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Democracy   theories v2
Democracy   theories v2
Democracy   theories v2
Democracy   theories v2
Democracy   theories v2
Democracy   theories v2
Democracy   theories v2
Democracy   theories v2
Democracy   theories v2
Democracy   theories v2
Democracy   theories v2
Democracy   theories v2
Democracy   theories v2
Democracy   theories v2
Democracy   theories v2
Democracy   theories v2
Democracy   theories v2
Democracy   theories v2
Democracy   theories v2
Democracy   theories v2
Democracy   theories v2
Democracy   theories v2
Democracy   theories v2
Democracy   theories v2
Democracy   theories v2
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Democracy theories v2

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  • 1. Democracy AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy
  • 2. Democracy Basic Definition: System of selecting policymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the public’s preferences AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy
  • 3. Democracy Famous Quote about America: Government of the people, by the people, and for the people From? Gettysburg Address AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy
  • 4. Traditional Democratic Theory Key principles that specify how governmental decisions are made in a Democracy AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy
  • 5. Traditional Democratic Theory According to political scientist Robert Dahl (Yale) The ideal democratic process should satisfy 5 criteria AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy
  • 6. Traditional Theory ~ 5 Criteria(1) Equality in Voting “ One person, One vote” Does not have to be . . . Universal But must be . . . Representative AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy
  • 7. Traditional Theory ~ 5 Criteria(2) Effective Participation Citizens must have Adequate and Equal opportunities to express their preferences AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy
  • 8. Traditional Theory ~ 5 Criteria(3) Enlightened Understanding If one group monopolizes Marketplace of ideas and distorts information, Freedom of Speech Citizens cannot truly & Press understand are essential AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy
  • 9. Traditional Theory ~ 5 Criteria(4) Citizen Control of the Agenda Collective right to control the government’s Policy Agenda the issues that attract the attention of public officials and other people involved in politics at any given time AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy
  • 10. Traditional Theory ~ 5 Criteria(4) Citizen Control of the Agenda Problem: If one group has influence beyond its numbers (of people represented) Citizen control of the Agenda will be distorted AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy
  • 11. Traditional Theory ~ 5 Criteria(5) Inclusion Government must include and extend rights to All. Citizenship must be open to all within a nation if it is to call itself Democratic. AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy
  • 12. Fundamental PrinciplesMAJORITY RULE When choosing among alternative policies The desires of the Majority should be respected AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy
  • 13. Fundamental PrinciplesMINORITY RIGHTS The Majority should not be able to do ANYTHING it wants Especially if what it wants to do seriously infringes on the rights of the Minority AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy
  • 14. Fundamental PrinciplesREPRESENTATION In a LARGE SOCIETY Direct political involvement by all is impossible. Solution? Use of people to represent others in governmental decision making. AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy
  • 15. Contemporary TheoriesAn Important & Basic QuestionWHO REALLY GOVERNS?3 Contemporary Theories . . . * Pluralist * Elite & Class * Hyperpluralism AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy
  • 16. Pluralist TheoryGroups with shared interestsinfluence public policy by pushing for decisionsthat respond to their concerns.Essentially optimistic that the “public interest”will eventually prevail through a processof bargaining and compromise. AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy
  • 17. Pluralist Theory“all active and legitimate groups in thepopulation can make themselves heardat some crucial stage in the process”We are a “nation of joiners” Robert DahlAlexis de Tocqueville1830’s AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy
  • 18. Pluralist TheoryHave Americans reduced this tendencyto be “joiners” & members of groups?Robert Putnam (Harvard)2000Technology has isolated people.We are more involved inself-defined ways instead of in groups AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy
  • 19. Elite & Class Theory Society is divided along class lines Upper class elite will hold significant power Wealth is the basis of this power The wealthy can afford to finance election campaigns & control key institutions such as corporations AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy
  • 20. Elite & Class Theory “The people who own the country ought to govern it” John Jay 1st Chief Justice AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy
  • 21. Elite & Class Theory “Many of our rich men have not been content with equal protection and equal benefits, but have besought us to make them richer by act of Congress” Andrew Jackson 7th President AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy
  • 22. Elite & Class Theory “The 1980’s were the triumph of upper America – an ostentatious celebration of wealth, the political ascendancy of the richest third of the population, and a glorification of capitalism, free markets and finance”. Kevin Phillips Nixon strategist AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy
  • 23. Hyperpluralism Groups are so strong that Government is weakened Resulting in an extreme form of Pluralism In a sense, groups treat government as their servant AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy
  • 24. Hyperpluralism Groups push for their own policies at whichever level and branch of government may result in policies they favor Create “battlegrounds” at National, State & Local levels in Executive, Legislative, & Judicial branches AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy
  • 25. Hyperpluralism Governments respond to all groups Creating policies that are confusing, contradictory & muddled . . . The “public interest” is rarely well served AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy

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