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  2. 2. -This group of organs that break down-This group of organs that break down food into smaller particles or moleculesfood into smaller particles or molecules -This breakdown makes it possible for-This breakdown makes it possible for the smaller digestive particles to passthe smaller digestive particles to pass through the intestinal wall into thethrough the intestinal wall into the bloodstreambloodstream
  3. 3. DigestionDigestion ?????? WhatWhat isis
  4. 4. The chemical breakdown of complexThe chemical breakdown of complex biological molecules into their componentbiological molecules into their component parts.parts. •Lipids to fatty acidsLipids to fatty acids •Proteins to individual amino acidsProteins to individual amino acids •Carbohydrates into simple sugarsCarbohydrates into simple sugars DigestionDigestion
  5. 5. •Produces various chemicals to breakProduces various chemicals to break down the food.down the food. •Filters out harmful substances.Filters out harmful substances. •Gets rid of solid wastes.Gets rid of solid wastes. FunctionsFunctions
  7. 7. •Changes the chemical composition of food withChanges the chemical composition of food with the aid of digestive enzymesthe aid of digestive enzymes CarbohydrateCarbohydrate ProteinProtein LipidLipid •Digestive enzymes are special proteins that helpDigestive enzymes are special proteins that help break up large molecules of food into very tinybreak up large molecules of food into very tiny molecules that can be absorbed and used by themolecules that can be absorbed and used by the cells in the form of nutrition.cells in the form of nutrition. Chemical DigestionChemical Digestion
  8. 8. 1. Liver • Largest gland in the body • Aids in chemical digestion by producing bile. • Occupies much of the space in the upper portion of the abdomen 2. Gall bladder • A small organ found on the surface of the liver which stores the bile. 3. Pancreas • Large glandular organ lying just below the stomach Secretes different enzymes and pour these into the small intestines via the common bile duct Chemical DigestionChemical Digestion
  9. 9. 4. Intestinal Glands Completes the digestion of food. 1. Peptidase – peptides to amino acids 2. Sucrase – sucrose to glucose 3. Maltase – Maltose to glucose and fructose 4. Lactase – lactose to galactose and glucose
  10. 10. Enzymes secreted by Pancreas Lipase – enzyme that digest fats or splits fat into soluble glycerol and fatty acids Pancreatic amylase – acts like salivary amylase, splitting starch into a double sugar maltose Trypsin and chymotrypsin – breaks proteins toamino acids. Chemical DigestionChemical Digestion
  11. 11. Mechanical DigestionMechanical Digestion •Changes the physical form ofChanges the physical form of foodfood >Chew>Chew >Tear>Tear >Grind>Grind >Mash>Mash >Mix>Mix
  12. 12. 1.1.IngestionIngestion 2.2.MovementMovement 3.3.DigestionDigestion 4.4.AbsorptionAbsorption 5.5.Further digestionFurther digestion Phases of DigestionPhases of Digestion
  13. 13. •A long muscularA long muscular tube with manytube with many sections and areas.sections and areas. •Begins with theBegins with the mouth and endsmouth and ends with the anus.with the anus. The DigestiveThe Digestive TractTract
  14. 14. Path of DigestionPath of Digestion >Mouth>Mouth >Pharynx>Pharynx >Esophagus>Esophagus >Stomach>Stomach >Small Intestine>Small Intestine >Large Intestine>Large Intestine >Anus>Anus
  15. 15. - this is where food is mixed with the saliva secreted by several sets of salivary glands - Saliva dissolves and softens food and acts as a lubricant, facilitating swallowing and passage through the next portions of the digestive tract. MoutMout hh
  16. 16. Teeth - This is where food is broken into smaller pieces by both biting and chewing. Tongue - manipulates the food during chewing and forms it into a mass called bolus, in preparation for swallowing. -Pushes the bolus through a cavity called the pharynx and into esophagus. MouthMouth
  17. 17. - a long tube running through the throat and thorax and connecting to stomach in the upper portion of the abdominal cavity. -Food takes about 4 to 8 seconds as it passes through to the stomach. Peristalsis – contraction movement of esophagus muscle Sphincter – special ring of muscle found on the junction between esophagus and stomach, which when contracted EsophagusEsophagus
  18. 18. >This is a large muscular sac, which functions as a storage organ, making discontinuous feeding possible. Rugae –>folds of the stomach that increases its surface area. >churns the food, mixing it with the gastric juice Gastric Juice –> contains enzymes that break down protein Chyme ->soupy mixture that leaves the stomach and passes through the pyloric sphincter into the small intestines. StomachStomach
  19. 19. StomachStomach
  20. 20. >This is where final digestion and absorption takes place Measures 23 ft long in an adult Small IntestineSmall Intestine >>Takes about 4 – 8 hrs to complete its journey. >Mucosa (inner wall) – secretes several enzymes that acts on the food. >Where the pancreatic enzymes are emptied into. >Digested nutrients are absorbed through intestinal walls. >Absorbed materials cross the mucosa into the blood then other parts of the body for storage or further chemical change.
  21. 21. Site of greatest amount of digestion and absorptionSite of greatest amount of digestion and absorption Small IntestineSmall Intestine
  22. 22. Duodenum – first section of the small intestines attached to the stomach Jejunum – middle portion of the intestine Ileum – very long coiled section lying lower in the abdominal cavity Villi – Finger-like projections in the inner wall of the small intestine that increases absorptive surface area. Small IntestineSmall Intestine
  23. 23. - also known as colon - Reabsorbs much of the water used in the digestive process and excretes certain salts, such as those of calcium and iron. Waste stays for 10 – 12 hours.Waste stays for 10 – 12 hours. Caecum – this is a small and functionally unimportant for human Appendix – finger-like process found at the tip of the caecum Feces – undigested food excreted into the colon and eliminated from the body. Rectum – Last portion of the large intestines that functions as a storage chamber for the feces until defecation Large IntestinesLarge Intestines
  24. 24. AnusAnus >opening for the elimination of feces.