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  1. 1. Wise Long Term Emission and Fenceline Monitoring Ram Hashmonay, ScD +1 919.967.9104 [email_address]
  2. 2. Shel Silverstein, Falling Up
  3. 3. ORS Emission Monitoring Continuum Primary Objective: Annual Emissions [ton/yr] Information on Individual Emission Sources (Time) Number of Emissions Sources Surveyed (Space) DIAL – Detailed Short-Term Measurements VRPM – Detailed Long-Term Measurements Fenceline Hybrid – Permanent Installations SOF/TAGA/Picarro- Mobile Screening Airborne - ITT
  4. 4. Optical Remote Sensing (ORS) Open Path Open-path instruments provide path-averaged concentration data Nonlocalized Emission Source ORS Source/Detector (monostatic) Retroreflector
  5. 5. Open-Path Instruments UV Diff. Optical Absorption Spectroscopy Tunable Diode Laser (scanning) Open Path Fourier Transform InfraRed (scanning)
  6. 6. OP-FTIR: the ultimate petrochemical monitoring system (OTM-10 and fenceline ready) for VOCs, inorganics, and GHG <ul><li>Hundreds of compounds (organic and inorganic) </li></ul><ul><li>High temporal resolution (concentration roses) </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple path provides spatial information and allow measurement of flux (OTM-10) </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally considered to have moderate detection limits </li></ul><ul><li>Can, with some investment, be automated to be a bullet proof fenceline and OTM-10 ready system </li></ul>
  7. 7. OP-FTIR Methods and Procedures
  8. 8. Spectral Validation
  9. 9. VOC Measurement in the North Direction Blue: Run 5 M-3 F14 Red: n-Butane Green: n-Octane
  10. 10. VOC Measurement in the South Direction Blue: Run 5 M-1 F14 Red: n-Butane Green: n-Octane Blue: Run 5 M-1 F14 Red: n-Butane Green: n-Octane
  11. 11. Benefits of Fenceline Continuous Monitoring <ul><li>Wise leak detection approach </li></ul><ul><li>Savings, one leak being fixed in hours may pay for the monitoring system </li></ul><ul><li>Workers Health and Safety </li></ul><ul><li>PR with neighbors </li></ul><ul><li>When correlated with any of the flux methodologies may provide information for representative annual emissions calculations </li></ul>
  12. 12. Site Specific Correlation
  13. 13. VRPM to Measure Emissions Fluxes from Area or Fugitive Sources Mean Wind Direction PI-ORS Instrument
  14. 14. USEPA OTM-10 http://www.epa.gov/ttn/emc/tmethods.html
  15. 15. Beyond OTM-10: Hybrid Point/Open-Path
  16. 16. Vertical Radial Plume Mapping <ul><li>EPA Other Technical Method 10 (“OTM-10) provides guidance on methodology. Only mass emission measurement test method for fugitive and area source emissions . </li></ul><ul><li>Has been used with OP- FTIR, UV-DOAS and TDLAS instruments. </li></ul><ul><li>Has been used to measure emissions from low-to-the-ground sources such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Landfills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confined animal feeding operations (3 weeks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superfund & Brownfield sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlor-alkali plant (8 weeks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphate processing plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refueling stations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Petroleum refinery process units and tank farms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil & gas production facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron & Steel coke ovens (7 weeks) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be installed to collect data over long periods of time. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Four Corners Configuration Surround the pond with four OTM 10 planes Wind
  18. 18. Wind 4-Corners Technique is forgiving to wind direction changes Set up and leave configuration for a long period of time Four Corners Configuration
  19. 19. OTM 10 For Produced Water Ponds
  20. 20. Summary of AM Emission Flux Results from Sites Summary of VOC Emission Flux Results from Sites 0.07 ± 0.062 g/s Evaporation Pond Site 2 0.90 ± 0.572 g/s Skim Pond Site 1 0.18 ± 0.318 g/s Evaporation Pond Site 1 Average AM Flux [g/s] Source Site 0.010 0.005 0.014 0.015 0.017 0.022 0.062 Evaporation Pond Encana 0.066 0.007 0.087 0.180 0.069 0.187 0.086 Skim Pond Williams 0.013 0.001 0.017 0.036 0.014 0.037 0.017 Evaporation Pond Williams Methane (g/s) Methanol (g/s) p-Xylene (g/s) o-Xylene (g/s) m-Xylene (g/s) Toluene (g/s) Benzene (g/s) Source Area Site
  21. 21. N W E S Cell Room Prevailing wind OTM 10 Plane Lumex Roof Vents (Monitored) 50m Water Tower Outside Sources
  22. 22.
  23. 23. VRPM Plume Reconstructions Chlor-Alkali Plant
  24. 25. Six Weeks to Six Months <ul><li>Six weeks, 24/7 of 17 compounds, at Iron and Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Next, six months, 24/7, 2 OP-FTIR, 4-corner configuration, at a specific area of a refinery (confidential) </li></ul><ul><li>Longer terms, simplified fenceline monitoring is recommended correlated with at the site with any of the flux measuring methods </li></ul>
  25. 26. Summary <ul><li>Very good science is being done </li></ul><ul><li>All methodologies are important tools </li></ul><ul><li>Long term simplified fenceline monitoring is critical </li></ul><ul><li>Need to be correlated to short term flux measurement </li></ul><ul><li>This correlation is site specific </li></ul><ul><li>Moving toward the stated primary objective – better representation of relevant air toxics and GHG annual emissions calculations for various fugitive and area sources </li></ul>