Ancient China


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Ancient China

  1. 1. Ancient China The Middle Kingdom
  2. 2. Geography <ul><li>Civilization developed in the Huang He (Yellow River) and Yangtzi River valleys </li></ul><ul><li>China was mostly isolated from other civilizations because of geographic barriers </li></ul><ul><li>The Himalaya Mts. and Tibetan Plateau, Gobi Desert, and Pacific Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Population is clustered along the river valleys of eastern China and the coastal areas </li></ul>
  3. 3. Geographic Barriers of China
  4. 4. Population Density of China
  5. 5. Effects of Geography on Development <ul><li>Middle Kingdom – Because of isolation, the Chinese believed they were the center of the earth </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnocentrism – The Chinese were not exposed to any other cultures, therefore they believed that their culture could not be matched by any others that possibly existed </li></ul>
  6. 6. Shang Dynasty <ul><li>A dynasty is a ruling family </li></ul><ul><li>The Shang set up the first dynasty in China </li></ul><ul><li>Social Structure: Nobility, Warriors, Merchants / Artisans, Peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Religion – Prayed to many gods and spirits, believed in the two forces of nature – Yin and Yang </li></ul><ul><li>First Chinese written communication develops in the form of pictographs and ideographs </li></ul>
  7. 7. Zhou Dynasty <ul><li>Around 1100 BC, the Zhou overthrew the Shang </li></ul><ul><li>Their dynasty lasted nearly 800 years </li></ul><ul><li>Mandate of Heaven – divine right to rule </li></ul><ul><li>Feudal Government – local lords controlled their own regions but pledged military allegiance to the ruling family </li></ul><ul><li>Began using iron to make tools </li></ul><ul><li>Roads, canals, irrigation systems are built </li></ul><ul><li>Contributions: First books are written, Calendar is developed, Learned how to make silk, Confucianism develops </li></ul>
  8. 8. Qin Dynasty <ul><li>Established around 220 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Shi Huangdi – First Emperor of China, creates a centralized government ending the feudal system </li></ul><ul><li>China is divided into military districts run by appointed officials </li></ul><ul><li>System of standardized weights and measures is created, roads and canals are improved </li></ul><ul><li>The Wall of China is built, greatest achievement of the Qin. The wall was built to keep out invaders </li></ul><ul><li>Terracotta Army is also constructed to be buried in the tomb with Shi Huangdi – the First Emperor </li></ul>
  9. 9. Great Wall and Terracotta Army <ul><li>Great Wall – Stretches across northern China, reaches heights of 35 feet, symbolizes power of the Han Dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Terracotta Army – Over 8,000 life size warriors buried in the tomb of Qin Emperor Shi Huangdi, Emperor believed he would still have troops at his command </li></ul>
  10. 10. Great Wall of China
  11. 11. Danny Way Jumps Over the Great Wall of China <ul><li>Skateboarding over the Great Wall </li></ul>
  12. 12. Han Dynasty <ul><li>Developed after the collapse of the Qin Dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Liu Bang, a peasant, took control of the empire </li></ul><ul><li>He reduced taxes, expanded the Great Wall, established a complex system of roads </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Service Exams – based on the teachings of Confucius, determined who would get government jobs based on expertise and skill </li></ul><ul><li>Contributions – Made paper out of pulp, invented the wheelbarrow, the fishing reel, and the rudder </li></ul>
  13. 13. Tang and Song Dynasties <ul><li>Tang Dynasty ruled China from 619-907 </li></ul><ul><li>Song Dynasty ruled from 960 – 1280 </li></ul><ul><li>Tang and Song Dynasties represent a golden age in Chinese history </li></ul><ul><li>Social Structure: Gentry (wealthy landowners and government officials), peasants, and merchants </li></ul><ul><li>Revised the civil service exam </li></ul><ul><li>Rulers set up schools to create a highly educated ruling class </li></ul>
  14. 14. Achievements of the Tang and Song <ul><li>Land Reform – land distributed to peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Trade – merchants trade with India, Persia, and the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>Shipbuilding – China emerges as a naval power </li></ul><ul><li>Money – issued the worlds first paper money </li></ul><ul><li>Canals – built to improve trade and transportation (Grand Canal) </li></ul><ul><li>Literature and Art – writers wrote short and poems, calligraphy, porcelain </li></ul>
  15. 15. Empires of Ancient China
  16. 16. The Silk Road – strategic trade and cultural transmission route that linked China to the rest of Asia, Africa and Europe
  17. 17. Mongol Invasion <ul><li>Song Dynasty will come to an end with the Mongol invasion of China beginning in 1279 </li></ul><ul><li>Kublai Khan will conquer China and establish his own dynasty, the Yuan Dynasty </li></ul>
  18. 18. Mongol Empire