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Group Art Therapy for Patients with TBI:  A Pilot Study
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Group Art Therapy for Patients with TBI: A Pilot Study

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  • I am an art psychotherapist working in the UK. I work in the field of brain injury and found your presentation very interesting and helpful.
    kind regards
    Jilly Shore
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    • 1. Group Art Therapy for Patients With Traumatic Brain Injuries: A Pilot Study Thesis Study by Gretchen Graves
    • 2. Introduction
      • Every year 70,000-90,000 people in the United States are permanently impaired due to a traumatic brain injury.
      • Survivors often show few physical signs of an injury consequently may not receive appropriate treatment for the impairments that will follow.
      • A wide range of behavioral symptoms may occur as a result of a brain injury.
      • Many cognitive functions are disrupted.
    • 3. And…..
      • Greater need for medical and emotional attention.
      • Life change causes anxiety.
    • 4. Functional Results of Brain Injury
      • Concentration
        • Idea of abstraction
        • Learning from mistakes
        • Problem solving-unrealistic
      • Memory
        • Hippo-campal sensitive to damage
        • Short term memory
        • Performance of tasks
      • Cognition
        • Various functions affected
      • Perception
        • Fragmented approach to tasks
    • 5. Statement of Problem
      • In the past brain-injured patients were considered poor patients for psychotherapy (Ball, 1988).
      • Interventions should be done by persons who are knowledgeable about cognitive disturbances as well as psychotherapy (Prigatano, 1999).
      • Many studies in projective art assessments with brain-injured people, but few or none involving an intervention (Garner, 1996).
    • 6. Why Art Therapy
      • Art allows the use of motor skills, cognitive functions, and psychosocial skills (Poldinger & Krambeck, 1987)
      • Art allows retraining of brain functions and an accumulation of data to document effects (Garner, 1996)
      • Details are more easily remembered when organized into a structured form (Silver, 1978)
      • Offers non-aggravating, activity-centered treatment that will induce personal expression with out raising defenses.
    • 7. Rehabilitation using Art Therapy
      • Concentration
        • Increase in organizational skills
        • Following directions
        • Choice making
      • Memory
        • Material is comprehended and retained
        • Improve patients self-identity.
      • Cognition
        • Gain insight
        • Sequential steps
        • Much to learn
      • Perception
        • 3D vs. 2D
        • Exploring themes in life
    • 8. Benefits of an Art Therapy Intervention
      • Reduce behavioral problems-art as an emotional outlet
      • Formation of adequate emotional response to injury (depression and anxiety)
      • Increase motivation for rehabilitation (depression)
      • Improve self-identity-hard to achieve due to lack of access to recent memory (short term memory deficit)
      • Aid in reduction of cognitive confusion
      • Increase socialization through group awareness
      • Increase organizational skills
    • 9. Hypothesis of Study
      • Depression would decrease
      • Anxiety would decrease
      • Stress would decrease
      • Socialization Skills would improve
    • 10. Methodology
      • Pre/Post-Intervention Inventory {Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS)}
      • Five 1 hour art therapy sessions
      • Six subjects – ages 24 – 71
      • Post-Intervention Interview
    • 11. Art Therapy Tasks
      • Designed for easy execution
      • Allowed for a wide range of expressive potential
      • Did not include drawing tasks
    • 12. Self-collage
      • Low anxiety task
      • Trust building exercise
      • Self- Expression
      • Self-identity
    • 13. Torn Paper Collage
      • Low anxiety task
      • Success oriented
      • Self-expression
      • Enhance ability for abstraction
      • Enhance discussion of group
    • 14. Printmaking
      • Low anxiety task
      • Success oriented
      • Self-expression
      • Enhance exploration of materials
      • Increase concentration and structure
      • Connect cognitive function with emotions
    • 15. 3-D animals
      • Low anxiety task
      • Success oriented
      • Self-expression
      • Foster sense of control
      • Increase self-esteem
      • Foster group cohesion
      • Increase awareness of anxiety stress reducing strategies
    • 16. Animal Environment
      • Low anxiety
      • Success oriented
      • Group cohesion
    • 17. Results of DASS
      • 4/6 decreased depression (66 % improvement)
      • 3/6 decreased anxiety (50 % improvement)
      • 5/6 decreased stress (83 % improvement)
    • 18. Subject A
      • Scores indicated depression both pre & post
      • Suffered visual impairments due to BI
      • Art was uncomplicated yet gave subject feeling of satisfaction
      • Art upbeat & reflected a happy-go-lucky personality
      • Playful & unrealistic
    • 19. Subject K
      • Pre-depression & anxiety were close to clinical: Post-demonstrated no depression or anxiety
      • Verbal associations to art indicated that patient understood life had changed
      • Art contained much self-expression and memories
    • 20. Subject L (injured at age 14)
      • Pre & post scores indicate great levels of depression
      • Outline of collage shape of head
      • Many photos in it typical of adolescent images
    • 21. Subject T
      • Pre scores indicate clinical levels of depression
      • Post level scores decreased dramatically
      • Interpersonal level increased a great deal
      • Adolescent type art in printmaking
      • Torn paper collage- passive/defiant
    • 22. Subject V
      • Scores for depression & anxiety went up from pre to post test
      • Difficulty motivating
      • Difficulty connecting emotions to art
    • 23. Subject R
      • Scores pre were low and dropped post
      • Spouse helped with tasks great deal in beginning but towards end of intervention worked more independently
      • Increased confidence & became less hesitant to create
    • 24. Post Intervention Interview
      • Questions
        • How did the participants feel about the art therapy intervention
        • Feelings about the group and working together
      • Answers
        • Helped use emotions
        • Relaxed & Calming
        • Got along better with everyone towards the end of the intervention
    • 25. Ideally…..
      • More meetings
      • Longer period of time
      • Different time of Day-not when rides might come, etc.
      • Comparison group
      • Size of groups good
    • 26. Conclusion
      • Objectives were achieved, although not statistically significant
      • Therapeutic art intervention for people with brain injury could be very beneficial:
      • Help reworking the brain
      • Decreasing anxiety, depression, & stress
      • Increase memory & socialization skills
    • 27. Questions & Comments: