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  • 1. Organizational Development and Leadership Effectiveness A Summary 6/28/2014 Ramil L. Gallardo
  • 2. 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I: Organizational Thoughts and Theories.............................................................. 2 Chapter II: The Organization’s Culture and Values ........................................................... 7 Chapter III: Organization’s Vision, Values and Mission.................................................... 8 Chapter IV: Articulating the Vision, Mission and Values............................................... 10 Chapter V: The Power of Vision, Purpose and Mission Statements ................................ 12 Chapter VI: Organizational Environment......................................................................... 14 Chapter VII: Organizational Development and Training ................................................. 17 Chapter VIII: Managing Change ...................................................................................... 20 Chapter IX: Leadership Behavior and Supervisory Effectiveness ................................... 22 Chapter X: Substantive Theories of Leadership .............................................................. 26 Chapter 11: Supervision as Moral Action......................................................................... 28 Chapter XII: The Supervisors’ Educational Platform....................................................... 30 Chapter XIII: Models of Supervisory Advocacy.............................................................. 32 Chapter XIV- Demands for Effective Leadership ............................................................ 35 Bibliography ..................................................................................................................... 37
  • 3. 2 CHAPTER I: ORGANIZATIONAL THOUGHTS AND THEORIES Woodrow Wilson, a leader of the Progressive Movement, wrote a now-famous essay entitle The Study of Administration in 1887. He argued for the study of administration as a subject fit for serious treatment by universities. Frederick W. Taylor who was the father of Scientific Management was influenced by Wilson’s essay. He worked to solve practical production problems in factories all over America and his study led to the development of his “Four Principles of Scientific Management”. They are: 1. Eliminate the guesswork of rule-of-thumb approaches to deciding how each worker is to do a job by adopting scientific measurements to break the job down into a series of small, related tasks; 2. Use more scientific, systematic methods for selecting workers and training them for specific jobs; 3. Establish a clear division of responsibility between management and workers, with management doing the goal setting, planning, and supervising and workers executing the required tasks and; 4. Establish the discipline whereby management sets the objectives and the workers cooperate in achieving them. Frank B. Gilbreth, one of Taylor’s close colleagues, studied time and motion in performing routine tasks. This led to a best-selling book and motion picture Cheaper by the Dozen which recounts how efficiency invaded every corner of the family life.
  • 4. 3 Taylor’s Scientific Management led to time-and-motion studies, rigid disciplines on the job, concentration on the tasks to be performed with minimal interpersonal contacts between workers, and strict application of incentive pay systems. Henri Fayol, a French industrialist, published General Industrial Management in 1916. This marked the beginning of modern organizational theory. Unlike Taylor, who tended to view workers as extensions of factory machinery, Fayol focused his attention on the manager rather than on the worker. He clearly separated the processes of administration from other operations in the organization, such as production. He emphasized the common elements of the process of administration in different organizations. He defined administration in terms of five functions: planning, organizing, commanding (leading), coordinating, and controlling (evaluating). He also identified 14 principles among which were:  Unity of command- this means that each employee has one and only one boss.  Authority- this means that the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience.  Initiative- this means that thinking out a plan and does what it takes to make it happen.  Esprit de corps or morale- it implies harmony, cohesion among personnel. At the period when people and organizations were dominated by the whim of authoritarian and industrialists and entrenched political systems, Max Weber saw hope in bureaucracy. According to Weber, the ideal bureaucracy is characterized with a division of labor based on functional specialization, a well-defined hierarchy of authority, a system of rules covering the rights and duties of employees, a system of procedures for
  • 5. 4 dealing with work situations, an impersonality of interpersonal relations, and selection and promotion based only on technical competence. In Education and the Cult of Efficiency, Raymond E. Callalan described how superintendents rushed to apply scientific management principles. Ellwood Cubberley, a leading scholar in education, said that schools were “factories in which the raw materials are to be shaped and fashioned into products to meet the various demands of life.” Classical organizational theorists have sought to identify and describe some set of fixed principles that would establish the foundation for management. Scalar principle also referred to as “line and staff” suggests that authority and responsibility should flow in a direct and unbroken path from the top policy level down through the organization to the lowest member. Unity of command means that no one in an organization should receive orders from more than one superior. Exception principle holds that when the need for a decision recurs frequently, the decision should be established as a routine that can be delegated to subordinates. Lastly, span of control emphasizes to limit the number of people reporting to a supervisor. Influenced by the Stock Market crash of 1939 and the resultant of Great Depression, Mary Parker Follett modified classical management theory. Her four principles of administration are coordination by direct contact of the responsible people concerned, coordination in the early stages, coordination as the reciprocal relating of all the factors in the situation (“law of the situation”), and coordination as a continuing process. Her ideas provided a bridge from classical management theory to Human Relations Movement and also pioneered the concept presently known as contingency theory.
  • 6. 5 The Western Electric studies in the late 1920s led to new concepts and laid the foundation for Human Resource Movement. Among these concepts are morale, group dynamics, democratic supervision, personnel relations, and behavioral concepts of motivation. Jacob Moreno developed and refined the techniques of sociometrics analysis. Using data gathered from organizational members, sociograms showed the informal social structures of human groups. Robert Bales developed techniques for analyzing patterns of interaction. He came up with two dimensions of group behavior:  Task orientation or initiating structure refers to someone to focus the group on accomplishing its task; and  Relationship orientation or concern for people refers to someone who focuses on maintaining productive human relations in the group. Organizational behavior is a discipline that seeks to describe, and predict human behavior in the environment of formal organizations. It is closely linked with environment administration because its central focus is that of effective performance of formal management. Educational administrator was barely affected by the evolution of administration as a field of study until the middle of this century, primarily because the teachings of educational administrators were sequestered from the current mainstream of scholarly thought and research.
  • 7. 6 In mid-1950s, focus was devoted to efforts to better understand the relationships among the characteristics of the organizational structure, the personality of individuals in the organization, and their behavior on the job. From 1955 to 1970 began the great outpouring of theories and research in educational administration which explored the fundamental concepts of social system as applied to public school systems and school. By 1980s many students of education began to eschew traditional formal theorizing and the limitations of traditional quasi-experimental research methods. Their studies using qualitative or ethnographic methods became the intellectual backbone of the educational reform movement. James D. Thompson described many new insights into nature of organizations that laid the basis for a new impetus in organizational theorizing in the 1970s. He described the organization as having a “technical core” in which the actual work activities such as teaching are performed, plus “boundary spanning units”. Educational organizations are considered as loosely coupled systems it means that although subsystems of the organization and the activities that they carry out are related to one another; each preserves its own identity and individuality. Academic theorizing is hardly the only force that develops our understanding of educational organizations and behavior in them. Among these are the effective schools research and the school reform movement.
  • 8. 7 CHAPTER II: THE ORGANIZATION’S CULTURE AND VALUES Culture is the ‘personality’ of the organization and can be defined as the core beliefs, traditions, shared feelings and values. It is a key to achieving organizational excellence in that it not only shapes managers’ and employees’ behavior, but also determines the manner in which people interpret and respond to any given organizational situation. An organization’s culture is an amalgam of: 1. Shared values are standards by which members of an organization collectively see as important and they tend to guide behavior, relationships and interactions; 2. Common mindset consists of a set of shared assumptions or beliefs; 3. Characteristics behaviors covers management style, dress and relationships; and 4. Symbols are the signs that signify the organization’s culture. Whereas values are important building blocks of culture and are deep-seated and enduring. They motivate behavior and emotional responses. They underpin the very way people approach their work, make choices and decisions, and deal with each other. According to Anthony D’Souza, values have two critical parts. These are intended or declared values that exist in the corporation’s policies and mission statement and operative or lived values that are lasting and are lived from day-to-day by the members. The leadership of an organization is responsible for the creation and management of its culture and should aim to achieve alignment between managers’ and employees’ individual values and the organizational values.
  • 9. 8 CHAPTER III: ORGANIZATION’S VISION, VALUES AND MISSION The vision, mission, and values of the organization form the core of their identity and keep people, teams and organizations responsive to the opportunities and challenges in new situations. Visioning is the process of clarifying one’s values and is accomplished over a period of time. It provides creative solutions to business challenges and eventually leads to the organization’s continuous evolution and learning. There are five elements of visioning process and they are: 1. Values are the principles, the standards, and the actions that people in an organization represents. 2. Scanning entails scrutinizing and analyzing information in and out of the organization by knowing the present situation that involves looking beyond the organization to its customers, suppliers and the industry. 3. Mission is the core purpose for which a person, team, or organization is created and is summarized in a cler, short, inspiring statement that focuses attention in one direction. 4. Visioning pictures excellence of what the person, team or organization wants to create in its possible future and is an evocative description of what is possible. 5. Implementation refers to the strategy, plans, procedures, and key actions to implement the vision, mission and values.
  • 10. 9 The processes of clarifying values, revitalizing the mission and creating vision are keys to this strategic planning process. Visioning does not substitute for strategic and tactical plans; it is a process that comes before plans. These are the steps in organizational visioning: 1. Clarifying and identifying values- values are the essence of a company’s philosophy for attaining success. It also provides employees with a sense of common direction and guidelines for day-to-day behavior. 2. Linking personal and organizational values- According to Terrence E. Deal and Allan A. Kennedy, “If employees know what their company stands for it, if they know what standards they are to uphold, then they are much more likely to make decisions that will support those standards. They are also likely to feel as if they are an important part of the organization. They are motivated because life in the company has meaning for them.” It also underscores the shared values between the individual and the company is a major source of both personal and organizational effectiveness. 3. Define the mission- defining your personal mission acts as an emotional touchstone that unleashes powerful feelings. A personal mission is not a restraint, but a fuel, propelling you toward your vision.
  • 11. 10 CHAPTER IV: ARTICULATING THE VISION, MISSION AND VALUES Strategic visionary leadership suggests that the leader is able to develop a long-range vision of what his organization should become while simultaneously building trail of medium and short-range milestones along the way. Vision and mission must be communicated in such a way that they become an integral part of everyday life in the organization. Thus, communication is a key element. Clear direction and effective communication are vital for alignment of the workforce. Leaders of an organization must be absolutely clear about the direction in which they are going and are confident that channels of communication are open, allowing a free flow of information both ways before they can attempt to align their people. This best achieved by well-organized management of process by: 1. Clarifying the vision, mission and values. 2. Open communications and feedback. 3. Straight-forward and effective coordination. 4. Endless patience. Leaders are tasked to reinforce the vision and mission by regularly emphasizing them at every opportunity, by involving people in the visioning process and in decision- making, by welcoming ideas and recommendations, by refuting false rumors and correcting inaccuracies. According to D’Souza, there are three major pillars in building organizational commitment. They are:
  • 12. 11 1. A sense of belongingness to the organization builds the essential spirit of loyalty necessary to overcome barriers between “them and us”. It happens when leaders and managers inform, involve, and share success. 2. A sense of enthusiasm and excitement stresses on motivating people to perform. It hinges on work that is meaningful and offers opportunities for growth, clear responsibility and accountability for result, and appreciation and recognition for a job well done. 3. Confidence in leadership provides the right climate for commitment to flourish. It is built when leaders display competence and exercise their attention wisely; are forward-looking and inspiring; and exhibit honesty and integrity. When vision, mission and values are put into action, the expected outcomes are alignment, commitment and empowerment.
  • 13. 12 CHAPTER V: THE POWER OF VISION, PURPOSE AND MISSION STATEMENTS A strong vision and a clear mission statement go together like ’bread and butter’. They are the inspiring words chosen by successful leaders to clearly and concisely convey the direction of the organization. By crafting a clear mission statement and vision statement, you can powerfully communicate you purposes and motivate your team or organization to realize an attractive and inspiring common vision of the future. A mission statement defines the organization's purpose and key objectives. Its prime function is internal – to define the key measure or measures of the organization's success – and its prime audience is the leadership team and stockholders. An effective mission statement will clearly portray the institution’s reason for existence. The mission statement must be reflective of the organization’s values and provides a sense of the means by which it will accomplish its vision. It will include all of the key elements essential to discern the institution’s direction and should provide a basis for personnel decisions. Vision statements also explain the organizations purpose and communicate both the purpose and values of the organization. A vision must be simple, comprehensible and motivating. According to Robert K. Greenleaf, there are two criteria for a powerful vision statement, and they are the following: 1. The target or goal should be within sight, but just out of reach. 2. It should be brief and summarized, if possible, in one line or sentence.
  • 14. 13 A vision empowers people makes them believe they can do it. A true vision is always perceived as attainable. The key purpose of empowering an effective leadership is to constantly communicate the meaning and purpose of what their organization is doing. Many organizations experience issues and conflicts because their purpose is vague and the leaders do not have time to articulate their vision, mission and goals.
  • 15. 14 CHAPTER VI: ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT Organizational environment is the set of forces surrounding an organization that have the potential to affect the way it functions and its access to scarce resources. The organization needs to properly understand the environment for effective management. These forces can change over time and are made up of opportunities and treats. Opportunities are openings for managers to enhance revenue and open markets such as new technologies and new marketing ideas, whereas treats are issues that can harm an organization such as economic recessions. Managers must seek opportunities An organizational structure defines the scope of acceptable behavior within an organization, its lines of authority and accountability, and to some extent the organization's relationship with its external environment. More specifically, it shows the pattern or arrangement of jobs and groups of jobs within an organization and yet it is more than an organizational chart. It is significantly essential because it partly determines the power of people in the organization and their perceptions of their respective roles. Ideally, organizational structures should be shaped and implemented for the primary purpose of facilitating the achievement of organizational goals efficiently. Certainly, having a suitable organizational structure in place—one that recognizes and addresses the various human and business realities of the company in question—is an essential for long-term success. Nevertheless, all too often organizational structures do not contribute positively to a company's performance. This is usually because the structure was allowed to grow somewhat organically and was not redesigned as the company grew so as to
  • 16. 15 more efficiently guide the behavior of individuals and groups so that they would be maximally productive, efficient, flexible, and motivated. Matrix organization is a system designed to meet changing organizational needs. It is used for large, specialized projects that require large number of technical workers with different skills. People and organizations live in some degree of mutual interest and harmony because individuals use organizations as instruments to achieve their goals just as organizations use people to realize their objectives. Thus, there is mutual relationship between individuals and organization, each benefit from the others. Individuals in an organization are bestowed with certain rights which should be respected by management. However, there are business activities that may involve employee’s right of privacy such as lie detector, personality tests, medical examinations, surveillance devises, etc. Information gathered from employees should be kept confident and only necessary, useful information should be recorded and retained. Within the folds of the formal organization there exists a more complex system of social relationship collectively referred to as the informal organization. It is defined by the patterns, behaviors, and interactions that stem from personal rather than official relationships. In the informal organization, the emphasis is on people and their relationships. It does not follow chain of command and generally comes from peers rather than from superiors in the formal hierarchy. Firmly embedded within every informal organization are informal groups and the notorious grapevine. In informal groups, employees may form a union, discuss work challenges, or have lunch together every day. Sometimes, they join these informal groups simply because of
  • 17. 16 its goals, or they simply want to be with others who are similar to them. Still others may join these groups because they want to be accepted by their co-employees. The grapevine is the informal communications network within an organization. It is completely separate from — and sometimes much faster than — the organization's formal channels of communication. Formal communication usually follows a path that parallels the organizational chain of command. By contrast, information can be transmitted through the grapevine in any direction — up, down, diagonally, or horizontally across the organizational structure The grapevine provides managers feedback about employees and their jobs and it has ability to penetrate even the tightest company security system because of its capacity to cross organizational line and deal directly with people in possession. Although managers may think that the informal organization is nothing more than gossips that are spread among the employees, but it is actually a very significant instrument in sustaining company‐wide information flow.
  • 18. 17 CHAPTER VII: ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING Organizational Development deals with improving an organization’s performance and individual development of its employees. Each organization should be viewed as a coherent system composed of distinct parts. OD is defined as the process of increasing organizational effectiveness and facilitating personal and organizational change through the use of interventions driven by social and behavioral science knowledge. As process, it includes methodologies and achievements in strategic planning, organizational design, leadership development, team building, culture change, coaching and mentoring, performance management, and diversity and balance between work and life. There are seven characteristics of OD: 1. Systems orientation- it is concerned with interactions of various parts of the organizations as they affect each other and must work together to be effective. 2. Change agents- they are people with the role of stimulating, facilitating and coordinating change within a group. 3. Problem solving- Problems are identified, data is gathered, corrective action is taken, progress is assessed, and adjustments in the problem solving process are made as needed. This focus on improving problem- solving skills by discussing data-based system problems is called action research.
  • 19. 18 4. Feedback- these are taken from participants so that OD has useful information on which to base decisions. With the new feedback, the groups meet to develop specific plans of action for solving their misunderstandings. 5. Contingency orientation- although an occasional OD change agent may try to impose a single best way on the group, usually there is open discussion of several better alternatives rather than a single best way. 6. Experiential Learning- the learner’s experience in the training environment should be the kind of human problems they encounter at work and should not be all theory and lecture. 7. Humanistic values- OD programs typically are based on humanistic values which are positive beliefs about potential of employees. 8. Team building- the general goal of OD is to build better teamwork throughout the organization both small and large group teams are emphasized. There are appropriate tools for providing an understanding of behavior or developing analytical skills. Many employees need this type of training. 1. Laboratory training- provides situations in which the trainees themselves experience through their own interactions some of the conditions they are talking about. This kind of training tends to have a greater impact on them than conventional training methods and encourages transfer of new skills to the job. The following laboratory methods are:
  • 20. 19 a. Role playing- it is spontaneous acting of a realistic situation involving two or more people under classroom conditions. b. Behavior modelling- it is teaching by actual demonstration with acted-out ways to handle commonly encountered behavioral problems. c. Gaming- it resembles role-playing but differs from the sense that it focuses more on administrative problems and it provides better balance of organizational and emotional issues on the job. d. Encounter groups- they involve unstructured small-group interaction under stress in a situation that requires people become sensitive to one another’s feeling in order to develop reasonable group activity. OD is the practice of helping organizations to solve problems and to achieve their goals. A key importance in OD is supporting the organization and its employees not just meeting their goals but with learning new problem-solving skills that they can use in the future. Although OD has limitations, it is an excellent practice for introducing change and self-renewal in organizations. It focuses on the entire system, the use of change agent to facilitate with action research and feedback, the advocacy of humanistic values, and the application of experiential approaches with contingency framework.
  • 21. 20 CHAPTER VIII: MANAGING CHANGE Organizations are complex systems. As their environment changes, organizations must adapt to survive to stay competitive or risk becoming obsolete. Change management is the application of a planned process and set of tools for leading the people side of change to achieve a desired result. It provides a competitive advantage, allowing organizations to quickly and effectively implement change to meet market needs. There are key phases in introducing and implementing a change in the group. These are: Phase 1- Aligning- it means identifying the purpose for the change and a vision of what it will be like when it is completed successfully. Phase 2- Planning- it requires getting people together to understand the environment in which the change is taking place and to map out strategy and implementation. Phase 3- Designing- it involves defining the new structures, roles, decision-making, and leaderships. Phase 4- Implementing- it implies going live with the change- learning and adjusting. Organizations that reject to embrace change may disappear. Change is challenging because it encompasses modifying people’s behavior. Resistance may come from employees who are generally cynical of change initiatives. It occurs when people have moved through the numbness of denial and they begin to experience self-doubt, anger, anxiety, frustration, or uncertainty because of the change. Successful
  • 22. 21 organizational change requires top management leadership and a clear explanation of how the contemplated changes can help employees do their jobs more efficiently. Managing change effectively entails moving the organization from its present state to a future desired state at minimal cost to the organization. Essential steps in this process are: 1. Understanding the present state of the organization. This means identifying problems the company faces, assigning a level of importance to each one, and assessing the kinds of changes needed to solve the problems. 2. Competently envisioning and laying out the desired future state of the organization. This involves visualizing the ideal situation for the company after the change is implemented, communicating this vision clearly to everyone involved in the change effort, and designing a means of transition to the new state. 3. Implementing the change in an orderly manner. This includes managing the transition effectively. It might be helpful to draw up a plan, allocate resources, and assign a key person to take charge of the change process. The company's leaders should try to create enthusiasm for the change by sharing their goals and vision and acting as role models. “There is nothing permanent except change.” Equipped with fuller understanding of how change affects people and how to manage the team through the transition, the leaders should be ready to lead the team effectively in implementing workplace and organizational changes.
  • 23. 22 CHAPTER IX: LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR AND SUPERVISORY EFFECTIVENESS Leadership is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. Leaders do not have to be someone who holds a formal position or title. They can emerge from a group and provide vision and motivation to those around them. Douglas McGregor developed a philosophical view of humankind with his Theory X and Theory Y. These are the two opposing perceptions about how people view human behavior at work and organizational life. With Theory X assumptions, management’s role is to coerce and control employees, whereas with Theory Y assumptions, management’s role is to develop the potential in employees and help them to release that potential towards common goals. When supervisors face a problem, their approach behavior or style is largely affected by each of the following internalized forces: 1. Value systems- the behavior of the supervisor will also be influenced by the relative importance that he or she attaches to organizational efficiency, personal growth of subordinates, and company profit. 2. Confident in subordinates- Managers differ greatly in the amount of trust they have in other people generally, and this carries over the particular employees they supervise at a given time. In viewing their particular group of subordinates, managers are likely to consider their knowledge and competence with respect to the problem. 3. Leadership inclinations- There are some managers who seem to function more comfortably and naturally as highly directive leaders. Other seems to be more
  • 24. 23 inclined in a team role, where they are continually sharing many of their functions with their subordinates. 4. A feeling of security in an uncertain situation- The manager who releases control over the decision-making process thereby reduces the predictability of the outcome. Some managers have a greater need then others for predictability and stability in their environment. The organizational style of the school, its normative culture, role expectations, belief pattern, and its authority and power systems, serve as boundaries that often delineate choice of supervisory action. In 1964, Robert R. Blake and Jane Mouton developed a situational leadership model called the Managerial Grid. It is a graphical plot of a leader’s assessment of the importance of a task versus the importance of employees, which can be used to determine leadership style. William James Reddin acknowledged that it was a manager’s effectiveness as key to an organization’s success. He held that managerial styles are best understood in relation to specific situations, to the effectiveness it had on advancing the goals and success of an organization. Thus, he developed 3-D Theory of Leadership. A key to this theory is the notion that the same style expressed in different situations may be effective or ineffective. His theory includes three dimensions, and they are: • Task Orientation – It is the degree to which a manager leads his or her staff’s efforts towards goal attainment characterized by planning, organizing and controlling.
  • 25. 24 • Relationships Orientation – it is the degree to which a manager has personal job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for staff’s ideas and consideration for their feelings. • Effectiveness – it is the extent to which a manager achieves the output. His research led him to the view that degrees of relationships orientation and degrees of task orientation were independent of effectiveness – that either could be correlated with success and dependent upon the situation. Fiedler’s Contingency Theory shows the relationship between the leader’s orientation and style and group performance under different circumstances. This theory is based on determining the orientation of the leader, either relationship or task, the elements of the situation (leader-member relations, task structure, and leader position power), and the leader orientation that was found to be most effective as the situation changed from low to moderate to high control. Fiedler found that task oriented leaders were more effective in low and moderate control situations while relationship oriented managers were more effective in moderate control situations. Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory draws major views from contingency thinking. It implies that leadership depends upon each individual situation, and no single leadership style can be considered the best. They explained tasks are different and each type of task requires a different leadership style. A good leader will be able to adapt her or his leadership to the goals or objectives to be accomplished. Goal setting, capacity to assume responsibility, education, and experience are key elements that make a leader successful. Not only is the leadership style important for a successful leader-led situation but the ability or maturity of those being led is a critical factor, as
  • 26. 25 well. Leadership techniques fall out of the leader pairing her or his leadership style to the maturity level of the group. Leadership refers to the supervisor’s ability to influence an individual or group toward the achievement of goals. This ability to influence can be improved by learning about and increasing one’s own leadership style skills. Job demands differ as objectives and tasks change or as attention changes from one set of problems or objectives to another. With these, leaders think about style issues and the precautions in using contingency theories as a framework for understanding leadership.
  • 27. 26 CHAPTER X: SUBSTANTIVE THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP Substantive theories of leadership attempt to get at the substance rather than the form or style of leadership. They tend to highlight meaning, purpose, values, and vision. It also offers a framework for reflective practice for the conscientious supervisor. Deal and Kennedy suggested that the biggest single influence on company’s culture was the business environment in which it operated. They called this “corporate culture” which they asserted embodied what was requirement to succeed in that environment. Deal and Kennedy's model of culture is based on characterizing different four types of organization, based on how quickly they receive feedback and reward after they have done something and the level of risks that they take. The two key dimensions are:  Feedback and reward- a major driver of people in companies and hence their culture is the general feedback and specific rewards that tell them they are doing a good or bad job.  Risk- uncertainty and risk are something that some people hate and some people thrive on. In either case, it is another motivating force that leads people to focus on managing it. Within the schools culture, leadership is exercise, not in ways described by scientific management, but by guarding the values of the culture, by articulating those essential meanings of the culture, and by promoting those rituals and celebrations which keep the values and principles for which the school stands. Different managers employ distinctly different management styles, ranging from relatively hands-off, facilitative styles to autocratic, micromanaging styles. Managers can
  • 28. 27 also employ different motivational strategies and techniques to boost employee performance or accomplish internal change. Transformational and transactional leadership are polar opposites when it comes to the underlying theories of management and motivation. Understanding the difference between transformational and transactional leadership is crucial for anyone pursuing a career in management. Transactional leadership styles are more concerned with maintaining the normal flow of operations. Transactional leadership can be described as "keeping the ship afloat." Transactional leaders use disciplinary power and an array of incentives to motivate employees to perform at their best. The term "transactional" refers to the fact that this type of leader essentially motivates subordinates by exchanging rewards for performance. Transactional leaders deal with people seeking their own individual interests. On the other hand, transformational leadership styles focus on team-building, motivation and collaboration with employees at different levels of an organization to accomplish change for the better. A transformational leader goes beyond managing day- to-day operations and crafts strategies for taking his company, department or work team to the next level of performance and success. Transformational leaders set goals and incentives to push their subordinates to higher performance levels, while providing opportunities for personal and professional growth for each employee.
  • 29. 28 CHAPTER 11: SUPERVISION AS MORAL ACTION The two words- behavior and action- seem to have the same meaning but they are used differently. Behavior is a term used to denote human action seen on the surface. It assumes that it is an activity brought about by some stimulus. It does not imply free choice, value seeking, or altruism. It considers merely what is observable, measurable, and quantifiable; what fits into an observable pattern of relationships between what preceded and what followed. It is what organism does in response to some stimulus or other. Supervisory behavior usually refers to actions by supervisors that have been associated with positive or negative reactions on the part of teachers or administrators or political authorities, etc. Supervision as moral action can be understood as an effort on the part of supervisors to participate in a community of other moral agents, each of which is struggling to do “the right thing,” according to some sense of values. Moral action implies some level of initiation, personal choosing, or person willing to engage others for a purpose beyond “need fulfillment.” Supervisors within the educational community helps to foster that sense of a moral environment which inspires those in the community to go beyond considerations of efficiency to include other values such as self-fulfillment, community, integrity, and compassion. This involves selecting and taking action, seeking for values, and intentionally promoting of a principle. If supervision is to be a moral action, it must respect the moral integrity of the supervisor and the supervised. It means the relationship between the supervisor and the
  • 30. 29 subordinates must be trusting, open, and flexible so as to allow both persons to speak from their own sense of integrity and to encourage the respect for other’s integrity. In other words, the exchange must begin with the honest discussion of what will be helpful for the teacher and the students. Besides, supervision assumes will promote the kind of teaching that benefits children and youth in the classrooms. Teaching itself is a moral action. Supervisors ought to enhance teaching as moral action. Learning is also moral activity. Supervisors ought to somehow improve that.
  • 31. 30 CHAPTER XII: THE SUPERVISORS’ EDUCATIONAL PLATFORM Platform is make-up of beliefs, opinions, values and attitudes that are underpinnings of one’s behavior as an educator. Educators carry on their work, male decisions and plan instruction based on their educational platform. There are three educational platforms: 1. Human Growth Platform- focuses of the platform on the individual student and his or her growth in the schooling process. 2. Basic Competency Platform- exhibits an emphasis on predetermined learnings. 3. Democratic Socialization Platform- highlights the socialization function of the school. Ten essential elements of the platform were outlined so that supervisor can begin to draw up their educational plans. 1. The aims of education 2. Major achievement of the students this year 3. The social significance of the student’s learning 4. The image of the learner 5. The value of the curriculum 6. The image of the teacher 7. The preferred kind of pedagogy 8. The primary language of discourse in learning situations 9. The preferred kind of teacher-student relationship
  • 32. 31 10. The preferred kind of school climate A supervisor's central focus should be to work with teachers to improve student learning. Supervisors should also work toward more autonomous supervision of teachers but still maintain interactions with teachers on their progress. By working with teachers to improve student learning, the school will ultimately improve. Teachers and supervisors should have a positive working relationship. Supervisors should possess skills to motivate, communicate, mediate, and should help teachers learn how to experiment with different strategies and teaching skills. These skills coupled with values of success, excellence, and a will to help everyone, will begin to create the atmosphere for school improvement. The vital purpose of supervision should be to improve students learning by giving teachers valuable skills.
  • 33. 32 CHAPTER XIII: MODELS OF SUPERVISORY ADVOCACY Some of the essential elements in this model of supervisory advocacy would have been explained, if a supervisor has worked on his or her educational platform. Wikipedia defined advocacy as “a political process by an individual or group which aims to influence public-policy and resource allocation decisions within political, economic, and social systems and institutions.” A supervisor who reflects on how the students learn provides a framework for thinking about the questions. Besides, a supervisor should look at teaching strategies in response to the questions of what kinds of instructional protocols seems to work well with his or her students and thinks about the repertory of supervisory strategies he or she finds effective. The model has several elements, all of which affect each other. These appear to be necessary to any process of supervisory advocacy. They are: 1. An advocacy position- a supervisor needs to have some over-all purpose behind his or her supervisory behavior. 2. A theory of learning- a supervisor would need to have some sense of a theory of learning which would guide the teacher’s instructional behaviors. 3. A model of teaching- a supervisor would need sense of the model of teaching which stands behind the teacher’s actual instructional behavior. 4. Prior staff development- a supervisor will in some cases have proposed some in-service workshops on specific instructional strategies targeted to the type of learning being advocated.
  • 34. 33 5. Supervisory strategy- a supervisor ought to have a sense of his or her strategy in the supervisory episodes; and these strategies should be agreed upon ahead of time between the supervisor and teacher. 6. Ongoing staff development- a supervisor should be able to point out the teacher toward seeking specific improvements through an ongoing program, either at school or sponsored by the local school district, university, or teacher center. Four variations of the paradigm were developed and indicate that besides advocating affective learning, supervisors also advocate basic approaches to achieving such learning. 1. The Teacher-Responsive Approach- The supervisor is initially taking most of the cues from the teacher. The core objective is to assist the teacher in his or her evaluation. The supervisor is a human resource developer who encourages the teacher to set the agenda and to suggest ways the teacher might like to use the supervisor as a resource. 2. The Student-Responsive Approach- The primary focus is on the youngster in class and on their stages or process of growth. The teacher does not control the learning of students. The real learning is what students do with the material the teacher presents, how they relate it to past experiences, to the ways they have come to make sense out of their world, to their own growth and survival agenda and to their own affective needs and priorities. 3. The Outcomes-Responsive Approach- This approach assumes that affective learning outcomes can be spelled out ahead of time, that they can be nurtured
  • 35. 34 in a content-specific, sequenced curriculum by direct teaching and that their achievement can be evaluated. 4. The Bureaucracy-Responsive Approach- This approach is not based on much on professional consideration as it is on management control and compliance. The school district prescribed that teachers be attentive to districtwide goals of affective learning. When it comes to promoting specific student learning, supervisors can relate the four approaches to the realities of the schools and classroom they deal with and thus come to a decision about an approach that best fit their circumstances.
  • 36. 35 CHAPTER XIV- DEMANDS FOR EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP Management is associated with words such as efficiency, planning, procedures, control, and consistency. Leadership is associated with words such as vision, creativity, dynamisms, change, and risk-taking. Leadership and management must go hand in hand. They are not the same thing. But they are necessarily linked, and complementary. Any effort to separate the two is likely to cause more problems than it solves. The manager's job is to plan, organize and coordinate, while the leader's job is to inspire and motivate. Both leadership and management skills are needed to build a successful organization. It is also important to realize that the way situations are viewed depends on whether it’s from the leadership or the management perspective. The best advice is to look at situations from both perspectives so that all aspects are understood. People achieve what they want because have clear and specific goals; develop plans and schedule for achieving goals; assume personal responsibility for implementing and following these plans and schedules; and preserve in the face of setbacks. Proactive leadership tends to step up and do something to solve problem before it becomes an issue and it is to take steps to avoid the problem in the first place. It also means taking charge in a conscious, deliberate, active manner; looking ahead and anticipating the desired future; planning for what will be accomplished; and strategizing to prevent potential problems so as to spend less time on fire-fighting and more time on fire prevention. Whereas, reactive leadership tends to make decisions reactively when confronted with emergency situations or when disaster unfolds. It also means living in an after-the-
  • 37. 36 fact mode; spending most of the time reacting to events after they have occurred; waiting passively for things to happen and resolving problems to arise; and fire-fighting that keeps leaders so occupied that sometimes they don’t have time to think about what caused the fires.
  • 38. 37 BIBLIOGRAPHY Salvador, S. M., Gomez, M. A., & Geronimo, E. F. (2008). Organizational Development and Leadership Effectiveness: Human Perspective. Philippines: Allen Adrian Books, Inc.