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Islamic Civilization
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Islamic Civilization

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    Islamic Civilization Islamic Civilization Presentation Transcript

    • Islamic Civilization
    • Background
      • After the death of Muhammad, Islam spread across parts of three continents
      • Muslim Empires ruled over parts of Europe, Africa, and Asia
      • Islam experienced a golden age during the 700’s and 800’s
      • A golden age is a time of unparalleled peace and prosperity when a civilization reaches its peak
    • The Spread of Islam
      • Islam arose on the Arabian Peninsula in the early 600’s
      • In 632 Muhammad died and Abu Bakr was elected the first caliph or successor to Muhammad
      • The period when Muslims were ruled by caliphs was known as the caliphate, this is when the Islamic world expanded
      • Abu Bakr was successful in uniting the Muslims. Through military conquests they conquered parts of the Byzantine Empire, Persia, Middle East, North Africa, Spain, Sicily, India, and southeast Asia
    • The Spread of Islam
    • Reasons for Muslim Success
      • The Arabs were strong fighters
      • The Byzantine and Persian Empires were weak from fighting wars
      • United belief in Islam
      • Muslim rulers treated conquered people fairly
      • Non-Muslims were allowed to practice their own religions freely, as long as they paid a tax to the Muslim Empire
      • Many conquered people will convert to Islam
    • Islamic Law
      • As Islam spread, Islamic scholars developed a system of laws to help people interpret the Koran and apply it to everyday life
      • The system of law developed is known as Sharia. It regulated moral behavior, family life, business, and government
      • Basically, Sharia applied the Koran to all aspects of life, not just spiritual aspects
    • Divisions within Islam
      • Two different groups of Muslims emerged, Sunnis and Shiites
      • Sunnis believed the caliph should be chosen by Muslim leaders
      • Shiites believed that only the descendents of Muhammad should be his successor
      • This split continues today and often results in violence
    • Islams Golden Age
      • Muslims blended and absorbed customs and traditions from many of the peoples they ruled
      • Preserved the Greco-Roman culture
      • Muhammad stressed the importance of learning
      • Arts and architecture – Muslims architects built mosques and beautiful palaces. Artists were excellent at calligraphy, which decorated artwork and buildings.
      • Literature – adopted the ideas of Greek, Indian, and Chinese writers
      • Math and Science – Muslims studied Indian and Greek mathematics, pioneered the study of algebra and geometry, and calculated the circumference of the earth to within a few thousand feet
      • Muslim doctors had to pass very difficult tests before they could practice medicine
    • Arabic Painting of Socrates
    • Golden Age Examples
    • Economic Achievements
      • Trade – Muslims developed an extensive trade network across their empire
      • Manufacturing – organized manufacturing in the Muslim world produced steel swords, leather goods, and carpets
      • Agriculture – farmers grew sugarcane, cotton, herbs, fruits, and vegetables
    • Muslim Trade Routes