Makes it a crime if anyone “directly or indirectly gives, offers, or promises anything of value to any public official, former public official, or person selected to be a public official, for or because of any official act performed or to be performed by such public official, former public official, or person selected to be a public official….”
Also makes it a crime if “a public official, former public official, or person selected to be a public official, otherwise than as provided by law for the proper discharge of official duty, directly or indirectly demands, seeks, receives, accepts, or agrees to receive or accept anything of value personally for or because of any official act performed or to be performed….”
“ Bribery” means corruptly to give, offer, or promise to any public servant, or, if a public servant, corruptly to request, solicit, accept, or agree to accept for himself or herself or another, any pecuniary or other benefit with an intent or purpose to influence the performance of any act or omission which the person believes to be, or the public servant represents as being, within the official discretion of a public servant, in violation of a public duty, or in performance of a public duty.
“ Whoever (1) having taken an oath before a competent tribunal, officer, or person, in any case in which a law of the United States authorizes an oath to be administered, that he will testify, declare, depose, or certify truly, or that any written testimony, declaration, deposition, or certificate by him subscribed, is true, willfully and contrary to such oath states or subscribes any material matter which he does not believe to be true; or (2) in any declaration, certificate, verification, or statement under penalty of perjury … willfully subscribes as true any material matter which he does not believe to be true; is guilty of perjury.”
Early American cases followed the common-law principle that a defendant could not be convicted of perjury by contradictory statements unless the prosecution established which one of the statements was false.
Modern statutes make it unnecessary for the prosecution to establish which of two contradictory statements is false.
A defendant who while under oath gives an answer that is “literally accurate, technically responsive, or legally truthful” cannot be convicted of perjury.
Recantation Defense – in the same and continuous court or grand jury proceeding in which a declaration is made, the person making the declaration admits such declaration to be false “if the declaration has not substantially affected the proceeding, or it has not become manifest that such falsity has been or will be exposed.” 19 USCA § 1623(d).
Crime to commit an act obstructing or intending to obstruct police justice. Any act that prevented, obstructed, impeded or hindered the administration of justice was considered a common law misdemeanor
Obstructing a police officer, tampering with jurors or witnesses, preparing false evidence, and secreting or destroying evidence
Federal statues are generally broad to encompass all three forms
State statutes consider escape as the following: “if he escapes from custody when he is: 1) under arrest for, charged with, or convicted of an offense; or 2) in custody pursuant to a lawful court order – then guilty of escape”