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Chapter twoChapter two
Effective Sentences and Word ChoiceEffective Sentences and Word Choice
HOMEWORK/Do NowHOMEWORK/Do Now
• Take out homework, note takingTake out homework, note taking
organizer and a blank piece ...
I. Sentence fragmentsI. Sentence fragments
• AA sentence fragmentsentence fragment is a group ofis a group of
words that i...
Fragment At the end of the race, a
checkered flag.
[The verb is missing.]
Sentence At the end of the race, a
checkered fla...
Fragment Race officials wave a red and
yellow striped flag. In cases of
danger, such as spilled oil.
[The second word grou...
Fragment When officials wave a black flag to
signal drivers to stop. [The word
when is a subordinating conjunction
that ma...
II. Run-On SentencesII. Run-On Sentences
• AA run on sentencerun on sentence occurs when twooccurs when two
or more senten...
A) Create two separate sentences by adding
end punctuation and a capital letter.
Run-On Many high mountains contain glacie...
B) Use aB) Use a coordinating conjunctioncoordinating conjunction
preceded by a comma to join sentences.preceded by a comm...
C) Use aC) Use a semi-colonsemi-colon by itself or before aby itself or before a conjunctiveconjunctive
adverbadverb to jo...
D) Change one sentence into aD) Change one sentence into a subordinate clausesubordinate clause oror
aa phrase, adding or ...
III. Parallel StructureIII. Parallel Structure
• Parallel structureParallel structure is the use of twois the use of two
o...
Parallel structureParallel structure
Not Parallel Surprised, embarrassed, and with
anger, Anisa looked down.
Parallel Surp...
IV. “Stringy” SentencesIV. “Stringy” Sentences
• Stringy sentencesStringy sentences are long and hard to follow. They cont...
A) Break it into two or more separateA) Break it into two or more separate
sentences, each presenting one or two ideas.sen...
B) Delete less important details, or turnB) Delete less important details, or turn
them into phrases or subordinate clause...
C) Include transitions (such asC) Include transitions (such as although, because,although, because,
andand then)then) to c...
V. Wordy sentencesV. Wordy sentences
• Wordy sentencesWordy sentences can confuse and bore readers. Use as fewcan confuse ...
Wordy sentencesWordy sentences
Wordy sentencesWordy sentences
Wordy sentencesWordy sentences
c) Replace a phrase with a single word.c) Replace a phrase with a single word. Simplify wor...
Wordy sentencesWordy sentences
d) Rewrite sentences to eliminate empty phrases.d) Rewrite sentences to eliminate empty phr...
Wordy sentencesWordy sentences
e) Use strong verbs in the active voice.e) Use strong verbs in the active voice. Avoid usin...
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Quarter one grammar review2

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Transcript of "Quarter one grammar review2"

  1. 1. Chapter twoChapter two Effective Sentences and Word ChoiceEffective Sentences and Word Choice
  2. 2. HOMEWORK/Do NowHOMEWORK/Do Now • Take out homework, note takingTake out homework, note taking organizer and a blank piece of paper inorganizer and a blank piece of paper in your binders.your binders. • ReturnReturn PactPact books.books. • Complete Exercise 2 on eBoard.Complete Exercise 2 on eBoard.
  3. 3. I. Sentence fragmentsI. Sentence fragments • AA sentence fragmentsentence fragment is a group ofis a group of words that is incorrectly punctuated aswords that is incorrectly punctuated as a complete sentence.a complete sentence. • Try these 3 strategies to correctTry these 3 strategies to correct fragments…fragments…
  4. 4. Fragment At the end of the race, a checkered flag. [The verb is missing.] Sentence At the end of the race, a checkered flag was flying. A) Add the missing subject, verb, or other words necessary.
  5. 5. Fragment Race officials wave a red and yellow striped flag. In cases of danger, such as spilled oil. [The second word group has no subject or verb.] Sentence Race officials wave a red and yellow striped flag in cases of danger, such as spilled oil. B) Attach the fragment to a complete sentence.
  6. 6. Fragment When officials wave a black flag to signal drivers to stop. [The word when is a subordinating conjunction that makes the word group a dependent clause.] Sentence Officials wave a black flag to signal drivers to stop. C) Eliminate the word that makes the fragment sound incomplete.
  7. 7. II. Run-On SentencesII. Run-On Sentences • AA run on sentencerun on sentence occurs when twooccurs when two or more sentences are incorrectlyor more sentences are incorrectly written as a single sentence.written as a single sentence. • Use one of these four strategies toUse one of these four strategies to correct run-on sentences…correct run-on sentences…
  8. 8. A) Create two separate sentences by adding end punctuation and a capital letter. Run-On Many high mountains contain glaciers, did you know that Mount Rainier in Washington has several small glaciers? Correct Many high mountains contain glaciers. Did you know that Mount Rainier in Washington has several small glaciers?
  9. 9. B) Use aB) Use a coordinating conjunctioncoordinating conjunction preceded by a comma to join sentences.preceded by a comma to join sentences. Run-On Some glaciers form in the polar regions these icecaps may cover millions of square miles. Correct Some glaciers form in the polar regions, and these icecaps may cover millions of square miles.
  10. 10. C) Use aC) Use a semi-colonsemi-colon by itself or before aby itself or before a conjunctiveconjunctive adverbadverb to join two closely related sentences.to join two closely related sentences. Run-On Icebergs break off glaciers and drift into the sea only a small part of icebergs is visible above the water. Correct Icebergs break off glaciers and drift into the sea; however, only a small part of icebergs is visible above the water.
  11. 11. D) Change one sentence into aD) Change one sentence into a subordinate clausesubordinate clause oror aa phrase, adding or changing words andphrase, adding or changing words and punctuation as needed.punctuation as needed. Run-On Crevasses are cracks in a glacier they can make mountain climbing dangerous. Correct Crevasses, which are cracks in a glacier, can make mountain climbing dangerous. Correct Crevasses, or cracks in a glacier, can make mountain climbing dangerous.
  12. 12. III. Parallel StructureIII. Parallel Structure • Parallel structureParallel structure is the use of twois the use of two or more words, phrases, or clausesor more words, phrases, or clauses that have the same grammaticalthat have the same grammatical structure.structure. • Using sentences with parallelUsing sentences with parallel structure creates balance and astructure creates balance and a pleasing rhythm in your writing.pleasing rhythm in your writing.
  13. 13. Parallel structureParallel structure Not Parallel Surprised, embarrassed, and with anger, Anisa looked down. Parallel Surprised, embarrassed, and angry, Anisa looked down. Parallel With surprise, embarrassment, and anger, Anisa looked down.
  14. 14. IV. “Stringy” SentencesIV. “Stringy” Sentences • Stringy sentencesStringy sentences are long and hard to follow. They containare long and hard to follow. They contain too many ideas strung loosely together by the conjunctiontoo many ideas strung loosely together by the conjunction andand.. • StringyStringy:: One of the first European novels wasOne of the first European novels was Don QuixoteDon Quixote, and, and it was written in 1605, and the author was Miguel de Cervantes,it was written in 1605, and the author was Miguel de Cervantes, and he was a Spanish writer.and he was a Spanish writer. • Revised:Revised: Don QuixoteDon Quixote, one of the first European novels, was, one of the first European novels, was written in 1605 by Spanish writer Miguel de Cervantes.written in 1605 by Spanish writer Miguel de Cervantes.  • Use one or more of theseUse one or more of these 33 strategies to rewrite stringystrategies to rewrite stringy sentences…sentences…
  15. 15. A) Break it into two or more separateA) Break it into two or more separate sentences, each presenting one or two ideas.sentences, each presenting one or two ideas. Stringy Folktales are traditional stories, and they have been passed down orally, and some specific types of traditional stories include fairy tales and trickster stories and legends. Revised Folktales are traditional stories that have been passed down orally. Some specific types of traditional strories include fairy tales, trickster stories, and legends.
  16. 16. B) Delete less important details, or turnB) Delete less important details, or turn them into phrases or subordinate clauses.them into phrases or subordinate clauses. Stringy Beowulf tells the story of a hero, and he fights a monster, and its name is Grendel, and Beowulf is one of the oldest poems in English. Revised Beowulf, one of the oldest poems in English, tells the story of a hero who fights a monster named Grendel.
  17. 17. C) Include transitions (such asC) Include transitions (such as although, because,although, because, andand then)then) to clarify the connections among ideas.to clarify the connections among ideas. Stringy Most myths are ancient, and people still enjoy them, and they explore common themes, and they are love, evil, and courage. Revised Although most myths are ancient, people still enjoy them because they explore common themes, such as love, evil, and courage.
  18. 18. V. Wordy sentencesV. Wordy sentences • Wordy sentencesWordy sentences can confuse and bore readers. Use as fewcan confuse and bore readers. Use as few words as possible to express your meaning clearly.words as possible to express your meaning clearly.  • Wordy:Wordy: Because of the fact that there were problems with electricity,Because of the fact that there were problems with electricity, which happened in the gym, the basketball games to be played tonightwhich happened in the gym, the basketball games to be played tonight were cancelled by Mr. Rodriguez, who is the principal. (31 words)were cancelled by Mr. Rodriguez, who is the principal. (31 words) • Concise:Concise: Because of electrical problems in the gym, the principal,Because of electrical problems in the gym, the principal, Mr. Rodriguez, cancelled tonight’s basketball gamesMr. Rodriguez, cancelled tonight’s basketball games  • Follow these 5 strategies to eliminate extra words.Follow these 5 strategies to eliminate extra words.
  19. 19. Wordy sentencesWordy sentences
  20. 20. Wordy sentencesWordy sentences
  21. 21. Wordy sentencesWordy sentences c) Replace a phrase with a single word.c) Replace a phrase with a single word. Simplify wordSimplify word expressions, such asexpressions, such as due to the fact that (because)due to the fact that (because) oror at theat the present timepresent time (now).(now).  Wordy:Wordy: Hill Middle School fans will cheer withHill Middle School fans will cheer with enthusiasm until such time as our team is eliminatedenthusiasm until such time as our team is eliminated from the competition over the weekend.from the competition over the weekend. Concise:Concise: Hill Middle School fans will cheerHill Middle School fans will cheer enthusiastically until our team is eliminated from theenthusiastically until our team is eliminated from the weekend competition.weekend competition.
  22. 22. Wordy sentencesWordy sentences d) Rewrite sentences to eliminate empty phrases.d) Rewrite sentences to eliminate empty phrases. LookLook especially for sentence openers that add little or noespecially for sentence openers that add little or no meaning.meaning.  Wordy:Wordy: In my opinion, it is important that our school’sIn my opinion, it is important that our school’s staff and students show more school spirit.staff and students show more school spirit. Concise:Concise: Our school’s staff and students should showOur school’s staff and students should show more school spirit.more school spirit.
  23. 23. Wordy sentencesWordy sentences e) Use strong verbs in the active voice.e) Use strong verbs in the active voice. Avoid usingAvoid using many forms of the verbmany forms of the verb to be (is, was, are , were)to be (is, was, are , were) andand verbs in the passive voice.verbs in the passive voice.  Wordy:Wordy: The eighth grade student council is in charge ofThe eighth grade student council is in charge of making posters and selling tickets, and popcorn is soldmaking posters and selling tickets, and popcorn is sold by seventh graders at halftime.by seventh graders at halftime. Concise:Concise: The eighth grade student council makes postersThe eighth grade student council makes posters and sells tickets, and seventh graders sell popcorn atand sells tickets, and seventh graders sell popcorn at halftime.halftime.
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