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E ARTH REMOTE SENSING                                                  FOR SECURIT Y                                      ...
THE FORCE THATDRIVES SMARTERDECISIONSWelcome to Intergraph Geospatial 2013WE ARE UNITED. Whether it’s by desktop, server, ...
Winter 2013                                                                              CONTENTS                         ...
Mayn River,                                                                       Winter 2013 / Vol. 28 / No. 1    Siberia...
L i D A R         +        I M A G I N GDrive route at normal vehicle speeds            Bring the field to the office.      ...
I m a g e r y co u r te s y of D ig i t a l Gl o                                                   be.                    ...
Announcing the                                                                                                            ...
LOCATION                                                                                                      M E D I A   ...
Q UA R T E R LY LO C AT I O N B U S I N E S S N E W S R E V I E W : H E R E A R E T H E R E C E N Tmost interesting or imp...
IN US FO                                                            O                                                     ...
F O LLOW I N G A R E T H E TO P T E N N E W S S TO R I E S FO R E AC H M O N T H P R I O R TOthis issue as recorded via vi...
This interview originally appeared in Sensors                                                                             ...
“Users who participateshare their content, getto use the integratedservices, and maintainthe intellectual propertyrights o...
Dr. Tom Loveland, who was instru-          as cost-effectively as possible for the   S&S   What has been the biggest chang...
THE                 IMAGING & GEOSPATIAL                 INFORMATION SOCIETYConfluence by the Bay —A Gathering ofGeospatia...
This interview was conducted by Matt Ball, and                                                                            ...
power grid operators. If we get a solid     ingest the data, but we will not offer                                        ...
shipping or the derivatives market.          crop forecasts locally for the Future’s          NOAA, like the National Geos...
MIGLARESE     I think the timing is right   would have thought that commercial-        ness wants better weather data. For...
This interview was conducted by Matt Ball, and                                                                            ...
buoys, balloons, stream gauges, and         on, some stores are still not open, and                                       ...
that are issuing forecasts, and there are     about all of this as environmental           S&S   The recent column that yo...
S&S   The computing power, coupled        S&S   I really appreciate your approach,      some of those barriers will comewi...
Bathymetric LiDAR     SANDY’S COASTAL IMPACT                                           Detailed and accurate charting of t...
2                                                                                                                       F ...
Big Social Data THE LONG TAIL OF SCIENCE DATA by Rich Heimann at Imaging Notes 2013
Big Social Data THE LONG TAIL OF SCIENCE DATA by Rich Heimann at Imaging Notes 2013
Big Social Data THE LONG TAIL OF SCIENCE DATA by Rich Heimann at Imaging Notes 2013
Big Social Data THE LONG TAIL OF SCIENCE DATA by Rich Heimann at Imaging Notes 2013
Big Social Data THE LONG TAIL OF SCIENCE DATA by Rich Heimann at Imaging Notes 2013
Big Social Data THE LONG TAIL OF SCIENCE DATA by Rich Heimann at Imaging Notes 2013
Big Social Data THE LONG TAIL OF SCIENCE DATA by Rich Heimann at Imaging Notes 2013
Big Social Data THE LONG TAIL OF SCIENCE DATA by Rich Heimann at Imaging Notes 2013
Big Social Data THE LONG TAIL OF SCIENCE DATA by Rich Heimann at Imaging Notes 2013
Big Social Data THE LONG TAIL OF SCIENCE DATA by Rich Heimann at Imaging Notes 2013
Big Social Data THE LONG TAIL OF SCIENCE DATA by Rich Heimann at Imaging Notes 2013
Big Social Data THE LONG TAIL OF SCIENCE DATA by Rich Heimann at Imaging Notes 2013
Big Social Data THE LONG TAIL OF SCIENCE DATA by Rich Heimann at Imaging Notes 2013
Big Social Data THE LONG TAIL OF SCIENCE DATA by Rich Heimann at Imaging Notes 2013
Big Social Data THE LONG TAIL OF SCIENCE DATA by Rich Heimann at Imaging Notes 2013
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  1. 1. E ARTH REMOTE SENSING FOR SECURIT Y E N E R GY A N D THE ENVIRONMENT Winter 2013 Vol. 28 No. 1LOCATIONM E D I AALLIANCE Precision Big Social Better Bathymetric Ag Data Weather Lidar Forecasts
  2. 2. THE FORCE THATDRIVES SMARTERDECISIONSWelcome to Intergraph Geospatial 2013WE ARE UNITED. Whether it’s by desktop, server, web, orcloud – our integrated geospatial portfolio delivers what youneed, where you need it. Less hassle. Complete workflow.One partner.WE ARE MODERN. Our fresh and intuitive interfaces andautomated technology transform the way you see and shareyour data. This world has new challenges. Combat them witha smarter design.WE ARE DYNAMIC. Leverage our single integrated, dynamicenvironment for spatial modeling. Our core geospatial toolsenable you to exploit the wealth of information found in datafrom any source.GEOSPATIAL.INTERGRAPH.COM/2013 INTERGRAPH GEOSPATIAL 2013 Experience the force that’s driving smarter TEAM GEO-FORCE decisions at a road show near you.© 2013 Intergraph Corporation. All rights reserved. Intergraph is part of Hexagon. Intergraph and the Intergraph logoare registered trademarks of Intergraph Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and in other countries.
  3. 3. Winter 2013 CONTENTS >Columns 4 Cover Image MAYN RIVER, SIBERIA 7 Publisher’s Letter ANNOUNCING THE LOCATION MEDIA ALLIANCE By Myrna James Yoo 12 9 News & Views FROM LBX JOURNAL 11 News & Views FROM SENSORS & SYSTEMS 38 Secure World Foundation Forum THE NEXT 10-15 YEARS By Ray Williamson, PhD >Features 12 Jenn Sabers of Landsat Executive Interview 16 Anne Miglarese of PLANETiQ Executive Interview 20 Nancy Colleton of IGES Executive Interview 24 Bathymetric Lidar SANDY’S COASTAL IMPACT By Matteo Luccio Contributor 24 30 Precision Ag SENSORS DRIVE EFFICIENCY By Matteo Luccio Contributor 34 Big Social Data THE LONG TAIL OF SCIENCE DATA By Richard Heimann Data Tactics Corporation 30IMAGING NOTES // WINTER 2013 // WWW.IMAGINGNOTES.COM 3
  4. 4. Mayn River, Winter 2013 / Vol. 28 / No. 1 Siberia Our Mission Imaging Notes is the premier publication for commercial, government and academic remote sensing professionals around the world. It provides objective exclusive in-depth reporting that demonstrates how remote sensing technologies and spatial information COVER IMAGE illuminate the urgent interrelated issues of the environment, energy and security. Imaging Notes has partnerships Imaging Notes is affiliated with the with Secure World Foundation Alliance for Earth Observations, a ( program of The Institute for Global and Sensors & Systems Environmental Strategies ( ( Publisher/Managing Editor Editorial Advisory Board Myrna James Yoo Mark E. Brender GeoEye Editor Anita Burke Ray A. Williamson, PhD The Catalyst Institute Contributing Writers Nancy Colleton Leonard David Institute for Global Matteo Luccio Environmental Strategies Copy Editor William B. Gail, PhD Bette Milleson Global Weather Corporation Creative Director Anne Hale Miglarese Jürgen Mantzke PLANETiQ Enfineitz LLC Kevin Pomfret, Esq. Centre for Spatial Law and Policy Deputy Art Director Andrew Sternard Editorial Contributions Imaging Notes welcomes contributions for feature articles. We publish articles on the remote sensing industry, including applications, technology, and business. Please see Contributor’s Guidelines on, and email proposals to Subscriptions To subscribe or renew, please go to, and click on ‘subscribe.’ If you are a current subscriber, renew by locating your account number on your address label to enter the database and update your subscription. If you cannot go online, you may write to the address below. This image of the Mayn River in Imaging Notes (ISSN 0896-7091) Copyright © 2013 Siberia was taken Oct. 1, 2000 by Landsat 7. The Blueline Publishing LLC, P.O. Box 11519, Denver, CO 80211, 303-477-5272 image shows the Mayn River with a portion of the All rights reserved. No material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by Anadyr River, flowing through the far northeastern any means without written permission from the publisher. While every precaution is corner of Siberia. taken to ensure accuracy, the publisher and the Alliance for Earth Observations cannot The Landsat Data Continuity Mission, Landsat accept responsibility for the accuracy of information or for any opinions or views presented in Imaging Notes. 8, is set to launch on Feb. 11, 2013. An Executive Interview with Jenn Sabers begins on page 12. Although trademark and copyright symbols are not used in this publication, they are honored. She is Remote Sensing Branch Chief of the Earth Imaging Notes is printed on 20% recycled (10% post-consumer waste) paper. Resources Observations and Science (EROS) All inks used contain a percentage of soy base. Our printer meets or Center, at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). exceeds all federal Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) Standards. IMAGING NOTES // WINTER 2013 // WWW.IMAGINGNOTES.COM4
  5. 5. L i D A R + I M A G I N GDrive route at normal vehicle speeds Bring the field to the office. Quickly create and deliver GIS, CAD,and collect required data, in one visit, point cloud and/or image files. View a powerful 3D high density pointeliminating return trips to the field. cloud with georeferenced images Revisit the data set to mine data andCost per point is dramatically reduced. on the PC. Extract features or make create additional deliverables at any time. measurements from the desktop.Personnel collect data safely from With this one-source turnkey solutiona vehicle. Data judgments are made by the your workflow is as easy as 1-2-3. data user.
  6. 6. I m a g e r y co u r te s y of D ig i t a l Gl o be. Imagine Your Imagery Everywhere Esri’s ArcGIS® simplifies the next generation of imagery management and dissemination through on-the-fly processing, image services, and dynamic mosaicking. With ArcGIS, your imagery is accessible to more people in less time. Learn more at Copyright © 2012 Esri. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. Announcing the LOCATIONLocation Media Alliance M E D I A ALLIANCE Publisher’s LetterDear Readers, In late January, an important Imaging Notes is proud to be a part of announcement was made at the DGIthe Location Media Alliance (LMA), which conference in London by Esri Presidentincludes also LBx Journal, Sensors & Jack Dangermond: Esri and DigitalGlobeSystems, Informed Infrastructure, and Asian are expanding their strategic partner-Surveying & Mapping. We offer a combined ship through a collaborative offering ofaudience of 59,200 business, technology, global high-resolution imagery that will beand policy professionals. The LMA promotes accessible directly from ArcGIS Onlinethe power of location analytics and geospatial as dynamic cloud-based image services.and remote sensing technologies to improve Esri’s Director of Imagery Lawrie Jordanour world—socially, politically, and economi- noted, “Making recently collected imagerycally—with more efficient businesses, smarter available quickly and simply to millions ofbuilt environments, and the better steward- GIS users globally is a compelling exampleship of our planet’s scarce resources. of the benefits of leveraging cloud-based the Alliance for Earth Observations (read The LMA will cross-promote and work GIS as a platform. This is a game-changer the interview with Nancy Colleton on pagetogether in all aspects of our publica- for the industry and for our users. 20). Thanks also to other long-term Edito-tions, serving distinct user and vendor Other exciting developments are rial Board members Mark Brender, Anitadomains while collectively spanning the occurring under the banner of GeoDesign. Burke, Bill Gail and Kevin Pomfret.full breadth of the geospatial industry and At this year’s GeoDesign Summit, Bran Our final board member is Anne Halelocation-based applications. LMA offers Ferren of Applied Minds noted that GIS is Miglarese, who is CEO of newly formedan unprecedented coordinated media layers of data at one time, while GeoDe- PLANETiQ, a company that will launchand advertising distribution platform for sign is a “geo-temporal domain,” with a minimum of 12 satellites primarily foroptimum market education and brand temporal compression of data, giving us weather forecasting, with the vision ofrecognition. Cross-cutting all publications the ability to tell stories about the past, and having their data available within threewill be quarterly themes, including in future. He says that we must be brave and minutes! Read more on page 16.the current issues precision agriculture use GeoDesign to build a “Bill of Rights for I am more excited than ever to be a part(see page 30). Upcoming themes for all the Planet.” We can use science combined of this industry, as the convergence of cloudpublications are water (Spring), energy with engineering and design to rise above computing, Big Data (see article on page(Summer) and security (Fall). the rhetoric and start a public dialog about 34), standards and crowdsourcing/Commu- We are celebrating the launch of LMA the subjects that really matter. Watch for nity Remote Sensing all come together toat the International LiDAR Mapping Forum. articles in the Spring issue. bring us closer to the vision of a true “livingRead about bathymetric LiDAR used after Finally, not a moment too soon, The planet” – a representation of our planetHurricane Sandy on page 24. Landsat Data Continuity Mission (to be online with real-time data for every part of the DigitalGlobe and GeoEye confirmed the named Landsat 8 after launch) is sched- world, to be used for the greater good.combination of their two companies on Jan. uled for launch Feb. 11, 2013, just after we It is truly a privilege to be able to report31, 2013. This begins a new era for imagery, go to press with this issue. We talk to Jenn on the trends and new applications thatas the combined company will provide a Sabers of EROS Center on page 12. This are developing all the time. Thank you forwider variety of earth imagery and geospatial mission is important for the continuity of reading. Please email feedback, and keepanalysis to help customers solve their most the nearly 40-year dataset, provided free of a close eye on your next issues! We havecomplex problems, and to serve better the charge for users around the world. more exciting news of our own!global market. (See page 11 for more news.) Thank you to our long-time strategic Best regards,An article about Astrium’s offerings will partners, Secure World Foundation (read Myrna James Yooappear in our Spring 2013 issue. Ray Williamson’s column on page 38) and PublisherIMAGING NOTES // WINTER 2013 // WWW.IMAGINGNOTES.COM 7
  8. 8. LOCATION M E D I A ALLIANCEStay Informed:on Applications, Technology, Business and PolicyREAD THESE PUBLICATIONSInformed Infrastructure Imaging Notes covers Sensors & Systems LBx Journal is location in Asian Surveying &promotes the combination Earth remote sensing provides details on new the language of business Mapping providesof sensor inputs, simulation for security, energy and existing frameworks – a resource for business news and a weeklyand modeling to tune and the environment of instrumented and professionals who are e-newsletter focused oninfrastructure design/ with a quarterly print interconnected networks exploring the location geospatial technologybuild/operation for the publication and monthly and decision support dimensions of business. applications in Asia-greatest efficiency. Areas eNews. Reporting is tools to monitor and We connect geospatial Pacific areas of coverageof coverage include smart in-depth and exclusive adapt to global change technologies with including surveying,grids, water, transportation, about the uses of imagery with daily online news business needs through positioning, GIS, andfacility management, and and geospatial solutions and a weekly newsletter. in-depth reporting and remote sensing tools andsmart cities. Read daily worldwide. the Location SmartBrief case updates online, and eNewsletter.sign up for the weekly www.asmmag.come-newsletter. IMAGING NOTES // WINTER 2013 // WWW.IMAGINGNOTES.COM 8
  9. 9. Q UA R T E R LY LO C AT I O N B U S I N E S S N E W S R E V I E W : H E R E A R E T H E R E C E N Tmost interesting or important articles according to Location SmartBrief readers. LOCATION NEWS FROM THE WEB LOCATION ECOSYSTEM 1. Maps may decide who rules mobile’s future January 2, 2013 Advanced location-based services linked to maps are at the forefront of mobile technology and could play a critical role in which corporate behemoth emerges on top, Rolfe Winkler writes. Apple’s disastrous mapping application reinforced Google’s sizable lead in the arena, and Google is expected to release a sophisticated predictive tool to provide wireless-device users with information before they even request it. 2. Why indoor mapping is the next frontier December 12, 2012 Indoors is the next mapping frontier for location data, writes Matt Ball. Up-front costs can be high and real-time location tracking can be a challenge, but businesses that take the time and effort will be leaders in indoor marketing. For businesses such as manufacturing plants and hospitals, such maps can improve safety and efficiency. 3. Geospatial projects found to save time and money January 16, 2013 A review of nine geospatial projects by Kim Geomatics revealed that the projects have many benefits, such as cost savings, better market intelligence and increased productivity. Geospatial data can be expensive, however, which might lead to some databases being out of date, but using Web-based databases can help solve that problem, according to Kim Geometrics President Bob Ryerson. INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS 1. How location data helped break the Petraeus scandal November 14, 2012 Former CIA Director David Petraeus’ affair was discovered in part because of location data encoded in a series of alleged harassing e-mails that his mistress sent to another woman. “Email, information-wise, says as much about its sender as its receiver. The messages’ metadata told investigators what they needed to know, even if they weren’t looking to know it in the first place,” this article notes. 2. Online atlas offers precinct-level view of 2008 election results November 7, 2012 Researchers at Stanford and Harvard have joined forces to create an online “Election Atlas” giving a precinct-level view of the 2008 election results. The tool lets researchers glean information about the demographic and geographic foundations of President Barack Obama’s winning coalition, showing how Obama and John McCain split rural and suburban voters. 3. Disney introduces bracelet technology to make parks even friendlier January 9, 2013 This spring, Walt Disney World will launch a program that will allow participating customers to bypass entry turnstiles and use rubber bracelets encoded with credit card data to enter and buy items inside the park. The bracelets are part of a vacation management system called MyMagic+, which is part of a larger effort to make the park easier for guests to navigate. BUSINESS AND STRATEGY PLANNING 1. Why location data will be a gold mine to marketers in 2013 January 2, 2013 Location-based technology on smartphones will be a boon to marketers in 2013, Neal Leavitt writes. Marketers can target ads and offer instant discounts to customers who “check in” at specific locations. Marketing tech firm Tabbedout caters to users who don’t like to broadcast their location by offering applications that allow users to search businesses by ZIP code. 2. How retailers set prices using customer location data December 26, 2012 Some retailers, such as Staples and Office Depot, are using customer location data to set prices when a customer shops online. Prices can be different depending on where a customer lives and how close that location is to a competitor. 3. How the cloud takes GIS to the next level January 16, 2013 Geospatial information systems running in the cloud gives everyone across an organization quick access to location dataIMAGING NOTES // WINTER 2013 // WWW.IMAGINGNOTES.COM without worrying about installing software or calling in a GIS professional, Krairop Luanguthai writes. “It provides easy-to-use 9 workflow to enable not only GIS professionals but typical users to convert their own spreadsheet data and create a beautiful map on their own,” Luanguthai said.
  10. 10. IN US FO O R J 13–16 MAY, 2013 Rotterdam, The Netherlands BE ER UR T S -W N ORL CE D TR A DE MONETISING GEOSPATIAL VALUE AND PRA CTICES BRINGING TOGETHER GEOSPATIAL COMMUNITYAgency9 | ARCADIS | Association of Geographic Information Laboratories for Europe (AGILE) | Astrium | Bentley | Brabant Water | Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) | BRGM, France | Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency | Capgemini | 4C-Grid | Delft University of Technology | Department of Rural Development and Land Reform, South Africa | DigitalGlobe | e-Leaf | Environment Agency Abu Dhabi | Esri | EuroGeographics | European Association of Remote Sensing Companies European Commission | European Environmental Agency | Exelis | GeoBusiness Nederland | Geo-Information Nederland | Geonovum | Google | Group on Earth ObservationsHeathrow Airport | Hexagon | iCEO/iEEE | Instituto Pereira Passos (IPP) Brazil | International Cartographic Association | ISPRS | King County Municipality | Leibniz Universität Hannover Leica Geosystems | MDA Geospatial Services | Microsoft Bing Maps | Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources, Ghana | Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia | Munich Airport | NASA | Open Geospatial Consortium | Oracle | Ordnance Survey of Great Britain | OSGeo | Pitney Bowes Software | Progis | Riegl | Scanex Spectra Energy | Swisstopo | Terrago Technologies | The Joint Research Centre | Topcon | Trimble | UNIGIS, University of Salzburg | University of Wageningen | VALE | World Bank… TO EXPLORE THE VALUE AND BENEFITS OF GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGIES Monetising Geospatial Value and Practices for Business Enterprises | Monetising Geospatial Value and Practices for National Developmental Goals | Round Table on Geospatial Research and Innovation FOR POLICY, TECHNOLOGY, AND USER DOMAINS Land Administration > Public Safety > City Management > Agriculture > Construction & Infrastructure > Mining & Exploration > Capacity Building > Electricity & Gas Water Utility > Cloud Computing > Earth Observation Systems > LiDAR > Open Source > Photogrammetry > Cartography Environment > Asset Management > Gaming and Virtual Reality > Financial Services > 3D > Sensor Web > Big Data > Enterprise GIS > Geospatial Innovations > Airborne Sensors > GI Policy > Spatial Data Infrastructure Crowd Sourcing Vs Field Sourcing > Standards and Interoperability > Spatial Thinking > European Location Framework 10 FROM ACROSS THE WORLD IMAGING NOTES // WINTER 2013 // WWW.IMAGINGNOTES.COM Australia | Austria | Bahrain | Belgium | Brazil | Canada | China | Czech Republic | Denmark | Estonia | Ethiopia | Finland | France | Germany | Ghana | Greece | Hungary Iceland | India | Indonesia | Iran | Italy | Japan | Kenya | Korea | Malaysia | Mexico | Nepal | Norway | Poland | Russia | Saudi Arabia | Singapore | South Africa | Sweden Switzerland | Taiwan | Thailand | The Netherlands | Turkey | UAE | United Kingdom | United States of America | Vietnam | Zimbabwe…
  11. 11. F O LLOW I N G A R E T H E TO P T E N N E W S S TO R I E S FO R E AC H M O N T H P R I O R TOthis issue as recorded via visitor views to the daily updates on Sensors &Systems ( The stories at the top received the mostviews for the month. Type in the short URL to access each story or access all here: News & ViewsN OV E M B E R DECEMBER JA N UA RY China Blocks Protection of Antarctica’s LizardTech Releases Updated DigitalGlobe and GeoEye Complete Waters: Report GeoViewer Application Combination SAIC Launches GRGlobe Trimble Launches Elite Membership: Lockheed Martin Delivers GOES-R A Complete Mapping Solution for Weather Satellite Core Structure for Outdoor Enthusiasts Propulsion System Integration Envitia Announce the Release of Open Spatial Announces the General DigitalGlobe Top Satellite Image 2012 - MapLink Pro 7.1 Availability Release of Enlighten Bi 3.0 Winner Announced Trimble Adds Smartphone App to Intergraph Launches Geospatial OpenStreetMap: A Year of Edits 2012 MyTopo Terrain Navigator Pro Software Portal 2013 Sandy’s Devastating Impact to Hudson New Release of SuperGIS Engine New Norwegian Satellite to Monitor the River Includes Widespread Toxic Spills 3.1 Beta High North BroadMap Releases MapConnect Leica Geosystems Introduces Virtual 1Spatial & LSI Partnership Awarded Enterprise 2012.10 with Enhanced Vista for Farmers Important U.S. Census Bureau Census and Postal Data Contract NASA Maps How Nutrients Affect Plant WCS Applauds Dept. of Interior Plan USGS Issues an App Development Productivity Balancing Conservation and Energy Challenge Development in NPR-A Avenza Releases MAPublisher 9.1 for GeoSpatial Experts Introduces Sherborne Sensors Automates Adobe Illustrator GeoJot+ Subscription to Mobilize Mineshaft Inspection Field Teams Intergraph Introduces GeoMedia Mission Accomplished for Landsat 5 Pléiades 1B Captures First Images WebMap 2013 Using e2v Sensors Microsoft Announces Release of European Earth Observation U.S. Forest Service Forecasts Trends UltraMap v3.0 Programme Renamed Copernicus and Challenges for Next 50 Years COLOR-CODED CATEGORIES: Corporate News Product News Policy/Research Global Change Energy Environment Food/ AgricultureIMAGING NOTES // WINTER 2013 // WWW.IMAGINGNOTES.COM 11
  12. 12. This interview originally appeared in Sensors & Systems. It can be accessed online at www. Executive Interview Jenn Sabers Remote Sensing Branch Chief, EROS Data Center, USGS Landsat Poised to Meet Scientific Mission LAUNCH SCHEDULED FOR FEB. 11, 2013 THE LANDSAT DATA CONTINUITY remained in mathematics and got my distributing the data. So, here at EROS, Mission (, a joint project Master’s Degree from the University we are ensuring that all the systems are between NASA and the U.S. Geologi- of South Dakota. I wanted to come to in place to perform all of those tasks. cal Survey, is poised to deliver better EROS because I was very interested data to monitor global land-use change in its mission of understanding the S&S And you head all of that? with the planned launch of Landsat 8 changing Earth and what it did with its SABERS Yes. We have more than a on Feb. 11, 2013. Sensors & Systems data in studying Earth resources. I orig- dozen government staff who oversee (S&S) special correspondent Matteo inally came to EROS to work on the our technical services contract, as well Luccio spoke with Jenn Sabers, Remote data processing side and programmed as other contractors for other portions Sensing Branch Chief, Earth Resources mathematical equations to process of the mission. Observations and Science (EROS) Data Earth imagery. Then, I got more and Center, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), more into the satellite missions and now S&S Who at NASA do you work with about the upcoming Landsat mission, head up the preparation for participa- the most closely? the technology, and the important role tion by the USGS in the Landsat Data SABERS We work closely with several of meeting the scientific mission. Continuity Mission (LDCM). folks at NASA. We work mainly with Ken Schwer, LDCM Project Manager S&S What intellectual and academic S&S For what aspects of the mission at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight path brought you to this job? are you responsible? Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. So, for SABERS I began in mathematics, here SABERS It is important to under- developing the ground system, we tend in South Dakota. I was familiar with stand that Landsat is a joint program to work through Ken at the overall the EROS Center and visited EROS managed by both USGS and NASA. LDCM mission manager level. in college, as part of a math club. I It is a great partnership that has We also work with Jim Irons, existed for the 40 years of the Landsat who is the Landsat Scientist at NASA F IG U R E 1. This image shows Guinea- program. NASA is primarily respons- Goddard. We work extremely closely Bissau, a small country in West Africa. ible for building and launching the with the science community, because Complex patterns can be seen in the satellite and USGS is responsible for we want to insure that the mission shallow waters along its coastline, where silt carried by the Geba and other rivers the ground aspects, which include meets the science requirements and washes out into the Atlantic Ocean. Image flying and operating the satellite and needs to the maximum extent possible. taken Dec. 1, 2000, by Landsat 7. receiving, processing, archiving, and Our Chief Scientist here at EROS is IMAGING NOTES // WINTER 2013 // WWW.IMAGINGNOTES.COM12
  13. 13. “Users who participateshare their content, getto use the integratedservices, and maintainthe intellectual propertyrights of any contentbrought into this system.”IMAGING NOTES // WINTER 2013 // WWW.IMAGINGNOTES.COM 13
  14. 14. Dr. Tom Loveland, who was instru- as cost-effectively as possible for the S&S What has been the biggest change mental in establishing the first Landsat users and the government. in Landsat during the life of the Science Team, which he co-chairs. program? A new Landsat Science Team was S&S Will UAS (unmanned aerial SABERS It is the free archive of recently selected and announced. systems) and/or microsats change the Landsat data. It became freely avail- role of Landsat? able several years ago and that has S&S How does Landsat 8 differ from SABERS The National Research revolutionized the way that scientists previous Landsat satellites? Council hosted a workshop earlier this study land change across the entire SABERS There are a number of signifi- year, on behalf of the USGS, to get a planet. It has increased the types of cant improvements. The operational sense of the current state of smallsat studies that are done and the number land imager (OLI) is a push-broom technologies and how they can be of uses of Landsat data. One area in system, which is an enhancement from utilized for future Landsat missions. which we’ve seen a large increase in our prior instrument. It has two new We want to ensure that Landsat monitoring is evapotranspiration. spectral bands: a blue, visible channel, is operational and that we have a The western states, in dealing with which is specifically designed for water solid path forward. We want to take water rights, have used Landsat data resources and coastal zone investiga- advantage of new technologies, but heavily over the past few years and tion, and a new infrared band that we we need to assure that they are proven I think that it is due to the fact that use for detecting cirrus clouds. Those and can maintain our long-term data it became freely available and so the are both significant improvements. records and that we can maintain that number of applications of the data Also, the quality of the data has consistency. We definitely want to keep has grown. increased, and we expect to see signifi- cant improvement in our ability to detect changes on the Earth’s surface. THERE ARE A NUMBER OF SIGNIFICANT Another improvement is that we plan to collect at least 400 scenes a day, IMPROVEMENTS. THE OPERATIONAL which is a significant improvement LAND IMAGER (OLI) IS A PUSH-BROOM over the current Landsat mission. Not only will the data we get be of higher SYSTEM, AND IT HAS TWO NEW SPECTRAL quality and more spectral depth, but BANDS: A BLUE, VISIBLE CHANNEL, we will get much more coverage of the entire Earth. WHICH IS SPECIFICALLY DESIGNED FOR WATER RESOURCES AND COASTAL ZONE S&S What is your perspective on consistency vs. improvements with INVESTIGATION, AND A NEW INFRARED regards to Landsat products? SABERS With the Landsat prod- BAND THAT WE USE FOR DETECTING ucts, there is a fine balance between CIRRUS CLOUDS. consistency and improvements. Since Landsat has been around for more than 40 years, we are the leading monitoring the technology and, when S&S Do you have any final comments? resource in being able to do long- the time is right and we have confi- SABERS Landsat is the most compre- term Earth studies. It is essential to dence in it, take advantage of it. hensive record of the global landmass maintain that consistency, so that we The approach has not yet been ever assembled. The Landsat archive, can continue that longest global data decided for any mission past LDCM. going back to 1972 and continuing record of the Earth. So, consistency in However, we want to take advantage into the future with LDCM, provides areas such as spatial resolution, cali- of any sort of future technology, as an unprecedented record of the status bration, and spectral characterization long as we can ensure that we can get of the Earth’s natural resources is extremely important. However, we the global coverage and the type of and human activity. The Landsat do want to take advantage of advance- imagery that we need to satisfy our program’s success is largely due to the ments in engineering and remote user needs. There is also potential great partnership between NASA and sensing, to try to ensure that we’re for UAS and microsat technology for the USGS. I hope that we can build on getting the best data and the most data augmenting Landsat’s capabilities. that for future missions. IMAGING NOTES // WINTER 2013 // WWW.IMAGINGNOTES.COM14
  15. 15. THE IMAGING & GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION SOCIETYConfluence by the Bay —A Gathering ofGeospatial InsightsASPRS 2013 Annual ConferenceMarch 24–28, 2013Baltimore Marriott Waterfront HotelBaltimore, ASPRS Annual Conference returns to Baltimore, Maryland March24–28, 2013. The conference theme: , refers to the “coming together”of researchers and practitioners for the purpose of open dialogue withrespect to the most recent advances in geospatial analysis. The termspheres (hydrologic, terrestrial, and atmospheric) via remote sensing;very apropos for our conference location on the eastern seaboard of theUnited States. Year 2013 promises to be an encouraging period due to -ery from Landsat 8 will be presented at our meeting. Follow Us #ASPRS13A @ASPRSorg
  16. 16. This interview was conducted by Matt Ball, and originally appeared in Sensors & Systems, where Executive Interview he is editor. It can be accessed online at www. Anne Hale Miglarese CEO of PLANETiQ PLANETiQ A NEW SERVICE MODEL PLANNED FOR EARTH MONITORING THE RECENT IMPACT OF SUPERSTORM experimental by design, has been wildly the forecast significantly for extreme Sandy speaks to a need for greater successful with many of the forecast events. You can see where this is of weather monitoring, particularly in agencies around the world seeing a great interest to forecast agencies. light of an aging constellation of satel- dramatic improvement in their weather Broad Reach Engineering built the lites. This coupled with the budgetary forecasts, to the extent that several original GPS-RO instrument for the constraints on federal agencies pro- national weather forecast agencies Cosmic mission and gratefully are one vides an opening for private industry around the globe now have GPS-RO of PLANETiQ’s financial investors. to fill in the gaps. PLANETiQ is a new, data in their operational forecast models. There’s been a good deal of talk for privately funded start-up company that This has been a significant gate to cross seven or eight years about commer- plans to launch a constellation of mi- from a technical validation standpoint. cializing GPS-RO data. I think the crosatellites to provide real-time data However, the Cosmic-1 constellation is science community is on the verge of about our atmosphere and planet. degrading rapidly. There are only four embracing commercial organizational Sensors & Systems (S&S) editor Matt out of six satellites that are operational efforts to supply this data. They under- Ball spoke with Anne Hale Miglarese, now, and the life expectancy of the stand how important it is, as well as CEO of PLANETiQ, about the com- remaining is dropping dramatically. the limitations that so many countries pany’s plans and approach. The follow-on mission that was around the world face in funding a to be Cosmic-2 has run into a whole full-scale mission for GPS-RO data. S&S How did PLANETiQ get started? host of issues. Part of the burning Within that environment, Chris MIGLARESE In 2006, there was a platform are the severe issues that have McCormick, founder of Broad Reach, mission called Cosmic, which was a been encountered by NOAA and the has brought together two additional collaboration between the Taiwanese U.S. Air Force in flying their weather firms, Moog and Millennium Engi- space agency (NSPO) and UCAR missions, including program cancel- neering and Integration, to provide the (University Corporation for Atmo- lations that we’ve seen for both. They seed capital for PLANETiQ. We are spheric Research) in the U.S. to fly an have much larger issues to approach putting together the business plan to raise experimental constellation of six satel- right now in dealing with the basic the capital required to make this a reality. lites; they were launched in 2006. The data that they need. GPS-RO data technology is GPS-RO with the RO does not immediately replace any of S&S Is it a phased approach with a standing for radio occultation. the traditional data required, but it constellation of satellites to span the The Cosmic program, which was improves the impact of that data and globe? IMAGING NOTES // WINTER 2013 // WWW.IMAGINGNOTES.COM16
  17. 17. power grid operators. If we get a solid ingest the data, but we will not offer constellation of 12, and particularly services. There are many highly quali-“Users who participate if we can take it to 24, there will be fied government agencies and privateshare their content, get a dramatic increase in the ability to weather companies across the globe, monitor and forecast space weather. and we look to them as our use the integrated That clearly is a product that we’dservices, and maintain like to offer the community. The effec- S&S So, the opportunity is clearly a tual primary parameters of data that business opportunity, but is it also tiedthe intellectual property come off of this sensor are temperature into policy?rights of any content and pressure, and secondary data MIGLARESE I think there are many include water vapor, wind speed and interesting policy questions here, mostbrought into this system.” wind direction. This is vector-based of which parallel the policy issues that data, from the atmosphere back to have played out in the satellite imagery the spacecraft in low Earth orbit. It’s business. I’m grateful to have spent decades in the imagery world to have learned some of those lessons. SEVERAL NATIONAL WEATHER Our customers in the United States FORECAST AGENCIES AROUND will be organizations like NOAA, the United States Air Force, which I’ve met THE GLOBE NOW HAVE GPS-RO DATA with several times already, the United IN THEIR OPERATIONAL FORECAST States Navy, and the National Science Foundation. I would see NOAA as MODELS. holding a license to distribute the data throughout the federal civilian govern-MIGLARESE Ideally our maximum not big data, but a profile for multiple ment. The Air Force will hopefully buy aconstellation would be 24 satellites. points with X, Y and Z coordinates. license for the DOD efforts, the NationalRight now, we’re looking at 12, and That raw data is ingested in forecast Science Foundation could distribute thewe’ll need approximately $125 million models to then make a forecast. data to all of their principle investigatorsfor that. Each satellite is about 75 kg, There is four trillion dollars in who are engaged in research related towith launches of four at a time in three weather risk impacting the economy weather and climate variability.consecutive years. The 12 satellites will every year. There are a whole host of If you look at the other govern-provide excellent data across the globe. applications, with every citizen, society ments around the world, I see very and business interested in weather. similar customers in those organiza-S&S You mentioned the weather Globally, society is very interested in tions. In France for instance – theirforecast measurement as the primary climate change. Another very impor- weather organization, their Air Force,market. Are there other areas of tant variable of this data is the ability and their climate research organiza-measurement and monitoring that you to improve climate models over time. tion. Those are the type of governmentcan monetize? customers we’re looking at.MIGLARESE The ionospheric space S&S Are you planning to provide a As far as commercial customers,weather measurements are of huge service? those very high-end weather forecastinterest to the United States Air MIGLARESE We will be a data companies that generate tailored fore-Force as well as a large number of provider, not a service provider. We casts for their commercial customers,commercial organizations that operate will have professional expertise neces- and their customer base may be thesatellites in space, the airlines, and sary to support our customers as they Future’s Market, commercial airlines,IMAGING NOTES // WINTER 2013 // WWW.IMAGINGNOTES.COM 17
  18. 18. shipping or the derivatives market. crop forecasts locally for the Future’s NOAA, like the National Geospatial- There are a few handful or more of Market, and it is still an application of Intelligence Agency (NGA), is grappling those companies in the United States Landsat data today. with the cultural and policy issue of and around the globe, and we see identifying the highest priority targets those as potential customers. We want S&S Is the future maybe a living where they will absolutely collect their to focus on what we believe we can do model, with direct updates from own data, and where they will partner well, and that is to provide the data. multiple systems? with the commercial sector to acquire MIGLARESE Maybe. This data will be data. You’re familiar with NextView S&S With this Summer’s drought, I delivered via an Inmarsat terminal, and EnhancedView, and I anticipate the remember reading about analysts in and will be available within three same sort of evolution across the U.S. the Future’s Market getting out of minutes of taking the observation. federal civilian government agencies. their offices to visit fields and verify I think another interesting policy more directly, which speaks to a need implication, where your question is S&S How much of the shift is due to for more granular data. Do you have leaning, is that in the imagery world risk and high profile of satellite failure, experience with the Future’s Market? we are dealing with commercial and the need to cut costs? MIGLARESE It is very difficult for a government to build an operational THERE IS FOUR TRILLION DOLLARS satellite. All of the programmatic reviews IN WEATHER RISK IMPACTING THE that they have to go through, and the requirements analysis, tends to lead to ECONOMY EVERY YEAR. THERE ARE mission creep. Regardless of who you are, whether you are NOAA or another A WHOLE HOST OF APPLICATIONS, agency, that happens and when it happens WITH EVERY CITIZEN, SOCIETY AND you add a tremendous amount of cost. We are very focused on providing BUSINESS INTERESTED IN WEATHER. GPS-RO data on a 75-kilogram satellite that we can build, launch and insure for $5 million per satel- MIGLARESE Not yet. I’ve been on the industry providing data to the govern- lite. That’s an efficiency that I just job about three months now, and I’m ment where traditionally governments don’t believe it is possible to achieve employee number one. We’re working owned their own data. in government, given all the things with lawyers to set up all the corporate There was NextView and then that a government has to do to oversee documents and things of that nature. I EnhancedView, and there’s certainly a the citizens’ and taxpayer investment. recently traveled to Boulder for a science lot of activity around that right now. The At that level of accountability and meeting where many of the GPS-RO intelligence community has been grap- complexity, it becomes very expensive. scientists from around the world gath- pling with this for a whole host of reasons ered for their annual conference. for twenty years. I’ve spent a decade S&S The $125 million figure for this Something worth mentioning working for NOAA, and working on global constellation seems small, is that one of the reasons we have many of these imagery issues. In an ideal certainly when compared with Landsat today is based on the Future’s world, government might have all the government programs. The ability Market. The first large-scale commer- resources necessary to collect all the data to launch four satellites at once also cial Earth observation mission was the possible, and to distribute it. But, I just sounds compelling. Are these costs and LACIE Project. It was a study done don’t see that happening; I don’t believe efficiencies only possible with recent in the early to mid-1970s to look at that is the model of the future. advancements? IMAGING NOTES // WINTER 2013 // WWW.IMAGINGNOTES.COM18
  19. 19. MIGLARESE I think the timing is right would have thought that commercial- ness wants better weather data. Fore-with the commercialization, and I ization was possible six years ago. cast agencies across the globe have donethink society is encouraging that. The There are also all the financial a fabulous job of improving the forecastreason that I embrace this challenge is issues that our country has to face over the last ten years, and I think thisthat I’m really passionate about what in the next ten years, and how those data can help them even more.the data can do to improve the forecast changes will impact the budgets of thearound the globe, and to give us better Air Force, NOAA, and NASA. We S&S The latest stumbles of thescience about what is going on with need to consider the appropriate roles GOES-13 weather satellite speak to aour climate. Regardless of what your of government, as you look at efficien- greater redundancy. Has that spurredpersonal beliefs may be about what cies that can be garnered in the private you on, and helped the cause?is changing the climate, the climate ischanging. We need to do a much better THIS DATA WILL BE DELIVERED VIA ANjob of trying to understand that andto mitigate those changes. It’s so much INMARSAT TERMINAL, AND WILL BEfun to be working on an issue that is so AVAILABLE WITHIN THREE MINUTES OFimportant to society. TAKING THE OBSERVATION.S&S There have been a number ofmandates to spur action, with such sector, but where the data can also MIGLARESE They did a great job ofthings as carbon markets to factor in contribute to a public cause. moving that spare satellite into action.the economic impacts of greenhouse The important thing is that citizens Imagine what would have happenedgas emissions, as well as the economic get an accurate forecast and can get out if that spare wasn’t there. Those satel-benefits of carbon sinks. Are mandates of harm’s way, and that we understand lites are multi-billion dollar satellites,a necessity to spur the next level of the impacts of weather on climate and and they are very important to have.awareness? ecosystem services. There is a part of We aren’t talking about multi-billionMIGLARESE I think there are a couple that mission that is inherently govern- dollar satellites; we’re talking about $5of issues. There is the general commer- mental, but does it have to be as a million satellites, with a constellationcialization of space with this admin- supplier of data? Those are huge policy that is going to cost $125 million thatistration. You just have to look at the questions that I think will be addressed provides a dramatic improvement onSpace Shuttle program, and what’s in the next couple of years. the forecast when assimilated with thehappened there. I don’t think anyone Every citizen, government and busi- other data.IMAGING NOTES // WINTER 2013 // WWW.IMAGINGNOTES.COM 19
  20. 20. This interview was conducted by Matt Ball, and originally appeared in Sensors & Systems, Executive Interview where he is editor. It can be accessed online at Nancy Colleton President, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies Environmental Intelligence Important for the Economy THE CASE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING DURING THE DEBATES OF THE RECENT private sector company and you have unfortunate predicament of a gap in presidential race, both candidates a new idea, or a different way of our weather satellite coverage. avoided the polarizing issue of climate doing things, I think it’s really hard to change, although there was certainly understand where those entry points S&S What about our analytical capa- some mention during both campaigns. might be. There are some barriers bilities? Is the U.S. falling behind? Now that the Obama administration of course on the federal side that COLLETON There have been several pieces will continue, many are asking what prohibit engagement with a number of published in USA Today, The Wall Street steps will be taken, particularly in light companies in some ways. We’re hoping Journal, and other leading publications of the historic east coast storms. Sen- that we can provide a solution to that, that talk about how European weather sors & Systems (S&S) editor Matt Ball become a conduit for new ideas, and forecasts of Hurricane Sandy came out recently spoke with Nancy Colleton, connect those ideas to federal agencies. earlier than the U.S. forecast. president of the Institute for Global En- The editorial in The Wall Street vironmental Strategies and co-founder S&S Your recent column Journal was by Kerry Emmanuel, of the Alliance for Earth Observations, [], discusses professor of atmospheric science at about a recent column that she wrote the Earth observation gaps that we MIT, who talks about why America is on the next administration’s priorities face. It’s coming to a head isn’t it? falling behind in weather forecasting, and the need to foster Earth observa- COLLETON There was a piece recently identifying the fact that the European tion’s connection between the economy in Federal Computer Week where model came out first. The U.S. forecast and the environment. they were talking with David Powner was right on target; it’s just wasn’t [director of IT management issues for produced as quickly. When you look S&S The Alliance for Earth Observa- the Government Accountability Office at this across the whole of U.S. Earth tions has provided a nice platform (GAO)], who has done many studies observations, it’s really scary, because for policy discussion in Washington. on satellite weather coverage, and weather is our most sophisticated How will the Alliance contribute in he’s quoted as saying that there will area when it comes to observing and the future? probably be a 17-month gap. NOAA producing forecasts. So, if this is where COLLETON One of the things that the issued a request for public comment we are with our weather capability as a Alliance can do is to help provide this week seeking ideas on “contin- nation, what does that say about other the connection between industry and gency options” in the event of a gap. areas like ocean observation, climate, the federal government. If you’re a So, all signs seem to point to the very terrestrial monitoring, and water IMAGING NOTES // WINTER 2013 // WWW.IMAGINGNOTES.COM20
  21. 21. buoys, balloons, stream gauges, and on, some stores are still not open, and on and on… When you consider our there are still transportation issues and“If there is one thing the Earth observation capabilities and the structural issues around New York.Obama Administration number of agencies involved, there’s Crop losses from the drought are really no one responsible at a high level estimated at $25 billion. The droughtcould do over the next to look at all these capabilities and to also has caused low water levels onfour years to really make make sure that the United States has the Mississippi, which have led to a vision and a road map for achieving commerce and transportation impacts.a difference, it would be it. What is different is that we need to The New York Times recently reportedto make environmental find a better way to tie this informa- that $7 billion in products could be tion to economic security. stalled in the December-January time-information a priority.” If there is one thing the Obama frame if water levels don’t increase. Administration could do over the next four years to really make a difference, S&S It’s something that was forecast, it would be to make environmental in terms of long-term warnings, that information a priority – find ways to this level of damage might be possible WE NEED TO infuse greater innovation and efficiency, with a major storm, just like Hurricane FIND A BETTER to engage the private sector both as Katrina was one of the top ten possible users and providers of information, and disasters and then it occurred. When is WAY TO TIE THIS to establish a long-term plan. there some liability for not reacting to INFORMATION I think we desperately need to focus these long-term forecasts and building on taking that government investment in some resilience and adaptability? TO ECONOMIC and leveraging it to grow the U.S. COLLETON I think that’s a really impor- economy. That happens two ways: tant question. A couple of weeks ago I SECURITY. first, all this environmental intelligence was invited to speak on a satellite collo- that is produced helps us to better quium at a law firm. They were askingavailability? How will we ever move manage risk. The second way is in about some of the legal and regulatorytowards integrated information that building up the capacity and private issues coming up. The complexion ofproduces environmental intelligence? enterprise around the government our forecasting sources is changing, investment. You see that with weather. and with climate change becoming everS&S Is there a lack of leadership or is At The Weather Channel, for example, more present, there are people who maythe science community just not being they don’t have their own satellite; they ask, “why didn’t we better prepare?”paid attention to? use satellite data from NOAA. At some point I think there is going toCOLLETON I do believe there is a lack be some liability somewhere. I’m notof leadership. You have these capa- S&S What are some of the strong sure it will happen any time soon, but Ibilities spread through a number of economic impacts? suspect it will happen.federal agencies. The U.S. Geological COLLETON If you just look at it from Already there have been share-Survey is responsible for the Landsat a natural disaster standpoint the holders of companies that have beenprogram; NASA is doing research numbers are staggering. Equicat wondering, if the company is damagingsatellites; NOAA is responsible for estimates that Hurricane Sandy is the environment (specifically thinkingthe operational weather satellites; resulting in $20 billion in insured about climate), what’s their liabilitythe National Science Foundation losses, and $50 billion in economic as board members and shareholders?is funding research, and then you losses. Those numbers are likely to rise Turning it around, if you have morehave cubesats, uavs, aircraft, ocean though, because the power is not back companies in the weather enterpriseIMAGING NOTES // WINTER 2013 // WWW.IMAGINGNOTES.COM 21
  22. 22. that are issuing forecasts, and there are about all of this as environmental S&S The recent column that you major business losses related to those intelligence. I look at it in the light of wrote points to the economic impact. forecasts if they are not accurate, what’s why we need long-term forecasting. Have you had good response to that? the liability related to that? If we’re going to have 80- or 90-mile- COLLETON I have had very good per-hour winds as the new norm, we feedback, and people have been very S&S The models have been very need to build our houses differently. appreciative that I made the link with predictive, where the lay of the land The Institute for Business & Home the economic argument. Investment in New York City amplifies a storm Safety (IBHS) is putting out new in these systems, and the entire supply surge. Why aren’t we planning and standards for how we build based on chain of environmental information, designing around those eventualities? these trends. At the last Forum on is directly relevant to our economy. In fact, I did a short piece on The Weather Channel as well. WHAT THE OPENEIS DOES IS PROVIDE Earlier this summer we were THE MECHANISM FOR WIDER ACCESS looking at insured crop losses of $20 billion and now $25 billion. We saw TO GOVERNMENT-COLLECTED EARTH the impact of that globally with the OBSERVATIONS. rise in food costs. When you look at the ideas for what the administration could do, there is an effort underway COLLETON Exactly, and I come back Earth Observations, Carl Hedde, who for adopting what is called Open to all of this as environmental intel- is head of risk accumulation at Munich Environmental Information Services ligence. What can these products tell Reinsurance, showed video of two (OpenEIS). us about improving our infrastructure houses built similarly, and that have This came out of a report produced as a nation? We put so much money been put in a huge wind tunnel. One by the Environmental Information into the economic stimulus, but were of the houses has brackets to hold the Services Working Group that I co-chair we taking climate change into account roof down, the door opens outward with Walt Dabberdt of Viasala for the while we were building those new roads rather than inward, and it has fortified NOAA Science Advisory Board. The and bridges? windows and siding. Both houses were OpenEIS concept provides the non- If you look at states like North built to modern standards, with just federal sector with more access to all Carolina where there have been moves, $3,000 invested for the fortifications. of the information that the government even proposed legislation, not to recog- They did an experiment with Category has and it also recommends better and nize climate change, one has to ask 3 hurricane winds. The house without earlier engagement with the private whether those policy makers are putting the added elements was destroyed. sector in algorithm development and their citizens at risk? I always argue that It looked like the Big Bad Wolf had other technology areas. whether you believe in climate change blown it down! [ NOAA regularly releases its fore- or not, you have to agree with the need com/watch?v=cXF44jBBwxU] casting and data, but there’s a lot of for long-term forecasting. We have to Home builders want to be building other data that doesn’t get released improve the capabilities that allow us to good homes, so you do see movement in that may be helpful to a particular look at events like storms and drought this sector to better prepare homeowners sector. The OpenEIS concept chal- in the context of trends. so that they can withstand more severe lenges the federal government to weather events. And the companies that look at ways that we can bring the S&S It’s disconcerting how much insure those homes are providing their private sector inside the walls of these climate change has been politicized. customers with reduced rates if houses data centers with better access to the COLLETON What I try to do is to talk meet new, safer standards. incredible amount of existing data. IMAGING NOTES // WINTER 2013 // WWW.IMAGINGNOTES.COM22
  23. 23. S&S The computing power, coupled S&S I really appreciate your approach, some of those barriers will comewith cloud storage, is really extending and this idea of the E-Q-Tel project down, specifically for historical datathe needed tools to the average (that would establish an E-Q-Tel that could be so helpful for under-citizen. organization based on the successful standing change?COLLETON That’s true, but if you don’t In-Q-Tel model to help accelerate COLLETON I have absolutely no expe-know someone within the community, Earth-related technologies that rience working on the defense do you get access to under- advance environmental intelligence, However, I have learned a great deal fromstand what we really have? What the recommended by Colleton in her Wash- my colleagues in the aerospace field thatOpenEIS does is provide the mecha- ington Post article) that would team the serve both civil and defense programs.nism for wider access to government- government with industry to put the And, one of the key lessons is that datacollected Earth observations. There United States back into a leadership alone will not solve our problems, butare all kinds of data where it is still role in terms of both Earth observation analytical tools certainly lead to betterdifficult to get access. capacity as well as analysis. intelligence for decision-making, whether COLLETON You know all of our issues on a battlefield or a boardroom.S&S There seems to be a bit of back- aren’t technical or financial. A lot of them Look at New York right now:lash for the fact that climate change are process-oriented, and I think we need policy makers need that same inte-wasn’t mentioned at all during the a new way of doing business that gives grated battle space capability torecent presidential debates. There is a the country the ability to develop these understand what’s happening there,lot of hope now that it will become a technologies on a faster track. That’s to respond, and to reconstruct. So infocus area. what the In-Q-Tel model does for the addition to data, we should be sharing best practices and new technologies. There has to be a way to bring some of WHETHER YOU BELIEVE IN CLIMATE those risk management capabilities to the civil side, and it’s not just data. CHANGE OR NOT, YOU HAVE TO AGREE WITH THE NEED FOR LONG-TERM S&S Are you optimistic about the next four years? FORECASTING. WE HAVE TO IMPROVE COLLETON I am optimistic and THE CAPABILITIES THAT ALLOW US certainly energized to keep working to improve our U.S. environmental TO LOOK AT EVENTS LIKE STORMS information capabilities. There has AND DROUGHT IN THE CONTEXT OF been attention, even prior to Hurri- cane Sandy, on our weather fore- TRENDS. casting capabilities. However, we also need more support for climate, ocean, land, and more atmosphericCOLLETON Hopefully, we can rise intelligence sector and the E-Q-Tel model observations. Space weather is alsoabove the political division in this could do for our civil environmental an important area we should notcountry and address the significant information sector. We don’t have this on ignore. Environmental intelligencetopic of climate change because it is the civil side, and we need it. extends beyond weather and I hoperelated to so many other important that our national approach includestopics such as water availability, the S&S There is so much on the military giving responsibility to someone at ahealth of our coastal regions, agricul- side that gets classified and hidden high level to manage these importantture and more. behind walls. Is there any hope that capabilities in the future.IMAGING NOTES // WINTER 2013 // WWW.IMAGINGNOTES.COM 23
  24. 24. Bathymetric LiDAR SANDY’S COASTAL IMPACT Detailed and accurate charting of the sea bottom along coastlines is vital for environmental monitoring and reme- diation, shoreline construction, and coastal navigation. Each of these activities requires reliable depth data for planning and management purposes. However, sonar-equipped vessels conducting hydrographic surveys cannot navigate very shallow or rocky coastal areas or narrow inlets with high tidal ranges, and topographic airborne LiDAR mapping (ALM) systems cannot penetrate the water. Airborne LiDAR bathymetry (ALB) fills this gap: as a supple- mentary survey method, it provides a seamless transition between mapping the land and charting the sea. EDITOR’S NOTES All Superstorm Sandy — technically, a post-tropical cyclone by the time it made landfall along images except the last the coastline of the United States on October 29 — affected 24 states, including the entire Eastern two are of point clouds collected with an Optech Seaboard from Florida to Maine, causing particularly severe damage in New Jersey and New CZMIL sensor and are York. Storm surges, made worse by the full moon, caused high tides to rise about 20 percent courtesy of JALBTCX and higher than normal and wreaked havoc along hundreds of miles of coastline. Its impact included Optech. widespread flooding, erosion, and movement of millions of tons of coastal sediments with the MATTEO LUCCIO extreme power of storm-driven water — thereby actually altering vast stretches of coastline. Contributing Writer In the wake of this devastation, dozens of federal, state, and local agencies, as well as many Pale Blue Dot LLC private companies, contributed to the response. A couple of weeks after the storm, the Joint Portland, Ore. Airborne LiDAR Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) flew its Coastal Zone Mapping and Imaging LiDAR (CZMIL) IMAGING NOTES // WINTER 2013 // WWW.IMAGINGNOTES.COM24
  25. 25. 2 F IG U R E 1. George Washington Bridge, between New York and New Jersey F IG U R E 2 . Throgs Neck Bridge, New York 1along several stretches of the northeast are capable of separately detecting the topographic ones. For example, Optech’scoast, collecting a consistent data set. returns from each. The infrared band is CZMIL has a measurement rate of 70 kHz quickly absorbed and is therefore used to when operating in topographic mode butHow Bathymetric LiDAR Works detect the water surface. The green band, of only 10 kHz when operating in hydro- Bathymetry has traditionally been which is the optimum color to achieve graphic mode. This lower pulse frequencyperformed using echo sounders (sonars) maximum penetration in shallow water, reduces the achievable point density.mounted on ships or boats. The use of is used to delineate the sea bottom. Even in relatively smooth air, allmulti-beam echo sounders has allowed for As the pulse of green laser light travels aircraft are subject to vibrations, suddenhighly detailed, accurate seabed charting. through the water and reflects off the loss of attitude, and constant smallWhile these systems can measure depths seabed, it is subjected to refraction, scat- changes in their pitch, roll and yaw.even in very shallow water, boats cannot tering, and absorption, which attenuate it Therefore, knowing the range to a targetaccess areas with skerries, shallow reefs, and limit the depth of water that it can is not sufficient to determine its posi-long shallow beaches, large waves, and measure. The greater the water’s particle tion, which also requires knowledgeunderwater currents. Furthermore, echo content, the greater the backscattering, of the aircraft’s exact location and atti-sounder systems are expensive and diffi- up to the point that it becomes impos- tude at the time each laser pulse is fired.cult to deploy at short notice. sible to distinguish the backscatter from Differential GPS provides the former ALM systems operated from fixed or the bottom return. and an inertial measurement unit (IMU)rotary wing aircraft, on the other hand, Therefore, the maximum depth for provides the latter.can be deployed at short notice and enable ALB is determined by the reflective char- ALB systems make it possible toaccurate, cost-effective data collection, acteristics of the seabed and by water survey in a single scan features andbut use an infrared laser that has poor clarity. Under ideal conditions, the theo- constructions both above and belowwater penetration capabilities. Therefore, retical maximum depth measurement is the waterline. Typically, digital imagesin coastal zones the combination of these about 70 meters. are recorded at the same time, enablingtwo technologies is not always sufficient In order to penetrate the denser their visual analysis and use with digitalto create seamless mapping. medium of water and then minimize scat- terrain models. ALB systems are also operated from tering, LiDAR bathymetry requires muchaircraft. However, unlike ALM systems, higher power and longer laser pulses than The Missionthey transmit two light waves, one in the topographic LiDAR. Therefore, bathy- JALBTCX is a joint center ofinfrared and one in the green portion metric systems operate at a much slower government agencies working togetherof the electromagnetic spectrum, and rate and with much longer pulses than to advance LiDAR bathymetry andIMAGING NOTES // WINTER 2013 // WWW.IMAGINGNOTES.COM 25