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  1. 1. Religious Turfs Wars Over the Holy Land
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>By 1050, the Muslim Empire invaded the Byzantine Empire and conquered Palestine </li></ul><ul><li>The Christian church called for a movement to drive the Muslims out of Palestine </li></ul><ul><li>For nearly 200 years, the Christians fought a series of religious wars known as the Crusades </li></ul><ul><li>The wars failed to regain Palestine, but established a lasting conflict between Christians and Muslims </li></ul>
  3. 3. Map of the Holy Land
  4. 4. Beginning of the Crusades <ul><li>In the 1050’s, Muslims took over much of the Byzantine Empire, Asia Minor, and Palestine </li></ul><ul><li>In 1095, the Byzantine Emperor asked Pope Urban the II for help </li></ul><ul><li>The Pope agreed and at the council of Clermont, Urban encouraged French and German Bishops to recover Palestine, also known as the Holy Land </li></ul><ul><li>Christians, Muslims, and Jews all refer to Palestine as the Holy Land </li></ul><ul><li>Christians from all over Europe left their homes to answer the Popes call and many would never return </li></ul>
  5. 5. Routes of the Crusaders
  6. 6. Reasons for the Crusades <ul><li>There are both religious and political reasons for the Crusades </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Pope believed the Crusades would increase his power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christians believed all their sins would be forgiven if they participated in the Crusades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nobles hoped to gain wealth and land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adventurers saw this as an opportunity for travel and excitement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serfs hoped to escape feudal oppression </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Christian Crusaders
  8. 8. Initial Christian Victory <ul><li>The Christians were victorious in the first of four major Crusades </li></ul><ul><li>They sacked the city of Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim leaders wanted to regain this territory, which will result in additional crusades </li></ul>
  9. 9. Muslim Christian Battle
  10. 10. Saladin and Muslim Victory <ul><li>In the late 1100’s, Saladin unified the Muslim world </li></ul><ul><li>Saladin began marching towards Jerusalem and the Christians were determined to stop him </li></ul><ul><li>Saladin forced the Christians to surrender in Jerusalem, but forbade his soldiers to kill, harm, or steal from the defeated Crusaders </li></ul><ul><li>Richard the Lion Hearted becomes King of England and was determined to retake Jerusalem from Saladin </li></ul><ul><li>During the third crusade, Richard won several battles and advanced to within a few miles of the city </li></ul><ul><li>He was unable however to retake the city </li></ul>
  11. 11. Saladin and Richard the Lion Hearted
  12. 12. The end of the Crusades <ul><li>Later Crusades also resulted in Muslim victory </li></ul><ul><li>What had started as a religious war between Christians and Muslims had turned into a battle between rival Christian factions </li></ul>
  13. 13. Impact of the Crusades <ul><li>Lasting legacy of hatred between Muslims and Christians </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in world trade – trade increased between Europeans and people from the east. Crusaders returned to Europe with new spices, fabrics, and perfumes. Ships that were used to carry crusaders to the Middle East during the Crusades were now used for trade </li></ul><ul><li>Learning – Europeans heightened their interest in Middle Eastern culture and learning </li></ul><ul><li>The end of feudalism in Europe as nation states start to develop and an economy based on money takes shape </li></ul>