Zhara Lou G. Perez
Reinalyn V. Baluyut
Mara Clarisa M.
ZHARA LOU G. PEREZ
These instruments are operated by means of a
keyboard which consists of black and white keys.
Although the keyboard instruments are included
with the percussion group, they constitute a special
set which may be considered seperately.
Keyboard instruments include:
piano, organ, celesta, and other keyboard
instruments like: piano accordion, and the
The piano is the most popular
and most widespread of all
instruments. It has the ability to
sound several tones
simultaneously and has the
capacity to present complex
musical textures by itself, making
an extremely useful instrument.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF PIANO
Concert Grand Piano- the largest size of
grand piano, used for concert
Grand Piano- a horizontal, harp-shaped
piano, having three or more strings to
each note, and action without springs.
Square Piano- a piano having a
horizontal rectangular case and
horizontally atrung wire.
Upright Piano- a piano in which the case
is upright, with the strings vertical and
overstrung to save space.
Concert grand piano Square piano
the organ is a principal keyboard instrument but
it has a physical property which makes it a wind
instrument. It’s sounds are made by air forced by
mechanical means through pipes.
chord organ Electric organ
Church reed organ
Electric Hammond organ
the celesta, which in
appearance resembles a
miniature upright piano, is a kind
of glockenspiel that is operated
by a keyboard; the steel plates
are struck by small hammers
producing bell-like tones.
OTHER MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS PLAYED
Is a keyboard instrument related to the
organ in that its tone is produced by air
(belows operated by feet) which sets thin
strips of metal (reeds) vibrating.
Has a melody keyboard for the
A. ENSEMBLE MEDIA
When two or more performers are equally engaged in
playing or singing a piece of music, the medium is called an
ensemble (an sam’b’l) and the music is called ensemble
Instrumental ensembles exists in almost infinite
combinations. Some of these are the follows:
The symphony orchestra
The most spectacular of ensembles, composed of
any sizable group of instrumental performers usually
under the direction of a conductor
It may vary in size from a relatively small groups to
an ensemble of a hundred or more players.
The performers are divided into the four sections.
In large orchestras, approximately 2/3 are string
players and 1/3 are wind players. Three to five people
take care of the percussion.
In a typical modern
orchestra, there are 34 violins which
are divided into 2 groups, first and
second. Each group functions as a
unit and plays a part distinct from the
In the woodwind section, one of
the players of the principal
instrument generaly doubles with
another related instrument.
ORCHESTRAIs a large ensemble which includes all the principal
The modern symphony orchestra has about 100
players, this number varies according to the kind of music
It is composed of four sections of corresponding to the four
instrumental groupings; the string section. The woodwind
section, the brass section, and the percussion section
Each of these sections has least one instrument which falls
into each of the four basic ranges:
SOPRANO, ALTO, TENOR, AND BASS
EXAMPLE OF SYMPHONY
THE MANILA SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA
ensemble, large like the
orchestra but consisting
mainly or exclusively of wind
and percussion instruments.
Although the band is closely
associated with outdoor
(parades, funerals, football
games, among others), it is
also used as a concert
The best-known instrumental group in the Philippines today.
It is a band made up mostly of stringed instruments like:
Banduria- which assumes the lead part and plays the melody
Laud and octavina- which carry the alto and contrapuntal
Piccolo- tuned aboved the banduria, which plays the
Guitarra and banjo- which gives solidity to the rhyrhm and
support the harmony.
MUSICAL ENSEMBLES IN THE PHILIPPINES
PANGKAT OR THE BANDANG KAWAYAN-
composed of instruments made of bamboo. Among
these instruments are:
Bumbong- single note
The native Marimba or Talunggating
The bamboo harp or Tipang-klung
The Gabbang- which is patterned after the
The Tulali or bamboo flute
The Bungkaka or bamboo clapper, and
The Kalatok or bamboo knockers.
a considerable literature of
music exists for large ensembles
which include instruments and
Such musical types as an
opera, oratorio, cantata, mass, re
quiem mass, ans even even
symphonies may employ vocal
soloist, chorus, and orchestra.
Mixed chamber ensembles have
made their appearance in the
The term chamber orchestra is
applied to small instrumental
ensembles in which there are only a
few performers for a part.
Chamber orchestras are in a
category of ensemble between
chamber ensemble and the full
FORONDA, MARA CLARISSA M.
Chamber music is a medium which calls for only a few
performers (from two about eight or nine instruments) with one
player to each part.
The common chamber music ensembles are listed below:
Solo sonatas- music written for a solo instrument
(violin, cello, flue, oboe, horn,and the like), with an
accompaniment bys uch instruments such as the piano or
harpsichord, belongs to the category of chamber music ensemble.
String quartet- the most common medium of chambermusic. It
consists 2 violins, a viola, and a cello. When the piano replaces
one of the four instruments, the ensembles is called piano
Duos, Trios, Quintets, And Other
- Music in 2 instruments have equal
importance is called duo; music for 3
instruments is called trio; for 5, a quintet;
for 6, a sextet; for 7, a septet; for 8, an
octet; for 9, nonet. These ensembles may
consists any combination of
strings, woodwinds, brass, keyboard, and
as music evolves, composers search for
new media more congenial to their
changing musical ideas. A particularly
significant trend in recent years has been
the development of electronic
instruments, which many contemporary
composers feel are more versatile than
traditional instruments and more suitable
for achieving the sounds they want for
Today, the size of the
orchestras and the
complicated music have
the conductor essential.
The conductor is the
director of the orchestra
He has to know every
detail of the music and be
able to give the most
precise directions with his
baton and hands.
EXAMPLES OF GREAT CONDUCTORS IN