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It is a systematized body ofknowledge that is based on factsgathered through observations,experiences and experiments inorder to formulate a verifiableconclusion or law that serves asbasis of technology for the benefitof man and his environment.
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It is a systematized body ofknowledge that is based on factsgathered through observations,experiences and experiments inorder to formulate a verifiableconclusion or law that serves asbasis of technology for the benefitof man and his environment.
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It is a systematized body ofknowledge that is based on factsgathered through observations,experiences and experiments inorder to formulate a verifiableconclusion or law that serves asbasis of technology for the benefitof man and his environment.
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It is theapplication ofthe theoreticalsciences.
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It dealswith the humanbehavior primarily in itssocial and culturalneeds.
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It deals with thehuman behaviorprimarily in itssocial and culturalneeds.
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It dealswith the humanbehavior primarilyin its social andcultural needs.
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Itdeals with theunderstanding anddescription of nature,
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It deals with theunderstanding anddescription of nature
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Itdeals with theunderstanding anddescription of nature,
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Biological Science It deals with the study of living things.
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PhysicalScience It deals with the study of non living things.
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1.2 PHYSICS AND ITS BRANCHES WHAT IS Physics? This is the study of matter and energy and their relationship. Physicists believe that most everyday phenomena can, in one way or another, be explained through physics, as matter and energy are the basic constituents of the natural world. We may not be aware of it, but everything we see and don’t see is simply matter and the energy it possesses.
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This is also divided into two main branches– CLASSICAL PHYSICS and MODERNPHYSICS.CLASSICAL PHYSICS – refers to thetraditional topics in physics that wererecognized and developed before thebeginning of the 20th century.MODERN PHYSICS – refers to concepts inphysics that have surfaced since thebeginning of the 20th century. This is mostlyconcerned with the behavior of matter andenergy under extreme conditions(the verylarge or the very small)
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SUBBRANCHES OF PHYSICS• Classical Physics •Mechanics – the study of forces acting on bodies whether at rest or in motion. •Statics – on forces acting on bodies at rest. •Kinematics – on motion without regard to its cause. •Dynamics – on motion and the forces that affect it •Acoustics – the study of the production and propagation of sound waves. • Optics – the study of light. •Physical optics – on the production, nature and properties of light. •Physiological optics – on the part played by light in vision. •Geometrical optics – on the reflection and refraction of light as encountered in the study of mirrors and lenses. •Thermodynamics – the study of the relationship between heat and other forms of energy. •Electromagnetism – the study of the properties of electric current and magnetism, and their relationship. - Electrostatic - Electrodynamics - Magnetostatics
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•Modern Physics •Atomic and Nuclear Physics – the study of the components, structure, and behavior of the nucleus in the atom. •Quantum Physics – the study of the discrete nature of phenomena at the atomic and subatomic levels. •Relativistic Physics – the study of phenomena that take place in a frame of reference that is in motion with respect to an observer. •Solid State Physics – the study of all properties of solid materials. •Condensed Matter Physics – the study of the properties of condensed materials with the ultimate goal of developing new materials with better properties. •Plasma Physics – the study of the fourth state of matter. •Low – Temperature Physics - the study of the production and maintenance of temperature down to almost absolute zero, and various phenomena that occurs only at such temperature.
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1.3 PHYSICS IS MORE THAN JUST A NATURALPHILOSOPHYPhysics was separated from philosophy because of oneimportant factor – it employed an approach known asscientific method.Scientific Method – is the application of a logical processreasoning to arrive at a certain law or principle that isconsistent with experimental results.1.4 PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY : PARTNERS FORPROGRESSPhysics, which attempts to understand nature and its laws, hasbecome a very important field of human knowledge. It hashelped us change both the physical and social dimension s ofour environment through the development of technology in theform of new tools, or gadgets, new products and newprocesses.
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PHYSICS IS MORE THAN JUST A NATURALPHILOSOPHY Physics was separated from philosophy because ofscientific method. Module 2one important factor – it employed an approach known as Scientific Method – is the application of a logical process of Nature’s Laws arereasoning to arrive at a certain law or principle that isconsistent with experimental results. Mathematical andPHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY: PARTNERS FORPROGRESS Simple Physics, which attempts to understand nature andits laws, has become a very important field of humanknowledge. It has helped us change both physical andsocial dimensions of our environment through developmentof technology in the form of gadgets, new products and newprocesses.
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2.1 MATHEMATICS: AN ESSENTIAL TOOL Physics without mathematics is unthinkable. We will find out that the basic rules governing the behavior of nature are readily expressed in mathematical form throughout the study of physics. 2.1.1 Scientific Notation Physics involves concepts which are described by very large or very small quantities. Consider the following: Mass of the earth : 6 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 kg Mass of an electron: 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 911 kg
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These very huge and minute magnitudes will take up much spacewhen written down and are difficult to use in calculations. To workwith these quantities more easily, you can express them in acompact way of writing over a wide range of values known asscientific notation.In scientific notation, the numbers are represented by the productof a multiplying factor and a power of ten.In adding or subtracting numbers expressed in scientific notation,quantities must have the same exponents as well as units. If thepowers of ten are not the same, they must be made the same.In multiplying numbers using scientific notation, the product ofthese must be the product of the base numbers and 10 raised tothe sum of their exponents.In dividing numbers written in scientific notation, the quotient ofthese id the quotient of the base numbers and 10 raised to thedifference of their exponents.
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2.1.2 Significant FiguresIn studying physics, we will do a lot of measurements of physicalquantities. When we record and report the numerical values ofmeasurements, we must express them in a numerical form which iscomposed of digits that are known with certainty plus the first uncertaindigit. These digits are known as significant digits or significantfigures.In general, the number of significant figures of a numerical quantity isthe number of reliably known digits it contains and is based on theprecision of the instrument used in measuring the quantity. Rules in determining significant figures 1.Leading zeros are not significant, they simply locate the decimal point. Ex. 0.000143 has three significant figures. 2. Zeros between two nonzero digits are significant. Ex. 105.03 has five significant figures. 3. Trailing zeros are usually significant, but can be ambiguous. Ex. 100. has three significant figures. 1.00 has three significant figures. 100 is ambiguous.
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In multiplication or division of numbers using significant figures , thegeneral rule is that the results are as precise as the least precise value,that is, the value with the fewest significant figures.In addition or subtraction, the precision of the result is no better than thatof the least precise quantity being calculated. It means that the resultoccupies the same position relative to the decimal point as the position inthe number whose last significant figure is the farthest to the left.2.2 MEASUREMENT: A UNIVERSAL LANGUAGE Measurement are used to describe such quantities as length, weight, area, volume, and time. It is a quantitative description of a fundamental property or physical phenomenon. When we measure, we compare an unknown quantity with a certain standard called unit of measurement.
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2.2.1 Standard Units of Measure This table shows the different quantities with their corresponding units. A. FUNDAMENTAL QUANTITIES
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2.2.2 Conversion of Units Units in different system or even different units in the same system can express the same quantity. To avoid confusion, it is therefore necessary to convert the units of a quantity from one unit to another. Conversion of units can be done by multiplying the original unit by an appropriate conversion factor. Conversion factors are simply equivalence statements expressed in the form of ratios equal to 1. In converting units, we must take advantage of unit analysis. That is, choosing the appropriate form of conversion factor that will allow cancellation of unwanted units and thus give the answer in the desired unit.
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2.2.3 Minute and Huge MeasurementA better method of measuring small distances is by the useof the micrometer and the vernier caliper.Micrometer are used to make accurate measurements of thethickness of a sheet of paper and the external diameter ofthin wires.Vernier caliper is used for measuring wither the internal orexternal diameters of tubes, pipes , rods, etc. The distancebetween the jaws of the caliper is read on a scale attachedto the instrument.2.2.4 Not All is Certain: The Limits ofMeasurementThere is no such thing as a perfect measurement. Everymeasurement, whether made by a student or aprofessional scientist, contains a certain degree ofuncertainty.
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Uncertainty in measurements can result from limitations in accuracyor precision. These limitations can be attributed to systematic errorsand random errors.Systematic errors are due to the limitations of the measuringinstruments and the skill or carefulness of the experimenter.Random errors are caused by external factors beyond the control ofthe experimenter such as vibrations, noise, changes in atmosphericpressure and friction.Accuracy of measurement describes how well the results agree withan accepted value of the quantity being measured. Precision refers to the degree of exactness to which a measurement can be reproduced.
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2.3 EQUATIONS; RELATIONSHIPS IN A CAPSULE On e of the most important and useful ideas in mathematics is the idea that two variables may be related to each other. This idea, known as proportion or variation, finds frequent applications in physical sciences. 2.3.1 Direct Proportion In direct proportionality, one quantity varies directly as the other quantity. In symbols, y = kx or k = y where k is the constant of variation. x 2.3.2 Inverse Proportion An inverse proportion is on wherein an increase in one quantity means a decrease in the other. In symbol, y = k or k = xy where k is the constant of variation. x
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2.3.3 Direct Square proportion In some cases, we can see both quantities are increasing but one quantity increases faster than the other. This relationship is known as y direct square proportion. In symbols, y = kx 2 ork = 2 where k is the constant of variation. x2.3.4 Inverse Square Proportion Another kind of relationship is where one quantity decreases faster as the other quantity increases. This is known as inverse square proportion. In symbol, y = k2 or k = x y where k is the 2 constant of variation. x 2.3.5 Manipulating Equations An unknown variable can be solved by manipulating equations.