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Truth in Scientific Discovery \

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  • Science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge. This system uses observation and experimentation to describe and explain natural phenomenaThe purpose of science is to produce useful models of realityPrevailing scientific theories are dependent upon the time and place in which they are created. Things such as religion and politics can play a big part in the types of scientific theories that appear throughout the course of history
  • Studying the history of science is an exceptional way to show the humanity of science. By looking at the history we can clearly see two things: that science can be wrong and that it doesn't always work in the short term.Understanding the foundations of science can be a big help in evaluating the usefulness of modern scientific claims.Through studying the history of science, we learn how it really works. The arguments can be oddly petty and at times life-destroying , yet they're how ideas are beaten from rough thoughts to finely honed, scientifically valid ideasOur theories about the world did not just pop into existence; they have been debated and argued over by many great minds, and have been shaped not only by the science, but also the politics and culture of the day
  • A strange turn of phrase but that is often how it is referred to in the history and philosophy of science!
  • Thomas Kuhn: one of the most influential philosophers of science of the twentieth century,hisThe Structure of Scientific Revolutions is one of the most cited academic books of all time
  • His account of the development of science held that science enjoys periods of stable growth punctuated by revisionary revolutions
  • A paradigm guides and informs the fact-gathering (experiments and observations described in journals) decisions of researchersA paradigm coordinates and directs the “puzzle solving” activity of the groups of normal scientists who work within it.
  • In the pursuit of science, Kuhn observed, "novelty emerges only with difficulty, manifested by resistance, against a background provided by expectation.“ He is saying that in order to find something that does not fit we must first have a paradigm in which to make it fit.
  • Doing research is essentially like solving a puzzle. Puzzles have rules. Puzzles generally have predetermined solutions.The man who is striving to solve a problem defined by existing knowledge and technique is not just looking around. He knows what he wants to achieve, and he designs his instruments and directs his thoughts accordingly"
  • Normal science is done when a paradigm has been chosen by the scientific community (a consensus is reached)A crisis emerges when observations outside of what is expected are observed and can’t be explainedWhen this crisis can’t be averted by further testing or slight alteration of the current paradigm, a revolution can take place. This is where a new paradigm is presented to and accepted by the scientific community The new paradigm then becomes the basis for normal science
  • It is interesting to note that failure to achieve the expected solution to a puzzle discredits only the scientist and not the theory ("it is a poor carpenter who blames his tools").
  • It is interesting to note that failure to achieve the expected solution to a puzzle discredits only the scientist and not the theory ("it is a poor carpenter who blames his tools").
  • All paradigms will be inadequate to some extent as far as their match with nature is concerned. When the mismatch becomes serious, that is, when a crisis developsThe third resolution is where scientific revolution comes into play
  • During scientific revolutions, scientists see new and different things when looking with familiar instruments in places they have looked before.Such scientific revolutions come only after long periods of tradition-bound normal science, for “paradigms must be lived with and explored before they can be replaced." And yet, young scientists who are not so deeply indoctrinated into accepted theories (perhaps because they have not spent their lives trying to support and prove the existing paradigm.
  • During scientific revolutions, scientists see new and different things when looking with familiar instruments in places they have looked before.Such scientific revolutions come only after long periods of tradition-bound normal science, for “paradigms must be lived with and explored before they can be replaced." And yet, young scientists who are not so deeply indoctrinated into accepted theories (perhaps because they have not spent their lives trying to support and prove the existing paradigm.
  • Stars were embedded in a large outer sphere which rotated rapidly, approximately daily, while each of the planets, the Sun, and the Moon were embedded in their own, smaller spheres
  • Science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge. This system uses observation and experimentation to describe and explain natural phenomenaThe purpose of science is to produce useful models of realityPrevailing scientific theories are dependent upon the time and place in which they are created. Things such as religion and politics can play a big part in the types of scientific theories that appear throughout the course of history
  • Transcript

    • 1. TRUTH IN SCIENTIFICDISCOVERY:Why is the sky blue? What is Love? What is athought? And Where did my consciousness go?
    • 2. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS How does a scientist view truth? How do we know when a scientific theory is true? How do belief systems and society influence perceptions of truth?
    • 3. An important question… The power of questions. The power of the IC Curiosity!http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F8UFGu2M2gM&feature=g-hist
    • 4. So…how do we ―do science‖?
    • 5. Introducing…Thomas KuhnAuthor of―The Structure of Scientific Revolutions‖(1962)
    • 6. Kuhn‘s theory on how we doscience According to Kuhn the development of a science is not uniform but has alternating ‘normal’ and ‗revolutionary’ phases. Kuhn argued that science is not a steady process of accumulation of knowledge. Instead, science is "a series of peaceful interludes punctuated by intellectually violent revolutions”
    • 7. Kuhn‘s theory on how we do science The central idea of Kuhn‘s theory is that the development of science is driven, in normal periods of science, by adherence to what Kuhn called a ‗paradigm‘.A paradigm guides and informs the fact- gathering (experiments and observations described in journals) decisions of researchers
    • 8. Normal Science During periods of normal science, the primary task of scientists is to bring the accepted theory and fact into closer agreement. As a consequence, scientists tend to ignore research findings that might threaten the existing paradigm and trigger the development of a new and competing paradigm
    • 9. The Paradigm and Zeitgeistentanglement What is the Zeitgeist? Zeit·geist (tstgst, zt-)n. The spirit of the time; the taste and outlook characteristic of a period or generation.
    • 10.  http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?i d=how-to-stop-misinformation-from-becoming- popular- belief&fb_action_ids=10151274379199747&fb _action_types=og.likes&fb_source=aggregatio
    • 11. Paradigms Scientists doing ―normal science‖ will articulate and develop the paradigm in their attempt to account for and accommodate the behaviour of aspects of the real world as shown through the results of experimentation.
    • 12. The Cycle of ScientificRevolution revolution normal a new paradigm science emerges and a paradigm is gains the formed and approval of the accepted scientific community crisis an anomaly appears that can‘t be explained using the current paradigm
    • 13. Anomalies
    • 14. Anomalies Anomaly: An occurrence that is strange, unusual, or unique. It is a discrepancy or deviation from an established rule, trend or pattern An anomaly forces the scientific community to complete further research to try to explain the anomaly within the current paradigm. If it cannot be, the paradigm finds itself in a state of crisis.
    • 15. Crisis All crises begin with the blurring of a paradigm and the consequent loosening of the rules for normal research Crises are resolved in one of three ways: 1. Normal science can prove capable of handling the crisis-provoking problem, in which case all returns to "normal." 2. The problem persists but it is thought to be as a result of the fields failure to possess the necessary tools with which to solve it. Scientists set it aside for a future generation with more developed tools. 3. A new candidate for paradigm emerges and a battle over its acceptance begins in the scientific
    • 16. Scientific Revolution A scientific revolution that results in paradigm change is similar to a political revolution:*Political revolutions begin with a growing sense by members of the community that existing institutions have ceased adequately to meet the problems posed by the current environment —anomaly and crisis
    • 17. Scientific Revolution A scientific revolution that results in paradigm change is similar to a political revolution:*As a political crisis deepens, individuals commit themselves to some concrete proposal for the reconstruction of society – forming a new paradigm
    • 18. Scientific Revolution A scientific revolution that results in paradigm change is similar to a political revolution:*Those with opposing political ideals attempt to sway the majority in their favour – paradigm wars and, eventually, scientific consensus on a new paradigm
    • 19. Scientific Revolution -Chaos Theory
    • 20. Scientific Revolution inHistory•Copernicus‘ view of the universe•Wave-particle duality theory of light
    • 21. AstronomyCopernicus‘ ―helio-centric‖ model of theuniverse
    • 22. Scientific Revolution in Astronomy Imagine…The prevailing theory of the structure of the universe is a geo- centric one.The philosopher and scientist Ptolemy first proposed the idea in the year 150 A.D.
    • 23. Scientific Revolution inAstronomy In the early 16th Century, nearly 1400 years after Ptolemy‘s work, Nicolaus Copernicus challenged this paradigm with his own ideas on the universe Geo-centric = existing paradigm
    • 24. Scientific Revolution inAstronomy Copernicus was not  Crisis – anomalies convinced that the are encountered explanations which cannot be Ptolemy and his readily explained supporters presented actually explained the motion of the planets and stars.
    • 25. Scientific Revolution inAstronomy He spent years observing, experimenting and theorising until he was ready to make a commitment to a new possible paradigm – a helio- centric model of the universe
    • 26. Scientific Revolution inAstronomy Copernicus had kept his ideas relatively quiet throughout his life and it was only on his deathbed in 1543 that he could claim that his new paradigm had been revealed to the scientific community
    • 27. Scientific Revolution inAstronomy Consider the social climate into which Copernicus‘ 1543 book was released… The Copernican model appeared to be contrary to common sense and to contradict the Bible – man is the reason for and at the centre of the universe Ptolemy‘s geo-centric paradigm had been in favour for such a long time already Also, Copernicus‘ observations were much the same as those of fellow astronomers. The observations said nothing new, it was the need for a more complete and simplistic system that drove Copernicus‘ curiousity
    • 28. Scientific Revolution inAstronomy It was for these reasons that Copernicus‘ theory did not bring about a revolution at first. There were only ten Copernicans between 1543 and 1600. The most famous you may know – Galileo Galilei
    • 29. Scientific Revolution inAstronomy The universe model  Anomalies still exist paradigm crisis had been momentarily but crisis has been resolved as per one stalled of Kuhn‘s possible crisis resolution categories – although some liked the theory, the field of astronomy was not yet advanced enough to prove any reason it should succeed the old paradigm
    • 30. Scientific Revolution inAstronomy It took until the end of  Advances in science the 17th century, with help to resurface the new discoveries in Copernicus‘ identified astronomy and other anomalies crisis fields by Galileo, revolution new Johannes Kepler and paradigm - the Isaac Newton, for heliocentric model of Copernicus‘ work to the universe again bring the geo- centric model into crisis and finally prevail as the new paradigm
    • 31. Nature of lightWave-particle duality theory of light
    • 32. Scientific Revolution in Physics Pierre Gassendi , an atomist, proposed a particle theory of light which was published after his death in the 1660s.ie. Gassendi proposed that light acted as though made up of many small particles
    • 33. Scientific Revolution in Physics Isaac Newton studied Gassendis work at an early age and stated in his Hypothesis of Light of 1675 that light was composed of corpuscles (particles of matter) which were emitted in all directions from a source
    • 34. Scientific Revolution in Physics Newtons theory could  Particle theory of be used to predict the light – current reflection of light, but could only explain paradigm refraction (bending) using an assumption later to be proved false. His reputation helped the particle theory of light to hold sway during the 18th century
    • 35. Scientific Revolution in Physics In the 1660s, Robert  Anomalies appear in Hooke published a the current paradigm wave theory of light, causing crisis – a new followed by fellow paradigm emerges from physicists Christiaan scientific revolution – Huygens and Thomas the wave theory of light Young. The wave theory was wildly successful in explaining nearly all optical and electromagnetic phenomena, and was a great triumph of nineteenth century physics
    • 36. Scientific Revolution in Physics By the late nineteenth  New crisis in the century, however, a current paradigm! handful of experimental anomalies remained that could not be explained by or were in direct conflict with the wave theory. One of these anomalies involved a controversy over the speed of light
    • 37. Scientific Revolution in Physics In 1905, Albert Einstein was able to resolve the crisis facing the current paradigm of wave theory. Using his famous theory of relativity, Einstein was able to explain that light could in fact act like a wave and a particle
    • 38. E=MC2 One of Einsteins  In one kilogram of pure great insights was to water, the mass of realize that matter hydrogen atoms amounts and energy are really to just slightly more than different forms of the same thing. Matter 111 grams, or 0.111 kg. can be turned into  E=MC2 energy, and energy = 0.111 x 300,000,000(m/s into matter. ) x 300,000,000(m/s) = 10,000,000,000,000,000 Joules
    • 39. Scientific Revolution in Physics In what became the  old paradigm – new paradigm for wave theory the nature of light,  new paradigm – Einstein particle/wave duality demonstrated how light could show the properties of particles (eg. straight line travel, reflection), and waves (eg. diffraction)
    • 40. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DfPeprQ7oGc
    • 41. Quantum Physics and that darncat! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HCOE__ N6v4o
    • 42. Big Bang Theory We certainly know that our universe exists, however, this knowledge alone has not satisfied the quest for further understanding. Our curiosity has led us to question our place in this universe and furthermore, the place of the universe itself. Throughout time we have asked ourselves these questions: How did our universe begin? How old is our universe? How did matter come to exist?
    • 43. Big Bang Theory  These are not simple questions and throughout our brief history on this planet much time and effort has been spent looking for some clue. Yet, after all this energy has been expended, much of what we know is still only speculation.
    • 44. Gravity, Space and Time
    • 45. Twin Paradox Theory
    • 46. Twin Paradox Theory
    • 47. Dark Energy
    • 48. Dark Energy http://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=laxxj3hQWZA
    • 49. String Theory
    • 50. Dark Energy
    • 51. Where theories Collide andAccelerate! The Large Hadron Collider, Cerne Switzerland ―The big revolutions in science sometimes occur when we realise we dont know anything.! Director of CERN http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qQNpucos9 wc
    • 52. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TExVKL4wrV8&feature=relmfu
    • 53. Art Vs ScienceScience as ArtArt is ScienceThe infinite connection of Art andScience http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MbhNaj88uL
    • 54. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS How do we know when a scientific theory is true? How does a scientist view truth? The Most astounding Fact! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9 D05ej8u-gU
    • 55. And after all this, we still must behumbled by a surrender to Great Mystery...whilst also trusting the power of continual questioning. ? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7SWvD HvWXok
    • 56. Thank You.Mr Ragnar J Haabjoern Email | rhaabjoern@gmail.com Blog| http://thewonderingecologist.blogspot.com/ Twitter | @whyhowwho