Modern Latin America


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Modern Latin America

  1. 1. Modern Latin America Independence Movements
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>In the late 1700’s, Enlightenment and Revolutionary ideas spread from Europe and the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Educated Latin Americans read works by Enlightenment philosophers </li></ul><ul><li>The success of the French and American revolutions set an example </li></ul><ul><li>Bu the 1790’s colonies would begin to fight for independence as well as other rights and freedoms </li></ul>
  3. 3. Toussaint L’Ouverture <ul><li>The French colony of Haiti was the first to revolt against colonial rule </li></ul><ul><li>French planters owned large sugar plantations where thousands of enslaved Africans worked under terrible conditions </li></ul><ul><li>In 1791, a self educated former slave familiar with the works of the enlightenment, wanted to lead his people to victory </li></ul><ul><li>Toussaint was an effective military leader and gained control over much of the island </li></ul><ul><li>In 1802, Napoleon sent an army to Haiti and captured Toussaint </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow fever took a heavy toll on the French </li></ul><ul><li>In 1804, Haiti declared independence </li></ul>
  4. 4. Toussaint L’Ouverture
  5. 5. Simon Bolivar <ul><li>Led resistance movements against the Spanish in South America </li></ul><ul><li>Bolivar became an admirer of enlightenment ideas and the French Revolution during a stay in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>He was also inspired by the French Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Bolivar became one of the great nationalist leaders of Latin America </li></ul><ul><li>In 1810, Bolivar began his military campaign against the Spanish in Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia and eventually won independence over the next twelve years </li></ul><ul><li>He then joined forces with Jose de San Martin and defeated the Spanish in Argentina and Chile </li></ul>
  6. 6. Simon Bolivar
  7. 7. Unrest in Latin America <ul><li>Argentina – Juan Peron, a former army colonel, came to power in 1946. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peron gained popularity by boosting wages, strengthening labor unions, and starting welfare programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peron’s government was repressive and his economic policies led to huge debts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He lost power to in 1955 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the 1970’s the government of Argentina began a program of state terrorism in came to be called the “dirty war” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20,000 people simply disappeared </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Democracy was restored to Argentina in 1983 by holding elections </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Unrest in Latin America <ul><li>Nicaragua – from 1936-1979, the Somoza family led a repressive government in Nicaragua </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The family had close ties to the United States because of their anti-communist stance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In 1979, the Sandinistas, a group that included both nationalists and communists overthrew the Somoza government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Sandinistas set up a government under the leadership of Daniel Ortega </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many in the government were socialists and communists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ties grew closer with Cuba, a communist nation led by Fidel Castro following the Cuban Revolution of 1959 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the 1980’s, the Sandinistas faced opposition from the contras, a counter-revolutionary group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The United States supported the Contras and a civil war developed, leading to many deaths and devastating the economy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Unrest in Latin America <ul><li>Mexico – there have been periods of unrest in Mexico for the past fifty years </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Causes: 1. Large gap between rich and poor, rich against reform </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Population explosion and not enough land to grow food </li></ul><ul><li>High rates of unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Slums in urban areas </li></ul>
  10. 10. NAFTA <ul><li>NAFTA – North American Free Trade Agreement </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A plan that allowed for free trade to take place between the United States, Canada, and Mexico </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many hoped the plan would bring prosperity to Mexico’s economy, and some improvements have been made </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Panama <ul><li>Panama – in the late 1980’s the US suspected Panama leader Manuel Noriega of helping criminal gangs smuggle drugs into the States. The United States invaded Panama and arrested Noriega </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Panama Canal – Canal that shortens voyages between the Atlantic and Pacific. In 1977, United States signed a treaty that would turn control over to Panama in the year 2000. Panama now has control over the canal. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Panama Canal
  13. 13. Panama Canal
  14. 14. Economic Issues <ul><li>Agriculture – Many nations rely on cash crops and have not grown enough staple crops like corn and wheat to feed their people </li></ul><ul><li>Population – continues to grow leaving many unemployed and living in poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Debt – lacking capital (money) Latin American nations often have to borrow money, paying back high interest loans </li></ul><ul><li>Deforestation – Many countries have relied on income from their rare and precious trees used as lumber, depleting the rain forests, especially along the Amazon river basin </li></ul>
  15. 15. Amazon Rainforest