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IRW Chapter 1

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  • Passive Readers:Read all assignments the same wayRead the assignment only because it was assignedRead everything at the same speedAccept whatever is in print to be the truthCheck the length of an assignment before reading itRead until the assignment is completed and then stop readingRead without taking notes or highlightingFollow routine, standard methods of reading
  • Effective Strategies for Active Reading:Tailor reading strategies to assignmentsAnalyze the purpose of a reading assignmentAdjust reading speed to suit one’s purposesQuestion ideas in the assignmentSkim the headings, introductions, and conclusions for the topic before reading Ensure comprehension as one readsHighlight, take notes, and mark key vocabularyDevelop personalized strategies for comprehensionActivity:As a homework or journal assignment, have students write a paragraph discussing whether they believe they are active or passive readers. If they feel they are more passive, ask that they discuss what strategies might be best in improving their habits. If they believe they are active, have them discuss which specific strategies they apply to reading.
  • Activity:Previewthe reading selection on page 16 of In Concert. DO NOT READ THE ENTIRE PASSAGE. This may be done in pairs or individually.Answer the following:1. What is the title of the selection?2. What is the first paragraph about?3. What terms are in bold font? Why might they be in bold?4. What do you think you might learn from this selection?Answers:Alternative Scheduling ArrangementsBecause of obligations and scheduling conflicts of their employees (child care, family care, travel, etc.), many employers are offering flexible (non-traditional) work arrangements. Bolded: Alternative Scheduling/Flextime, Permanent Part-time Employees, Job Sharing, Compressed Workweek, and Telecommuting. All of these terms are types of flexible work arrangements for employees.Answer will vary based on student responses; however, the answer should center around the various types of flexible work arrangements.
  • Effective Strategies for Forming Guide Questions:Turn each major heading into several questionsWhile reading, look for answers to the questions When finished reading a section, stop to see if all the questions have been answeredAvoid asking questions that have one-word answers (such as yes or no)
  • Activity:Form 3-4 guide questions for one of the listed headings. What information might you expect to learn from the text based on the heading?Possible Questions:1. What advances are being made in medical technology? How are the advances being made? Who is making them? How are the advances helpful? Why are the changes needed?2.Why are obesity rates so high in the U.S.? Who are they affecting? What is causing them to rise? What can be done to help this situation? How are the obesity rates in other countries?3. What is college completion? Why is college completion important? Who does college completion affect? What are the benefits of college completion?Activity (See Exercises 1-4, 1-7, and 1-8 of In Concert):Require that students preview a chapter of the book, creating 1-2 guide questions for each major heading. This could be done as an individual class assignment, group project (giving each group a chapter), or as a weekly journal entry/homework assignment.
  • The idea map allows the reader to see what is in the text in brief outline form. It can be used to see how a reading/writing selection’s ideas are organized and how they relate to one another. Idea maps are a useful way to organize ideas before writing an essay. Filling out an idea map while reading a selection can also help a student to remember the text’s content. This way, a student will be prepared for class discussions, reviews, or writings about the reading assignment. Activity (Also noted as Exercise 1-9 on page 21 of In Concert):Read the professional essay, “A Brother Lost” by Ashley Womble, on page 28 of In Concert. Using the model shown as a guide, draw an idea map of the essay. Students may add as many boxes as they need to complete an idea map.
  • Suggested Strategies for Approaching Difficult Readings:Analyze the time and place in which you are reading: Are you reading late at night after a long workday? Are you reading in a place where there are many distractions or interruptions? Find a quiet, comfortable environment where you can focus on your reading. Choose a time when you are not particularly stressed or exhausted.Rephrase each paragraph in your own words: After reading a difficult passage, ask yourself, “What did that just say?” Write it down in your own words, then re-read the passage to see if you understood it.Read aloud difficult sentences or sections: Sometimes reading aloud makes complicated material more understandable. If this doesn’t work, try having someone else read the passage to you to see if hearing the passage helps.Reread difficult or complicated sections: Sometimes we have to read a passage several times before we understand it.Read more slowly: Reading carefully and at a good pace will help with comprehension. If you read too fast, you are not likely to retain the information.Write a brief outline of major points (or idea map): Sometimes a visual interpretation like the one we’ve already discussed can help us to see the overall organization of ideas in a reading.Highlight key ideas and terms: Think about why these terms are important and relevant to the reading selection.Quick Activity:Provide students with 3 x 5 index cards. Ask each student to anonymously write down where he or she tends to read and any possible distractions. Then, ask each student to list 1-2 difficulties he or she has with reading. Collect the cards before class is over and try to address the difficulties at the next class meeting (this could be done before this PPT slide is covered). This also forces students to have some metacognitive reflection about their own personal reading struggles.
  • Give students a moment or two to suggest answers to the above question. Alternatively, the instructor could put students in small groups or pairs and give them 3–5 minutes to come up with answers.Effective Strategies for Understanding Unfamiliar Words:Pronounce the word aloud. Sometimes hearing the word helps someone recall its meaning.Try to understand the word from its context—the words and sentences around the unfamiliar word. There are often clues that help a person to understand the meaning of a word.Look for familiar parts of the word. You may recognize a part of the word or a prefix or suffix of the word. Use this knowledge to help you determine its meaning.Mark the word and continue reading unless the sentence doesn’t make sense without knowing the word’s meaning. In this case, use a dictionary.When finished reading, look up all marked words in a dictionary. Everyone needs a dictionary. You can use a paperback dictionary or an online dictionary. Dictionaries are also useful in understanding the pronunciation, spelling, and different meanings of a word.After reading, be sure to keep a record of the words looked up in a dictionary in a notebook, journal, or electronic log. You can refer to this to apply the words in your writings and everyday life.Activity (See also Exercise 1-11 on page 24 of In Concert):Refer back to the professional essay, “A Brother Lost” by Ashley Womble, on page 28 of In Concert (or the instructor can assign any passage/selection). Make a list of any words you did not know. Then, beside the word list its meaning and the means by which you determined the meaning (context clue, dictionary, pronunciation, etc.). This activity would be beneficial as a homework assignment or journal entry as it emphasizes reflection.
  • Give students a moment or two to provide answers as to how critical thinking might help them. Alternatively, the instructor could put students in small groups or pairs and give them 3-5 minutes to come up with answers.Benefits of Critical Thinking: Doing well on schoolwork: essays, exams, and analysisGood written communication skills Ability to distinguish good information from bad or inaccurate informationMaking good financial decisionsUnderstanding issues in the news, culture, politics, and businessExpanding one’s personal interests
  • Review the above examples with students before moving to an activity.Activity (See Exercise 1-13 on page 26 of In Concert):Read the paragraph and answer the questions provided. This can also be done with a passage of the instructor’s choosing. The activity could be done in groups or individually. The instructor may choose to review answers as a class (particularly if this is a group activity).Additional Activity:After answering the provided questions, write 1–2 of your own critical thinking questions. After you finish, take a moment to write down your thoughts. What did you like or dislike about the questions the text provided? How did they help your understanding of the reading? Again, this activity could be done via a homework/journal assignment or as an end-of-class assignment to allow the students time to reflect on what they have learned.
  • Answer:D—An active reader implements all of these strategies.
  • Answer: D—An active reader implements all of these strategies.
  • Answer: C—Active readers analyze the purpose of a reading assignment. Passive readers do not.
  • Answer: C—Active readers analyze the purpose of a reading assignment. Passive readers do not.
  • Answers:True: This is an effective previewing strategy.False: Reading the introductory and conclusion paragraphs is one way of previewing a text.
  • Answers:True: This is an effective previewing strategy.False: Reading the introductory and conclusion paragraphs is one way of previewing a text.
  • Answer:“Yes or no” questions are ineffective guide questions because they provide little to no explanation as to the meaning of the reading selection. These types of questions do not answer the “why, who, when, where, and how” of the reading. These questions are essential for critical thinking.
  • Answer:“Yes or no” questions are ineffective guide questions because they provide little to no explanation as to the meaning of the reading selection. These types of questions do not answer the “why, who, when, where, and how” of the reading, which are essential questions in critical thinking.
  • Answer: D—Someone else’s thoughts on the passage are not relevant in the idea map.
  • Answer: D—Someone else’s thoughts on the passage are not relevant in the idea map.
  • Answer: Answer C would be the effective reading strategy. The other answers would all hinder your comprehension of the material.
  • Answer: Answer C would be the effective reading strategy. The other answers would all hinder your comprehension of the material.
  • Answer: B—Don’t guess! On whose terms are you making an educated guess? Use one of the provided strategies, all of which provide better understanding than guessing.
  • Answer: B—Don’t guess! On whose terms are you making an educated guess? Use one of the provided strategies, all of which provide better understanding than guessing.
  • Answer:A—Simplyaccepting a passage as truth is not an effective critical thinking strategy.
  • Answer:A—Simplyaccepting a passage as truth is not an effective critical thinking strategy.
  • Transcript

    • 1. In Concert: An Integrated Reading and Writing Approach by Kathleen T. McWhorter Part One: Introduction to Reading and Writing Chapter 1: An Overview of Active Reading PowerPoint by Sarah Gilliam, Instructor of English Mountain Empire Community College
    • 2. Chapter 1: An Overview of Active Reading Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 3. Passive readers are uninvolved with what they read. What are some of the habits of passive readers? Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 4. Goal 1: Read Actively Active readers are involved with what they are reading. What are effective strategies for active readers? Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 5. Goal 2: Preview Before Reading Previewing is familiarizing oneself with the organization and the content of a text before reading it. Effective Strategies for Previewing:  Read the title and subtitle of the text  Check the author’s name  Read the introduction or first paragraph  Read each bolded heading  Read the first sentence under each heading  Note any charts, graphs, or pictures  Read the last paragraph or summary  Make predictions about the text Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 6. Goal 3: Form Guide Questions Guide Questions are questions that a reader should be able to answer while reading a text or after reading a text. Helpful Tip: Most students form guide questions mentally; however, it is best to write them down. Jot them in the margins or a notebook while reading. What are some effective strategies for creating guide questions? Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 7. Goal 3: Form Guide Questions Helpful Tip: When forming guide questions, use terms like “how,” “why,” and “what” to begin the questions. This avoids creating questions with “yes or no” answers. Sample Headings: Heading Advances in Medical Technology U.S. Obesity Rates at All-Time High The Importance of College Completion Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 8. Goal 4: Develop Strategies for Understanding What You Read Create an idea map, a visual of the organization/content of a text. Helpful Tip: Create the idea map while reading the text to avoid re-reading and to allow content to stick in the mind. Title Thesis (main point of essay) Topic Sentence (key idea) Topic Sentence (key idea) Topic Sentence (key idea) Conclusion (or summary) Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 9. Goal 4: Develop Strategies for Understanding What You Read Suggested Strategies for Approaching Difficult Readings:  Think about the time and place in which you are reading  Rephrase each paragraph in your own words  Read difficult sentences or sections aloud  Reread difficult or complicated sections  Read more slowly  Write a brief outline of major points (or idea map)  Highlight key ideas and terms Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 10. Goal 5: Build Your Vocabulary Through Reading Question: What should I do when I don’t know the meaning of a word? Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 11. Goal 6: Think Critically Critical thinking means evaluating and reacting to what you read, rather than accepting everything as the truth. This often involves consulting various information sources for different perspectives. Question: How will thinking critically help me? Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 12. Goal 6: Think Critically Critical Thinking Is Active Thinking: Reading Critical Thinking Example Assignment Example College Textbook Is the author trying to influence my opinion? What would make me think this? Newspaper Article Is the article telling the complete story? Are there sides of the story I am not getting to hear? Is the information from a reliable source? Where did it come from? Advertisement What message is this ad sending? Who is the ad’s target audience? Why would someone purchase this product? Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 13. Goal 1: Read Actively Review Questions Which of the following is an effective strategy used by an active reader? A. Highlight, take notes, and mark key vocabulary B. Skim the headings, introductions, and conclusions for the topic before reading C. Question ideas in the assignment D. All of the above
    • 14. Goal 1: Read Actively Review Questions Which of the following is an effective strategy used by an active reader? A. Highlight, take notes, and mark key vocabulary B. Skim the headings, introductions, and conclusions for the topic before reading C. Question ideas in the assignment D. All of the above
    • 15. Goal 1: Read Actively Review Questions Which of the following is NOT a habit of a passive reader? A. Accept whatever is in print to be the truth B. Read without taking notes or highlighting C. Analyze the purpose of a reading assignment D. Check the length of an assignment before reading it
    • 16. Goal 1: Read Actively Review Questions Which of the following is NOT a habit of a passive reader? A. Accept whatever is in print to be the truth B. Read without taking notes or highlighting C. Analyze the purpose of a reading assignment D. Check the length of an assignment before reading it
    • 17. Goal 2: Preview Before Reading Review Questions 1. True or False? Reviewing the bolded heading of a text is an effective previewing strategy. 2. True or False? Reading the first and last paragraph of a selection is not previewing.
    • 18. Goal 2: Preview Before Reading Review Questions 1. True or False? Reviewing the bolded heading of a text is an effective previewing strategy. Answer: True 2. True or False? Reading the first and last paragraph of a selection is not previewing. Answer: False
    • 19. Goal 3: Form Guide Questions Review Questions Discuss: Why are “yes or no” questions not effective as guide questions?
    • 20. Goal 3: Form Guide Questions Review Questions Discuss: Why are “yes or no” questions not effective as guide questions? Answer: “Yes or no” questions are ineffective guide questions because they provide little to no explanation as to the meaning of the reading selection. These types of questions do not answer the “why, who, when, where, and how” of the reading, which are essential questions in critical thinking.
    • 21. Goal 4: Develop Strategies for Understanding What You Read Review Questions Which of the following should an idea map for a reading selection NOT outline? A. Thesis (main point) B. Introduction and Conclusion C. Topic Sentences D. Someone else’s thoughts about the passage
    • 22. Goal 4: Develop Strategies for Understanding What You Read Review Questions Which of the following should an idea map for a reading selection NOT outline? A. Thesis (main point) B. Introduction and Conclusion C. Topic Sentences D. Someone else’s thoughts about the passage
    • 23. Goal 4: Develop Strategies for Understanding What You Read Review Questions Which of the following would be an effective strategy for understanding a reading? A. Reading a difficult passage only one time. B. Reading a homework assignment while the TV is on and the kids are playing. C. Putting each difficult passage/paragraph in your own words. D. Reading a difficult passage quickly.
    • 24. Goal 4: Develop Strategies for Understanding What You Read Review Questions Which of the following would be an effective strategy for understanding a reading? A. Reading a difficult passage only one time. B. Reading a homework assignment while the TV is on and the kids are playing. C. Putting each difficult passage/paragraph in your own words. D. Reading a difficult passage quickly.
    • 25. Goal 5: Build Your Vocabulary Through Reading Review Questions Which of the following would NOT be an effective strategy for determining the meaning of a word? A. Determine if the word has a recognizable prefix or suffix. B. Make an educated guess. C. Use context clues to determine meaning. D. Look up the word in a dictionary.
    • 26. Goal 5: Build Your Vocabulary Through Reading Review Questions Which of the following would NOT be an effective strategy for determining the meaning of a word? A. Determine if the word has a recognizable prefix or suffix. B. Make an educated guess. C. Use context clues to determine meaning. D. Look up the word in a dictionary.
    • 27. Goal 6: Think Critically Review Questions Which of the following would NOT be a critical thinking strategy? A. Accepting a written passage as the truth. B. Questioning an author’s viewpoint. C. Doing research to see other perspectives on a topic. D. Questioning the reliability of an author’s references.
    • 28. Goal 6: Think Critically Review Questions Which of the following would NOT be a critical thinking strategy? A. Accepting a written passage as the truth. B. Questioning an author’s viewpoint. C. Doing research to see other perspectives on a topic. D. Questioning the reliability of an author’s references.