TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER I: THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE
Survey of Related Literature
Statement of the Problem
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
DEFINITION OF TERMS
THE RESEARCH DESIGN
Data Gathering Procedures
THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE
Rationale of the Study
A library collection is like a garden that must be cultivated and maintained in order to
flourish. Libraries are limited by space and finances, decisions about what to add and what to
remove from the collection are made carefully to make it like a healthy garden.
The American Library Association (ALA) defines collection development as a term which
encompasses a number of activities related to the development of the library’s collection,
including the determination and coordination of selection policy, assessment of needs of users
and potential users, collection use studies, collection evaluation, identification of collection
needs, selection of materials, planning of resource sharing, collection maintenance and
There is no agreed usage for the terms collection development and collection
management – in fact the two are used as rather loose synonyms. However, reflection would
demonstrate that they do imply different concepts. Collection development relates to the
selection and acquisition of material for an expanding collection and decisions to be included in
that collection. Collection management may subsume this, but also includes the allocation of
the book fund and the balance open and closed access, between books, journals and
conservation; the library and stores, and finally monitoring and encouragement of collection.
Collection development, as seen from above definitions, is essentially a planning process
which uses the methodology typically followed in planning: establishing mission and policy
statements, describing the present state of affairs, reviewing relative strengths and
weaknesses, considering environmental influences and other trends, setting goals and
designing strategies to reach those goals. (Odini, C. 1994).
The increasing availability of electronic information libraries everywhere is shifting their
focus from building up collection to providing access to information. The traditional academic
library will be transformed by an ongoing convergence of digital media and services;
accompanied by rising expectations from users that libraries will adapt to an increasingly digital
environment. (Kusik,J. 2009).
The CSHC library will always consider the needs of the academic community and
curriculum as bases for the building the library collection. It is impossible to ever have a
“perfect “collection; however we do have standards that can help libraries create a picture of
an ideal collection. The library will strive not only to meet the standards set by Commission on
Higher Education (CHED) but to go beyond these standards. That collection development is the
core of what makes a library successful.
Collection Development in
Cebu Sacred Heart College
Evaluate the existing library
Identifying the strengths and
weaknesses of the collections
Collection development is one of the primary functions of a library. It is important to
remember that the expression “collection development” is fairly recent in the professional
literature. There had been an evolution in the field before reaching the concept, starting with
“book selection” to “collection building” and from “collection building” to “collection
development”; many professionals are now also using the expression “collection management”
as an extension of the “collection development”, signifying a further step in the field (although
both expressions are sometimes used interchangeably).
Good collection development practice the six elements includes an understanding
community (which may require a community analysis), policies related to selection and deselection of materials, acceptance of gifts, and related topics, procedures for regular selection
of materials based on library’s mission, goals, and policies, a process for actually acquiring the
materials (acquisition) selected and getting them processed for use, procedures for weeding of
materials that are no longer useful, and evaluation to determine the quality of the collection.
Mary C. Bushing, writing about collection mapping (collection analysis using the
Conspectus collecting level definitions), defines it as “ the ability to understand the specific
strengths and weaknesses of information resources with statistical data as well as
impressionistic judgments based on experience and knowledge of the discipline area under
Collection analysis is important component of the collection development process and it
is a systematic process for determining the quality of the library’s collection. The central
concept in the process of analyzing a collection is that collection are created, developed and
maintained to meet the needs of the users they serve. This means that collection evaluation
must also include an analysis of how well the materials are currently meeting needs and how
likely the materials (and the collection) are to continue meeting the needs of current and future
users. (http://ntrls.org). Without collection evaluations that provide a clear assessment of
available resources, future collection management – budgeting, format consideration,
selection, or deselection – may be inefficient at risk. Librarians in large or small libraries can
employ the collection evaluation methods to gain meaningful information about their own
library holdings. Evaluation allows librarians a more thorough knowledge of what already exist,
what may be needed, and whether collection development goals are being achieved. (Agee,J.
As librarians most of us want to know if the collection is relevant to the needs of our
users but we can also use the information gathered through the analysis and evaluation to
support request for additional funding. Analysis also provides valuable insight into the
collections strengths and weaknesses so that we can reallocate available funds to improve
specific areas of the collection.
To validate the strengths and weaknesses of the collection and to determine concrete
recommendations for improvements, a request was made to contract an external agency to
conduct an additional collection. Priorities needed to be established in order to update and
maintain the collection to meet the needs of the users. As the data collected by the collection
inventory it served for major changes in collection development for immediate attention to
correct the deficiencies of the collection.
Survey of Related Literature
“Collection development” is a wider term. It involves the formulation of a systematic
general plan for the creation of a library collection that will meet the needs of that library’s
The opinion expressed by Richard K. Gardner (1981) on the Collection Development as a
planned purchased of materials in various formats to match the instructional and research
needs of the campus within the current fiscal environment and resource sharing opportunities.
Whereas Brindly (1988) conveyed and described it in a broader view and said that “Collection
Development is a planning function for the systematic and rational building of the collection
from Collection Development plans flows decisions on selection, acquisition, weeding,
preservation and evaluation all embraced and quantified in collection management.”
Negrete Gutierrez (1993) stated that Collection Development as “a process that permits
the library to develop the collection of materials that respond the information needs and
service requirements of the users.” Whereas Vignau Sanchez (1999) opined that “Collection
Development is a process that satisfies the information needs of the users in an economic
fashion and inside of the reasonable period of time using resources as much internal as external
to the organization.” Both share the same opinion that collection development satisfies the
information needs of the users within a given time frame and economic limits. Similarly the
view of T.E. Nisonger (1996) is that collection development is a planning, methodology and
decision making process which includes assessing user needs, determining selection policy,
setting up acquisition procedures evaluating and then weeding the collection and planning for
Further Eguavoen (2002), Ochai (2002) expressed the opinion that collection
development as “a planned systematic development of a collection, based on the objectives of
the library. It is the totality of activities which lead to building up a total library collection.” In
fact collection development is a tool that focuses on the building up of collections and a process
of continuous growth where all the activities like acquisition, selection, evaluation and weeding
never cease to stop.
Linda Mc Nair Cohen (1988) studied the collection development practices in five
Alabama’s academic libraries. He identified various methods of collection building and
management that have emerged as a result of different traditions. He inferred that changing
patterns of collection development activities differ as institutions and their associated libraries
have different and diverse missions and varying user needs. His study concentrated mainly on
the differences in collection development techniques followed among these five libraries.
Building library collections in university libraries is probably the most important and one
of the most complicated and difficult activities of library administration. G.T. Onadiran (1983)
investigated the number of books per student, the annual growth of library materials, selection
policy, acquisition procedures, the relationship between book dealers and university libraries in
Collection development through donations, gifts and exchange is a worthwhile venture
if properly managed and monitored. A. B. Oshinaike (2006) analyzed the contribution of
philanthropic organizations to collection development in libraries in South Western Nigeria. His
study revealed that book donations from philanthropic organizations had a positive impact on
collection development. It increased the volumes of books in their collections. It was discovered
that Book Aid International was the major donor to these libraries. He reported that acquisition
of books was not affected through these donations. He suggested that these donors should
consult the collection development librarians before so that the concerned area of weak
collection is developed. They should be encouraged to contribute materials in other format.
C.O. Omagbemi etal (2004) assessed the collections of Olabisi Onabanjo University
Library. He reported that the library collection was not able to meet the needs of the users of
Nigerian Universities. He identified the major problem was due to inadequate funding and
geometrical increase in the growth of students. He opined that this problem was faced by other
Quality education is impossible without quality library collection. The essential
component of the university library is the information housed in it. G.T. Onadiran & R.W.
Onadiran (1983) attempted to study the process involved in collection building of library
materials in eleven university libraries in Nigeria. They have examined the library collections
and their infrastructures of the concerned university libraries.
Hence it is that collection development is necessary to identify the needs of the user
rather than to build abstract collection. Ross Atkinson (1994) emphasized that Collection
Development is a separate library operation probably and will not survive the eventual
disappearance of the paper but will have nevertheless a critical role to play in the transition
from paper to online access. Collection development has lost its importance with the advent of
the virtual library.
Coming to the current collection development activity Grizly Meneses and Barbara
Susana Sanchez Vignau (2005) expressed factor that contributed for the importance of
collection development that included advances in information technology, the variety in the
formats for the presentation of information, increase in the number of scientific publications
and the economic crises on a world scale that affected the publishing world directly.
Ileana Lourdes Presno Quesada & Barbara Susana Sanchez Vignau (2006) expressed that
changes in economic developments, advances in the science and development information
technologies transformed collection development to collection management as a solution to
guarantee the information needed by the user under standards of quality.
The increased use of electronic resources in all types and sizes of libraries should
consider as a part of collection assessment. Mathew Pciszek (2010) explained that collection
assessment is useful for determining the diversity of collection and are not applicable for large
libraries with diverse collections. He insisted that additional tools are to be developed to
facilitate assessment of collections in large institutions. His paper illustrated several tools for
diversity related collection development. He emphasized that librarians should rethink and
examine diversity related collection assessment useful for large libraries. Further C. Maxey
Harris (2010) explored the fact that every little has been written about scale diversity collection
Jane Goodwin & Lydia Patrick (1990) observed that the traditional method of individual
selection for building the collection was no longer working due to significant increase in the
volume of information request and increased use of circulation statistics on collection use have
paved the way for materials selection officers. They have taken advantage of using the
mechanism that vendors have applied to speed identification and acquisition of available items.
They framed statements for the scope and profiles of the collection that helped library staff and
vendors. Likewise Ellis Mount (1989) provided a summary on the basic aspects of managing the
collection of scientific and technical literature, selection criteria for using published materials
for listing unpublished publications and policies for weeding collections.
John Picco (1983) insisted in his paper that community college library staff should give
great importance to collection management programs. This should be an ongoing examination
of the existing materials for continued evaluation process for balancing the needs of printed
and non printed collections.
Collection analysis techniques educate and support the new library staff about
collection and provide better data to determine collection development priorities for budget
planning. It helps librarians to assist their patron’s search information. Henry Elizabeth…*et al.+
(2008) presents a case study in which collection analysis is carried out in Saint Leo University
Cannon Memorial Library, Florida USA. The collection was evaluated using online analysis tools.
Topics covered are about the importance of e-book collections, faculty participation in the
selection for more balanced and comprehensive collection management plan. It revealed that
collection analysis has positive impact on collection development and management. Findings
inferred from this study suggest that access to the collection were improved and some
problems encountered with a particular collection identified.
Mary W. Ghikas (1989) in her paper managing academic libraries in the 21st century has
commented that collection development in the year 2000 will be characterized by virtual
collections where the location, the delivery time and channel will be pre identified. Few articles
have been identified on collection development models. The following paragraphs describe the
innovative models framed for the purpose of effective collective management in academic
A structural and functional systems model was developed to help librarians switch from
crisis managers to strategic planners. Anthony W. Ferguson (1986) designed a model that
focused on the environmental factors within which a library operated. He considered the
demands made upon libraries, other factors that influenced the library behavior in the decision
making process and the variety of outputs or decisions that must be made by a library to stay
There are many factors that affect the collection development model. In the key note
address in the Charleston Conference by MC Clure (1996) suggested that there are six models
of Internet based collection development. These models would be suitable for a particular
library depending on the library’s information infrastructure, skills available among the staff,
costs involved, methods of access within and outside the library, licensing and copy right issues.
His intention is to link the major functions of collection management with collaborative
collections, vendor supplied collections and integrate internet resources into the online public
catalogue by creating hot links to the resources in URL address.
The functional model has the advantage of improved communication and coordination
among librarians with similar responsibilities. The main difficulty of this model is in coordinating
collection activities across a large library with many geographic or client based units. Balancing
needs and goals is a challenge. Drucker (1974) analyzed the great strength of the functional
model applied to libraries lies on the stability, clarity and high degree of economy. Creth (1989)
describes a model that helps the library staff to benefit from different views and new
information generated from relevant subject expertise.
S.D. Creth(1991) suggested a model for collection development that has a primary
administrator combined with teams of librarians from all sections of the library who have the
appropriate subject knowledge to accept collection management responsibilities. Decision
support system is a powerful tool for collection management. Libraries have to adopt decision
support systems for task performance, monitor the results of innovation, identify problems and
opportunities, evaluate alternative options and conduct strategic planning.
Wanda V. Dole (2000) in his paper explored the potential use of computer based
systems for decision support in collection management. He opined that decision support
systems helped in decision making and utilizes data and models to solve unstructured
problems. He outlined the advantages and obstacles of decision support systems with respect
to libraries. His paper described in detail the background information about the application of
decision support systems in different university libraries located in different regions of the
Despite a wide variety of institutional environments and management styles, collection
development would be more fruitful in fulfilling their responsibility by taking the support from
their central administration. This opinion was supported by Robert Kenseler (1996) who said
that strong support from the central library administration provides the best environment for
maximum utility among their staff. This approach forms a well coordinated collection
The literature study indicates that these models are like simplifications of the real
practices. Libraries benefit from adopting the unique model that suit their environment in
which they operate.
Statement of the Problem
The study aimed to evaluate the existing library collections of CSHC college library,
according to the standards set by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) in order to
determine the quality of the collection and to know if the collection is relevant to the needs of
Specifically, it sought to answer the following: (1) What is the status of CSHC college
library in terms of their: a) administration and financial support or library budget; and b) library
holdings/collections. (2)Where is the collection weak, and where is it strong? (3) How does the
college library conform to the standards set by CHED. (4) Based on the findings of the study,
what collection development program can be recommended for guidelines and improvement
of the library collections.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
To better understand the study, the following are defined operationally:
1.) Acquisition –
2.) Collection development – the process of planning and building a useful and balanced
collection of library materials over a period of years, based on an ongoing assessment of
the information needs of the library’s clientele, analysis of usage statistics, and
demographic projections, normally constrained by budgetary limitations.
3.) Collection mapping – is the process of examining the quantity and quality of a library’s
collection and identifying its strengths and weaknesses.
4.) Weeding – the process of examining items in a library collection title by title to identify
for permanent withdrawal those that meet pre-established weeding criteria, especially
when space in stacks is limited.