Ch37 mis-090324082657-phpapp02


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Ch37 mis-090324082657-phpapp02

  1. 1. Management Information Systems
  2. 2. Introduction ♦ Information age – Computers and telecommunications ♦ Information is a fundamental resource ♦ Development of expertise – Application of modern technology to business
  3. 3. Systems ♦ Data processing systems – Process day-to-day transactions ♦ Informational systems – Use the data from DP systems to create useful information ♦ Example: – Data processing system collects data on items sold via barcode scanner – Operational information system examines data to produce order information – Management information system analyses sales data to plan marketing campaigns, or adjust prices, etc.
  4. 4. Internal and external information ♦ Internal information – Company operations ♦ External information – Intelligence gathering about competitors’ activities – Information about population shifts – Economic and social factors – Government legislation
  5. 5. Information flow ♦ Informal – Conversations - face-to-face and telephone – Magazines, tv and radio – Internet ♦ Formal – Computerised information systems – Software packages allow cooperative working – Internal and external e-mail facilities – Intranets ♦ Information overload
  6. 6. The Management Information System External Data Internal Data Capture Processing Storage Provision of Access Management Info. System Information Outputs Reports Expert System Advice Query Responses OrganisationEnvironment
  7. 7. What managers do ♦ Planning – the direction a company is to take, whether to diversify, which areas of the world to operate in, how to maximise profit ♦ Organising – resources such as people, space, equipment and services ♦ Coordinating – the activities of various departments ♦ Decision-making – about the organisation, products or services made or sold, the employees, use of I.T. ♦ Controlling – monitoring and supervising the activities of others
  8. 8. Types of decision ♦ Management decisions can be classified into two types – structured and unstructured. ♦ Structured decisions – are repetitive, routine and involve a definite procedure for handling them. ♦ Unstructured decisions – require judgement, insight and evaluation. They are often important decisions and there is no set procedure for making them.
  9. 9. Stages of decision-making Is there a problem or opportunity ? Consider solutions Choose a solution Is the choice working?
  10. 10. Information systems Managers Information workers Production workers Management Information Systems Knowledge Work Systems Data Processing/ Transaction Processing Systems ♦ Organisations will have many information systems.
  11. 11. Desirable characteristics of a MIS ♦ They are flexible – allowing for many different ways of analysing data and evaluating information ♦ They are capable of supporting a range of skills and knowledge ♦ They help managers get things done – through interpersonal communication with other members of the organisation ♦ They should not require extensive periods of concentration – because managers are busy people who switch rapidly between different tasks ♦ They should make it easy to interrupt the work and return to it at a later time ♦ They should protect a manager, as far as possible, from information overload.
  12. 12. Factors affecting success/failure ♦ Inadequate analysis ♦ Lack of management involvement in design ♦ Emphasis on the computer system ♦ Concentration on low-level data processing ♦ Lack of knowledge of capability of ICT systems ♦ Lack of teamwork ♦ Lack of professional standards