Ancient India Geography, Religion, and Early Civilization
Geography <ul><li>India is considered a subcontinent, a large and distinctive landmass that is a part of a larger continen...
India Subcontinent
Other Geographic Features <ul><li>Three major regions of India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Plain – fertile and well wat...
Physical Map of India
Monsoons <ul><li>Seasonal winds that bring heavy rainfall to certain regions of India </li></ul><ul><li>Too much rain = de...
Cities of the Indus Valley <ul><li>Around 2500 BC, civilization began to flourish in the Indus Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Tw...
Aryan Invasion <ul><li>Around 1500 BC, Aryan invaders conquered the Indus Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Aryan people were nomad...
Caste System <ul><li>Rigid social class system of India </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals could not communicate or associate w...
Caste System Ranks <ul><li>Brahmin – priests, teachers, judges </li></ul><ul><li>Kshatriya – warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Va...
Hinduism <ul><li>Major beliefs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed in a single force in the universe called Brahmin </li></ul>...
Hinduism Cartoon
Buddhism <ul><li>Founded by Siddhartha Gautama, born a Hindu.  He is considered the enlightened one or Buddha </li></ul><u...
Buddha Statue
Mauryan Empire <ul><li>Indian empire created by Chandragupta Maurya </li></ul><ul><li>Established a well organized governm...
Gupta Empire <ul><li>Established on the site of the old Mauryan Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Known as India's golden age </li>...
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Ancient India

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Ancient India

  1. 1. Ancient India Geography, Religion, and Early Civilization
  2. 2. Geography <ul><li>India is considered a subcontinent, a large and distinctive landmass that is a part of a larger continent </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>India is a wedge shaped peninsula </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounded by mountains on its north and northwestern borders </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. India Subcontinent
  4. 4. Other Geographic Features <ul><li>Three major regions of India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Plain – fertile and well water by the Indus and Ganges rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deccan Plateau – dry and sparsely populated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal Plains – flat land along the coast used for farming, fishing, and trade </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Physical Map of India
  6. 6. Monsoons <ul><li>Seasonal winds that bring heavy rainfall to certain regions of India </li></ul><ul><li>Too much rain = deadly floods </li></ul><ul><li>Too little rain = drought and possibly famine </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers are dependent on the rain to water their crops </li></ul><ul><li>Monsoon video </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cities of the Indus Valley <ul><li>Around 2500 BC, civilization began to flourish in the Indus Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Two main cities: Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro </li></ul><ul><li>These were highly organized well planned cities – roads , walled neighborhoods, public wells, sewer systems </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Economy – based on farming and trade </li></ul><ul><li>First people to grow cotton and weave it into cloth </li></ul><ul><li>Trade existed with city-states of Mesopotamia </li></ul>
  8. 8. Aryan Invasion <ul><li>Around 1500 BC, Aryan invaders conquered the Indus Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Aryan people were nomadic and excelled in warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Brought an end to the Indus Valley civilizations </li></ul><ul><li>By blending traditional Aryan beliefs and Indian beliefs, Hinduism is born </li></ul>
  9. 9. Caste System <ul><li>Rigid social class system of India </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals could not communicate or associate with anyone outside of their caste </li></ul><ul><li>Children were born into whatever caste their parents were </li></ul><ul><li>Caste determined your occupation and place in society </li></ul>
  10. 10. Caste System Ranks <ul><li>Brahmin – priests, teachers, judges </li></ul><ul><li>Kshatriya – warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Vaisya – farmers and merchants </li></ul><ul><li>Sudras – workers and laborers </li></ul><ul><li>Untouchables - fisherman, sweepers, “dirty jobs” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Hinduism <ul><li>Major beliefs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed in a single force in the universe called Brahmin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reincarnation – belief that the soul is reborn in a different form after death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dharma – divine law that defined your duties in life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal of Hindus is to move up through the caste system and unite with Brahmin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Karma – an individual can become closer to Brahmin by obeying the law of karma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good Karma – move up in caste </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bad Karma – move down in caste </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moksha – break the cycle of reincarnation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ganges river is sacred to Hindus </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Hinduism Cartoon
  13. 13. Buddhism <ul><li>Founded by Siddhartha Gautama, born a Hindu. He is considered the enlightened one or Buddha </li></ul><ul><li>Four Noble truths – philosophy of Buddhism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All life is suffering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffering is caused by selfish desire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The way to eliminate suffering is to eliminate desire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow the eightfold path – rules and guidelines that Buddhists follow involving the right ways to live ones life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhist also believe in reincarnation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nirvana – ultimate goal of Buddhists, extinction of desire and union with the universe </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Buddha Statue
  15. 15. Mauryan Empire <ul><li>Indian empire created by Chandragupta Maurya </li></ul><ul><li>Established a well organized government and created a bureaucracy – a system of managing government though different departments </li></ul><ul><li>Organized Cities </li></ul><ul><li>Collected taxes, set up roads and harbors </li></ul><ul><li>Asoka the Great – expanded the empires borders to cover virtually all of India and spread Buddhism throughout the empire </li></ul>
  16. 16. Gupta Empire <ul><li>Established on the site of the old Mauryan Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Known as India's golden age </li></ul><ul><li>Organized cities </li></ul><ul><li>Established trade routes with SE Asia, China, and the Mediterranean world </li></ul><ul><li>Gupta rulers lived in luxurious palaces, profiting from the gold and silver mines </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually fell victim to the Huns and the empire fell apart </li></ul>

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