Week 1 Lecture @ UMBC

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Week 1 Slides. An Introduction to Spatial Social Science and Demographic Inquiry. Graduate Seminar at UMBC: MPS in GIS.

Week 1 Slides. An Introduction to Spatial Social Science and Demographic Inquiry. Graduate Seminar at UMBC: MPS in GIS.

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  • 1. What will we discuss…? The ‘[Spatial] Social Revolution’ …a state of the discipline talk; Geography…but, how did things get so bad? The ‘Classic Debate in Geography’ Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 2. SocSci vs. Spatial SocSciSocial Science Spatial Social ScienceIndividual Observation Observations in spaceRandom sample Entire populationNormally distributed Spatially dependent - skewed distributionIndependent Observations Dependent observationsLittle or No contextual information Contextual informationIndividual level analysis Aggregate analysis or multi-level analysisExamples ExamplesSurvey analysis of voting behavior Ecological analysis of voting behaviorIndividual responses on neighborhood Actual residential decisionschoiceMethodological approach Methodological approachMultivariate linear regression or Spatial regression (SAR, CAR & GWR)ethnographies Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 3. Spatial Social Science Crisis in Geography Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 4. Crisis in Geography (1940’s & 1950’s) The crisis occurred for several reasons: The closing of many geography departments and courses in universities e.g. the abolition of the geography program at Harvard University in 1948. [1] Continuing division between Human and Physical geography - general talk of Human geography becoming an autonomous subject. [2] Geography was seen as overly descriptive and unscientific- there was, it was claimed, no explanation of why processes or phenomena occurred [3] Geography was seen as exclusively educational - there were few if any applications of contemporary geography After World War II technology became increasingly important in society and as a result nomothetic based sciences gained popularity and prominence [4] Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 5. Crisis in Geography (1940’s & 1950’s) In 1982, Jean Gottmann called the elimination, "a terrible blow…to American geography" and one from which "it has never completely recovered." Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 6. What was wrong with Geography? Geography had a number of problems, including: 1. It was overly descriptive Geography followed a set format for the inventory of physical and cultural features 2. It was almost purely educational Regions dont really exist 3. It failed to explain geographic patterns Geography was descriptive and did not explain why patterns were the way they were Where attempts at explanation did exist, they favored historical approaches 4. The biggest problem of geography was the fact that it was unscientific …the Nomothetic & Idiographic debate in geography begins! Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 7. Advanced Placement Human Geography This college-level course introduces Score Percent students to the systematic study of patterns 5 11.6% and processes that have shaped human understanding, use, and alteration of Earths 4 16.7% surface. Students employ spatial concepts 3 21.9% and landscape analyses to analyze human social organization and its environmental 2 16.6% consequences. They also learn about the methods and tools geographers use in their 1 33.2% science and practice. In the 2009 administration, 50,730 students took the exam and the mean score Richard Heimann © 2013 was a 2.57.Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 8. Human Geography Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 9. Human Geography http://www.benjaminbarber.com/bio.html Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 10. Human Geography Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 11. Words of Wisdom…“…the alternative to good statistics is not “no statistics,” it’s bad statistics. People who argue against statisticalreasoning often end up backing up their arguments withwhatever numbers they have at their command, over- or under-adjusting in their eagerness to avoid anything systematic” Bill James Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 12. How bad was it… Chapman 1977: Geography has consistently & dismally failed to tackle its entitative problems...the root of so many of its problems. Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 13. Geography wakes up!! All of these events presented a great threat to geography’s position as an academic subject and thus geographers began seeking new methods to counter critique. …the quantitative revolution begins. Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 14. The Quantitative Revolution The revolution led to an increased use of computerized statistical techniques in all sciences as well as computer mapping and spatial statistics in geography. Some of the techniques of the revolution included: Spatial statistics Geographic Information Systems New & Improved research methods for geography(ers) Basic mathematical equations and models, such as gravity models and agent based modeling and later spatial econometrics (among other techniques). Stochastic models using concepts of probability Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 15. …the Revolution Continues! In 1964, Howard T Fisher formed the Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis at the Harvard Graduate School of Design (LCGSA 1965-1991), where a number of important theoretical concepts in spatial data handling were developed, and which by the 1970s had distributed seminal software code and systems, such as SYMAP, GRID, and ODYSSEY -- which served as literal and inspirational sources for subsequent commercial development. By the early 1980s, M&S Computing (later Intergraph), Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), CARIS (Computer Aided Resource Information System) and ERDAS emerged as commercial vendors of GIS software, successfully incorporating many of the CGIS features, combining the first generation approach to separation of spatial and attribute information with a second generation approach to organizing attribute data into database structures. Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 16. Spatial ‘Turn’ in the Social Sciences…The category of space long played a subordinate role in sociologicaltheory formation. Only in the late 1980s did it come to be realized thatcertain changes in society cannot be adequately explained without takinggreater account of the spatial components of life. This shift in perspectivewas referred to as the topological turn and now more commonly as thespatial turn. The space concept directs attention to organizational formsof juxtaposition. The focus is on differences between places and theirmutual influence. This applies equally for the micro-spaces of everydaylife and the macro-spaces at the nation-state or global levels.The theoretical basis for the growing interest of the social sciences inspace was set primarily by sociologists, philosophers, and humangeographers…and begins to solve the ‘classic debate’ in geography. Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 17. Spatial ‘Turn’ in the Social Sciences… Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 18. Spatial Social Science In 1998, the National Science Foundation undertook a program designed to develop the infrastructure for social science research. In the first round of competition one of the outstanding proposals was for a Center for Spatially Integrated Social Science (CSISS), submitted by the University of California, Santa Barbara, with Professor Michael Goodchild as the Principle Investigator. CSISS was to develop new computational and analytic tools for spatial data, facilitate the development of social science data achieves based on geographic data, train scientists in the use of the most advanced tools, and foster the development of the emerging community of social scientists who integrate spatial data into their research. Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 19. Spatial Social Science Do spatial perspectives draw on and contribute to theory in the social sciences? Why should social scientists accept that variance across space really matters? What structures in the social sciences have emerged in support of spatial analysis/thinking? Is there a community of spatial social science and can its growth be measured? Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 20. Building on the numbers… $30 billion industry (U.S. Labor Department) Robert M. Gates in September 2007 authorized a $40 million expansion of the program Significant NSF Funding (e.g. CSISS) Demand for Spatial Analysis expertise in social sciences: Growing volume of social science research in GIS, Spatial Statistics & Spatial Analysis (Changing academic landscape) Similar (to CSISS) programs being developed at Brown, Harvard, & Arizona State University Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 21. Building on the numbers... http://www.ocpe.gmu.edu/programs/gis/human_terrain.php Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 22. Building on the numbers... http://humanterrainsystem.army.mil/Default.aspx Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 23. Building on the numbers... http://geodacenter.asu.edu/ Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 24. Building on the numbers... Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 25. Building on the numbers... Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 26. Building on the numbers... Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 27. Building on the numbers... Citations using GeoDa increased from 42 in 2004 to 70 in 2007-08 and to 567 in 2009-10 ESRI introduces regression tools at v 9.3, including Geographic Weighted Regression (GWR) GeoDa with more than 85,000 downloads (Jan. 2013) Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 28. Building on the numbers.... GeoDa with more than 85,000 downloads (Jan. 2013) Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 29. Building on the numbers.... Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 30. Building on the numbers... Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 31. Building on the numbers... Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 32. Building on the numbers... Spatial Demography (1990-2003) 3yr rolling average 21% increase Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 33. Building on the numbers... Attended Applied Anthropology / Archaeology 59 123 Criminology 21 45 Demography, Population & Health 98 227 Economics 63 192 Environmental Studies 18 33 Epidemiology 11 27 GIS 30 75 History 7 10 Human Geography 123 422 Political Science 55 95 Public Policy 17 80 Regional Science 5 6 Sociology 115 200 Statistics 9 22 Urban Studies & Urban Planning 44 133 Other 31 99 Totals: 706 1789 Non - Geography Ratio: N= 553 (Attended) 69.2% N = 1292 (Applied) 60.5% CSISS Residential Workshops (2000-2007) Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 34. Classical Examples… Spatial Social Science before it was Spatial Social Science, before it was Spatial Social Science. Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 35. Mapping the Human Terrain… Here the different Tribes meet in Friendship and collect Stone for Pipes. Yanktons a Band of Sioux - 1000 Souls Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 36. Dr. Snow maps cholera in Soho Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 37. F. Ratzel, C. Wissler, & C. Sauer: Culture Area Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 38. Henry Mayhew: London Labor & London Poor Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 39. André-Michel Guerry’s (1833) Essai sur la Statistique Morale de la France Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 40. André-Michel Guerry’s (1833) Essai sur la Statistique Morale de la France Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 41. André-Michel Guerry’s (1833) Essai sur la Statistique Morale de la France Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 42. Charles Joseph Minard: Mapping Napoleons March (1861) Minard Map - French Invasion of Russia http://www.khanacademy.org/video/french-invasion-of-russia?playlist=History Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 43. Maps Descriptive of London Poverty (1899) “No. 34 is occupied by the widow of a boatman. He committed suicide and left her with eleven children. Some have died, and she has five here now, two of whom go to work, and three to school. She makes sailor jackets, but is nearly blind. Struggles hard for her children…” Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 44. Slums of the Great Cities Survey Maps, Florence Kelley Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 45. Ellen Semple: The Anglo-Saxons of the Kentucky Mountains (1901) Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 46. Contemporary Examples… ‘Spatial’ turn in the Social Sciences…as weknow it today following the ‘Social’ turn in the DoD, IC, and Big Data. Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 47. Mapping the Human Terrain… Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 48. Mapping the Human Terrain… Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 49. Mapping the Human Terrain… The Geography of the Nazi Vote: Context, Confession, and Class in the Reichstag Election of 1930 Author(s): John OLoughlin, Colin Flint, Luc Anselin Source: Annals of the Association of American Geographers Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 50. Mapping the Human Terrain… LISA Maps for St. Louis Region Homicide Rates, 1984-88 (left) SPATIAL ANALYSES OF HOMICIDE and 1988-93 (right). Counties WITH AREAL DATA with significant Local Moran Steven F. Messner & Luc Anselin statistics are highlighted by the type of spatial association. Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 51. Mapping the Human Terrain… STRUCTURAL COVARIATES OF U.S. COUNTY HOMICIDE RATES: INCORPORATING SPATIAL EFFECTS* ROBERT D. BALLER Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 52. The Spatial Turn...Paul Krugman loosely defines economic geography as thestudy of economic issues in which location matters. Economictheory usually assumes away distance. Krugman argues thatit is time to put it back - that the location of production inspace is a key issue both within and between nations. Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 53. The Spatial Turn...Paul Krugman loosely defines economic geography as thestudy of economic issues in which location matters. Economictheory usually assumes away distance. Krugman argues thatit is time to put it back - that the location of production inspace is a key issue both within and between nations. New Economic Geography implies that instead of spreading out evenly around the world, production will tend to concentrate in a few countries, regions, or cities, which will become densely populated but will also have higher levels of income. Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 54. David Harvey – Spatial FixHarvey developed the idea of spatial fix and the second the idea ofaccumulation by dispossession. The spatial fix consists in the geographical expansions and restructurings used as temporary solutions to over accumulation crises. As Harvey points out, spatial fixes are available even in a world that is more or less fully incorporated in capitalism. Spatial fixes make use of geographical unevenness, but unevenness is not simply a product of "underdevelopment". Capitalism produces its own unevenness, often plunging already “developed” regions into destructive devaluations. The idea implied here is that processes of primitive accumulation are turned not only against the remaining few non-capitalist formations but also against parts of capitalism itself. Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 55. David Harvey – Spatial Fix Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 56. David Harvey – Spatio-Temporal Fix Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 57. David Harvey – Spatio-Temporal FixHarvey has deployed a complex conceptual apparatus, the center-piece ofwhich is the notion of spatio-temporal fix. In his argument, the term “fix”has a double meaning.A certain portion of the total capital is literallyfixed in and on the land in some physical formfor a relatively long period of time (depending onits economic and physical lifetime). Likewise,Social expenditures (such as public education ora health-care system) also becometerritorialized and rendered geographicallyimmobile through state commitments. Thespatio-temporal ‘fix’, on the other hand, is ametaphor for a particular kind of solution tocapitalist crises through temporal deferral andgeographical expansion. (2003: 115) Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 58. The Spatial Turn...Paul Collier in his book The Bottom Billion argues that being landlocked in apoor geographic neighborhood is one of four major development "traps" that acountry can be held back by. In general, he found that when a neighboringcountry experiences better growth, it tends to spill over into favorabledevelopment for the country itself. For landlocked countries, the effect isparticularly strong, as they are limited from their trading activity with therest of the world. "If you are coastal, you serve the world; if you arelandlocked, you serve your neighbors.” Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 59. The Spatial Turn...In The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy(1987), William Julius Wilson was an early exponent, one of the first toenunciate at length the spatial mismatch theory for the development of aghetto underclass in the United States. Spatial mismatch is the sociological,economic and political phenomenon associated with economic restructuringin which employment opportunities for low-income people are located faraway from the areas where they live. Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 60. Spatial Social Science Questions?? Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 61. What will we discuss…? Laws of Spatial Social Science!! …what are they and why are they important? …how do we begin to measure and quantify the existence of such laws? Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 62. The value of Laws Teaching Laws allow courses to be structured from first principles Laws provide the basis for predicting performance, making design choices An asset of a strong, robust discipline Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 63. Analogy to Statistics Statistical Packages GIS Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 64. Analogy to Statistics Statistical Packages Statistics GIS Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 65. Analogy to Statistics Statistical Packages Statistics GIS X Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 66. Are Laws of Social Science… Deterministic? Does a counterexample defeat a law? Empirical statements? Verifiable with respect to the real world? Do the Social Sciences have Physics Envy? Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 67. Candidate for the First Law of Can there be laws in the social sciences? Ernest Rutherford: “The only result that can possibly be obtained in the social sciences is: some do, and some don’t” Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 68. Social Science Laws can be: Anyon (1982): social science should be empirically grounded, theoretically explanatory and socially critical. Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 69. Social Science Laws ought to be Anyon (1982): [T]hat one collects data and uses it to build ones explanations. Ideally ones explanations are related to the data in that they emerge from it. Yet, they attempt to explain it by recourse to categorically different types of constructs: not by other data [...] (p. 35) It is not sufficient to explain patterns in data using a method that was designed to define patterns in data. Are SISS patterns socially or statistically significant? Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 70. Social Science Laws ought to be Anyon (1982): [T]hat one does not rely, for ones reasons for things, on empirically descriptive regularities or generalizations, or on deductions or inferences there from ones theory must be socially explanatory. It must situate social data in a theory of society. (p.35) still theory-poor Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 71. Social Science Laws ought to be Anyon (1982): To be critical will mean, then, to go beyond the dominant ideology or ideologies, in ones attempt to explain the social world. To be critical is to challenge social legitimations, and fundamental structures [...] to seek to explicate, and to seek to eliminate structurally induced exploitation and social pain. (pp. 35-6) Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 72. Social Science Laws can be: Based on empirical observation Observed to be generally true Sufficient generality to be useful as a norm Deviations from the law should be interesting Dealing with geographic process rather than form Understanding of social process in context …the Nomothetic & Idiographic debate in geography is solved!! Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 73. Tobler’s First Law of Geography TFLG: “All things are related, but nearby things are more related than distant things” W.R.Tobler, 1970. A computer movie simulating urban growth in the Detroit region. Economic Geography 46: 234-240 Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 74. Tobler’s First Law of Geography Teenage Birth Rates – US. Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 75. Tobler’s First Law of Geography Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 76. Tobler’s First Law of Geography Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 77. Tobler’s First Law of Geography Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 78. Tobler’s First Law of Geography Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 79. If TFLG weren’t true… GIS would be impossible Life would be impossible Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 80. Tobler’s First Law of Geography Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 81. A Second (first) Law of Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 82. A Second (first) Law of Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 83. A Second (first) Law of Globalization is thought of a homogenizing the world, but it cannot and will not happen. The underlying processes that drive these systems both look for unevenness and produce unevenness. Homogeneous processes cannot happen, which necessitate the development of methods to describe the unevenness and account for it when describing process. Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 84. Practical implications of Second …a state is not a sample of the nation …a country is not a sample of the world Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 85. Practical implications of Second …no average person or place. With the global population distribution being ~50% male and ~50% female would the average be a person with one uterus and one testis? Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 86. A Second (first?) Law of TFLG describes a second-order effect (Properties of places taken two at a time) …is there a law of places taken one at a time? Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 87. A Second (first?) Law of TFLG describes a second-order effect (Properties of places taken two at a time) …is there a law of places taken one at a time? Yes, its named Spatial heterogeneity Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 88. A (Unofficial) Second (first) Law LISA MAP | Crime Columbus, OH BOX MAP | Crime Columbus, OH Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 89. A Second (first) Law of The geography of the 2004 US presidential election results (48 contiguous states) Spatial heterogeneity Non-stationarity / Regional Variation Uncontrolled variance / Equilibrium Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 90. A Second (first) Law of Total Fertility Rate – US. Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 91. Implications of Second (first) Stationarity Extreme Heterogeneity Single Equilibria: A Multiple Equilibrium: One singular process over process for every observation space and across study over space. area. Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 92. Candidate Laws By adding demographics to Tobler’s law we can define as the first law of Spatial Demographics: “…people who live in the same neighborhood are more similar than those who live in a different neighborhood, but they may be just as similar to people in another neighborhood in a different place.” Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 93. Candidate Laws All important places are at the corners of four map sheets [1],[2] Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 94. Candidate Laws Montello and Fabrikant, “The First Law of Cognitive Geography” “People think closer things are more similar” Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 95. Cognitive Geography Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 96. Cognitive Geography Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 97. Cognitive Geography Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 98. Cognitive Geography Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 99. Candidate Laws Fractal principle: that geographic phenomena reveal more detail the more closely one looks; and that this process reveals additional detail at an orderly and predictable rate (Goodchild and Mark, 1987; Mandelbrot, 1982). Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 100. Candidate Laws Fractal principle: that geographic phenomena reveal more detail the more closely one looks; and that this process reveals additional detail at an orderly and predictable rate (Goodchild and Mark, 1987; Mandelbrot, 1982). Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 101. The Noah effect …describes discontinuity. Mandelbrot found that when something changes, it can change abruptly. For example, a stock priced at $40 a share can quickly fall to $5 without ever being priced at $30 or $20, if something significant triggers its collapse. Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 102. The Joseph effect …describes persistence: i.e. trends tend to persist; that is, if a place has been suffering drought, its likely it will suffer more of the same. In other words, things tend to stay the way theyve been recently. Healthy people tend to stay healthy; Winning teams tend to keep on winning; and, Products that have been successful for the past five years will probably be successful next month. Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 103. Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 104. SISS… Conclusions (Finally). Laws do exist in Geography …but need to be stated. Generalizations about the geographic world can be blindingly obvious …but stating them is important. Laws have practical value in GIS and Social Science. Laws have more than just pedagogic value. Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 105. Where are we now with the …SISS help(s) to resolve the timeless dilemma in geography about whether to focus on the local (L) or the global (G) – whether spatial science should be idiographic or nomothetic. As [Phillips] suggests in his discussion of L and G, there is increasing sympathy in many disciplines, including geography, for a middle position in which the specific details of law-like statements are allowed to vary geographically. Recent contributions to the tools of such as Geographically Weighted Regression now provide the techniques to implement this interesting methodological position. Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13
  • 106. Spatial Social Science Questions?? Rich Heimann heimann.richard@gmail.com rheimann@data-tactics.com rheimann@umbc.edu Twitter: @rheimann Richard Heimann © 2013Thursday, January 31, 13