or ideas from the essay and adding new ones. Revision may also involve reorganizing the content or paragraphs of an essay in a more logical manner. Checking spelling, grammar, and punctuation will come later with proofreading.2. True: In relation to this, the writer should make sure all other sentences relate to the topic sentence or thesis.
  • Answers:1. False: Revision is the opportunity to make significant changes to a draft. This may involve removing complete paragraphs or ideas from the essay and adding new ones. Revision may also involve reorganizing the content or paragraphs of an essay in a more logical manner. Checking spelling, grammar, and punctuation will come later with proofreading.2. True: In relation to this, the writer should make sure all other sentences relate to the topic sentence or thesis.
  • Answer:B—Revision reevaluates the organization of ideas, not proofreading.
  • Answer:B—Revision reevaluates the organization of ideas, not proofreading.
  • Answer: E—All of the above
  • Answer: E—All of the above
  • Transcript

    1. In Concert: An Integrated Reading and Writing Approach by Kathleen T. McWhorter Part One: Introduction to Reading and Writing Chapter 2: An Overview of the Writing Process PowerPoint by Sarah Gilliam, Instructor of English Mountain Empire Community College
    2. Chapter 2: An Overview of the Writing Process Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    3. The Five Steps in the Writing Process: 1. Generate Ideas 2. Plan and Organize Ideas 3. Write a First Draft 4. Revise 5. Proofread Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    4. How do I decide what to write about? Four Techniques for Generating Ideas : 1. Freewriting 2. Brainstorming 3. Branching 4. Questioning Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    5. In what order should I put my ideas? Helpful Tip: Ideas should progress logically from one to the next. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    6. Organization Technique: Use an idea map to organize the ideas for your paragraphs. Paragraph Topic: Reasons to Attend College Gain Knowledge/Better Self Become a Nurse Start a Career Financially Support Self & Family Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    7. A draft is a way of trying out ideas to see if they will work. Drafts are written in sentence and paragraph form, focusing on expressing and developing each idea. What are some effective drafting techniques? Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    8. Revising means to reexamine each part and idea of your draft. Revising focuses on the content and organization of the essay. Helpful Tip: Remember that revising is reexamining ideas and organization, NOT checking spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    9. Peer Review Peer review is one technique used to revise and rewrite an essay. Peer review is having one or more classmates read and comment on your paper. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    10. Proofreading is the final reading of a paper for errors. Proofreading should check for errors in: • Sentence Structure (Fragments or Run-ons) • Grammar • Spelling • Capitalization • Punctuation Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    11. Considering the Audience: • Who will be reading what I write? • How should I express myself so these readers understand what I write? Helpful Tip: What is appropriate for one audience is not always appropriate for another. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    12. Considering the Purpose: • Good writing should achieve the intended purpose. • What is the reason for writing this essay? Helpful Tip: The reader should be able to follow and understand your reasoning, even if he or she is not swayed to your point of view. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    13. Goal 1: Use the Writing Process Review Questions Which of the following is NOT one of the five steps in the writing process? A. Coming up with ideas about what to write B. Putting the ideas you want to write about in order C. Writing one version of the paper D. Checking to make sure your spelling is correct
    14. Goal 1: Use the Writing Process Review Questions Which of the following is NOT one of the five steps in the writing process? A. Coming up with ideas about what to write B. Putting the ideas you want to write about in order C. Writing one version of the paper D. Checking to make sure your spelling is correct
    15. Goal 2: Generate Ideas Review Questions True or False: Brainstorming and Freewriting are the same thing. True or False: Branching is a visual way of generating ideas.
    16. Goal 2: Generate Ideas Review Questions True or False: False: Brainstorming and Freewriting are the same thing. True or False: True: Branching is a visual way of generating ideas.
    17. Goal 3: Organize Ideas Review Questions Discuss how you organize ideas. How do you plan the order in which you do things? How do you prioritize your ideas?
    18. Goal 3: Organize Ideas Review Questions Discuss how you organize ideas. How do you plan the order in which you do things? How do you prioritize your ideas? Discuss different ideas with the class.
    19. Goal 4: Develop a First Draft Review Questions The difference between drafting and brainstorming is: A. Drafting is done in sentence form. Brainstorming involves making a list. B. Brainstorming does not involve organization like drafting does. C. Drafting must be revised. Brainstorming is used to create ideas. D. All of the above.
    20. Goal 4: Develop a First Draft Review Questions The difference between drafting and brainstorming is: A. Drafting is done in sentence form. Brainstorming involves making a list. B. Brainstorming does not involve organization like drafting does. C. Drafting must be revised. Brainstorming is simply used to create ideas and does not need revision. D. All of the above.
    21. Goal 5: Revise and Rewrite Review Questions True or False: Revision means to edit a draft for correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation. True or False: Ensuring the thesis statement or a topic sentence is clear is one step in the revision process.
    22. Goal 5: Revise and Rewrite Review Questions True or False: False: Revision means to edit a draft for correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation. True or False: True: Ensuring the thesis statement or a topic sentence is clear is one step in the revision process.
    23. Goal 6: Proofread for Correctness Review Questions Which of the following does proofreading NOT check for? A. Spelling B. Idea Organization C. Punctuation D. Grammar E. Sentence Structure
    24. Goal 6: Proofread for Correctness Review Questions Which of the following does proofreading NOT check for? A. Spelling B. Idea Organization C. Punctuation D. Grammar E. Sentence Structure
    25. Goal 7: Consider Your Audience and Purpose Review Questions Which of the following is a consideration for audience? A. Who will be reading this essay? B. What details should be included? C. What does the audience know? D. What does the audience need to know? E. All of the above
    26. Goal 7: Consider Your Audience and Purpose Review Questions Which of the following is a consideration for audience? A. Who will be reading this essay? B. What details should be included? C. What does the audience know? D. What does the audience need to know? E. All of the above

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