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Ancient India

Ancient India






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    Ancient India Ancient India Presentation Transcript

    • Ancient India Geography, Religion, and Early Civilization
    • Geography
      • India is considered a subcontinent, a large and distinctive landmass that is a part of a larger continent
            • India is a wedge shaped peninsula
            • Surrounded by mountains on its north and northwestern borders
    • India Subcontinent
    • Other Geographic Features
      • Three major regions of India
        • Northern Plain – fertile and well water by the Indus and Ganges rivers
        • Deccan Plateau – dry and sparsely populated
        • Coastal Plains – flat land along the coast used for farming, fishing, and trade
    • Physical Map of India
    • Monsoons
      • Seasonal winds that bring heavy rainfall to certain regions of India
      • Too much rain = deadly floods
      • Too little rain = drought and possibly famine
      • Farmers are dependent on the rain to water their crops
      • Monsoon video
    • Cities of the Indus Valley
      • Around 2500 BC, civilization began to flourish in the Indus Valley
      • Two main cities: Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
      • These were highly organized well planned cities – roads , walled neighborhoods, public wells, sewer systems
      • Traditional Economy – based on farming and trade
      • First people to grow cotton and weave it into cloth
      • Trade existed with city-states of Mesopotamia
    • Aryan Invasion
      • Around 1500 BC, Aryan invaders conquered the Indus Valley
      • Aryan people were nomadic and excelled in warfare
      • Brought an end to the Indus Valley civilizations
      • By blending traditional Aryan beliefs and Indian beliefs, Hinduism is born
    • Caste System
      • Rigid social class system of India
      • Individuals could not communicate or associate with anyone outside of their caste
      • Children were born into whatever caste their parents were
      • Caste determined your occupation and place in society
    • Caste System Ranks
      • Brahmin – priests, teachers, judges
      • Kshatriya – warriors
      • Vaisya – farmers and merchants
      • Sudras – workers and laborers
      • Untouchables - fisherman, sweepers, “dirty jobs”
    • Hinduism
      • Major beliefs:
        • Believed in a single force in the universe called Brahmin
        • Reincarnation – belief that the soul is reborn in a different form after death
        • Dharma – divine law that defined your duties in life
        • Goal of Hindus is to move up through the caste system and unite with Brahmin
        • Karma – an individual can become closer to Brahmin by obeying the law of karma
          • Good Karma – move up in caste
          • Bad Karma – move down in caste
          • Moksha – break the cycle of reincarnation
          • Ganges river is sacred to Hindus
    • Hinduism Cartoon
    • Buddhism
      • Founded by Siddhartha Gautama, born a Hindu. He is considered the enlightened one or Buddha
      • Four Noble truths – philosophy of Buddhism
        • All life is suffering
        • Suffering is caused by selfish desire
        • The way to eliminate suffering is to eliminate desire
        • Follow the eightfold path – rules and guidelines that Buddhists follow involving the right ways to live ones life
        • Buddhist also believe in reincarnation
        • Nirvana – ultimate goal of Buddhists, extinction of desire and union with the universe
    • Buddha Statue
    • Mauryan Empire
      • Indian empire created by Chandragupta Maurya
      • Established a well organized government and created a bureaucracy – a system of managing government though different departments
      • Organized Cities
      • Collected taxes, set up roads and harbors
      • Asoka the Great – expanded the empires borders to cover virtually all of India and spread Buddhism throughout the empire
    • Gupta Empire
      • Established on the site of the old Mauryan Empire
      • Known as India's golden age
      • Organized cities
      • Established trade routes with SE Asia, China, and the Mediterranean world
      • Gupta rulers lived in luxurious palaces, profiting from the gold and silver mines
      • Eventually fell victim to the Huns and the empire fell apart