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The Mongols

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The Mongols The Mongols Presentation Transcript

  • THE MONGOLS
  • Background
    • Around 1200, the Mongols moved out of central Asia to build one of the largest empires in the world
    • Under leaders such as Genghis Khan and Kublai Khan, Mongol warriors conquered an area from China to Europe
  • Mongol Empire View slide
  • Rise of the Mongols
    • The Mongols were a group from central Asia and were nomadic herders who roamed the grasslands with their horses and sheep
    • The Mongols were skillful riders and fierce fighters
    • Under Genghis Khan, the Mongols built the largest empire in the world
    View slide
  • Sketch of Mongol Warriors
  • Genghis Khan
    • When translated, Genghis Khan means “World Emperor”
    • Under his leadership, the Mongols took control of most of Asia, Persia, India, and northern China. He also controlled much of Russia and eastern Europe
    • Reasons for success: Skillful riders, archers, and new technology such as the cannon borrowed from the Chinese
    • They were known as the “golden Horde” because of the color of their tents
  • Genghis Khan
  • Mongol Dynasty in China
    • In 1279 Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, conquered china and also took over parts of Korea, Tibet, and Vietnam
    • Called the Yuan Dynasty in China
    • He prevented the Mongol people however from being absorbed into the Chinese culture, he wanted them to maintain their Mongol heritage
  • Yuan Dynasty
  • Destruction and Conquest
    • Mongol warriors spread terror and destruction throughout the regions they conquered
    • They often looted and burned cities to the ground
    • Mongol rulers did however rule with some tolerance, allowing conquered people to keep their religions
    • Conquered people were often allowed to live as they did before, as long as they paid tribute
  • Mongolia
  • Effects on Russia
    • The Mongols ruled Russia for about 250 years
    • Absolutist Government – The absolute power of the Mongol rulers served as a model for later Russian rulers who also expected to rule without interference from anyone
    • Isolation – Mongol rule cut off Russia from western Europe. This limited their advances in technology, arts, and sciences
  • Prosperity in China
    • The Yuan Dynasty ruled China for 150 years
    • Their capital was Khanbalik (Beijing)
    • The capital was a large and well planned city
    • Since only the Mongols could serve in the military, there was strong Chinese resentment and uprising occurred often
  • Mongol Soldier Ready for Battle
  • Pax Mongolia and Trade
    • Period of political stability for the Mongol Empire
    • The Mongols provided safe travel along the once dangerous Silk Road, as a result, trade flourished linking east and west
    • Marco Polo, an Italian merchant, traveled to the court of Kublai Khan in the 1200’s and remained there for many years. His writing introduced Europeans to the riches of China
  • Marco Polo Meeting Kublai Khan
  • Decline on Mongol Power
    • There are several reasons for the decline of the Mongol Empire:
        • Lands were to large and diverse to govern
        • Little experience with organized government
        • Death of strong leaders such as Genghis and Kublai Khan
        • Resentment of Mongol rule in China and Russia