Classical ConditioningClassical Conditioning
Brought to you by theBrought to you by the
amazingly intelligent Mrs.amazingl...
PavlovPavlov discovered that dogs salivate bydiscovered that dogs salivate by
ringing a bell, if the bell is followed byri...
Now the learning occurs….Now the learning occurs….
 Conditioned stimulus (Conditioned stimulus (CSCS)- Stimulus)- Stimulu...
Applications of ClassicalApplications of Classical
ConditioningConditioning
 Taste aversionTaste aversion is a learned av...
Applications to help changeApplications to help change
behaviors…behaviors…
 FloodingFlooding- Exposing person to- Exposi...
 Higher-order conditioning (second-Higher-order conditioning (second-
order conditioning)…order conditioning)…usually wea...
An individual’s fear of dogs that is lost as theAn individual’s fear of dogs that is lost as the
person is exposed to dogs...
In phase one of a study, a researcher classically conditionsIn phase one of a study, a researcher classically conditions
a...
A psychologist descries the following steps to a client, whileA psychologist descries the following steps to a client, whi...
Jim eats a hamburger at a restaurant and develops a badJim eats a hamburger at a restaurant and develops a bad
stomachache...
To produce the acquisition of aTo produce the acquisition of a
conditioned response, one shouldconditioned response, one s...
Which of the following bestWhich of the following best
illustrates generalization?illustrates generalization?
A.A. A dog s...
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Classical conditioning notes

  1. 1. Classical ConditioningClassical Conditioning Brought to you by theBrought to you by the amazingly intelligent Mrs.amazingly intelligent Mrs. Winter…..Winter…..
  2. 2. PavlovPavlov discovered that dogs salivate bydiscovered that dogs salivate by ringing a bell, if the bell is followed byringing a bell, if the bell is followed by food.food.  Unconditioned Stimulus (Unconditioned Stimulus (USUS)-)- Stimulus that causes a response thatStimulus that causes a response that is automatic or not learned.is automatic or not learned. - Food- Food • Unconditioned response (Unconditioned response (URUR)-)- Automatic responseAutomatic response - Salivates at the food- Salivates at the food
  3. 3. Now the learning occurs….Now the learning occurs….  Conditioned stimulus (Conditioned stimulus (CSCS)- Stimulus)- Stimulus that is repeatedly associated with thethat is repeatedly associated with the US (was formerly neutral).US (was formerly neutral). - Bell- Bell • Conditioned response (Conditioned response (CRCR)- Learned)- Learned response to a stimulus that wasresponse to a stimulus that was previously meaningless.previously meaningless. - Salivates at the bell- Salivates at the bell
  4. 4. Applications of ClassicalApplications of Classical ConditioningConditioning  Taste aversionTaste aversion is a learned avoidance of ais a learned avoidance of a particular food.particular food.  GeneralizationGeneralization- Responding in the same- Responding in the same ways to stimuli that seem to be similarways to stimuli that seem to be similar (ex: taste aversion to peanut butter(ex: taste aversion to peanut butter sandwich generalizes to Reese’s)sandwich generalizes to Reese’s)  DiscriminationDiscrimination- responding differently to- responding differently to stimuli that aren’t similar to each otherstimuli that aren’t similar to each other (ex: taste aversion to peanut butter(ex: taste aversion to peanut butter sandwich, but ham sandwich is still okay,sandwich, but ham sandwich is still okay, guide dog instead of guard dog)guide dog instead of guard dog)
  5. 5. Applications to help changeApplications to help change behaviors…behaviors…  FloodingFlooding- Exposing person to- Exposing person to stimulus until the fear is gone.stimulus until the fear is gone.  Systematic Desensitization-Systematic Desensitization- TakingTaking baby steps to rid a person of a fear.baby steps to rid a person of a fear.  Counter-conditioningCounter-conditioning- Pleasant- Pleasant stimulus (chocolate) is repeatedlystimulus (chocolate) is repeatedly paired with a fearful one (snakes).paired with a fearful one (snakes).  ExtinctionExtinction can occur when the CS iscan occur when the CS is disconnected from the US.disconnected from the US.  Spontaneous recoverySpontaneous recovery can occurcan occur after time has passed.after time has passed.
  6. 6.  Higher-order conditioning (second-Higher-order conditioning (second- order conditioning)…order conditioning)…usually weakerusually weaker conditioningconditioning  WW2 exampleWW2 example  Learned helplessnessLearned helplessness
  7. 7. An individual’s fear of dogs that is lost as theAn individual’s fear of dogs that is lost as the person is exposed to dogs in nonthreateningperson is exposed to dogs in nonthreatening situations is referred to by behaviorists as asituations is referred to by behaviorists as a fear that has beenfear that has been A.A. SatiatedSatiated B.B. SuppressedSuppressed C.C. RepressedRepressed D.D. ExtinguishedExtinguished E.E. PunishedPunished
  8. 8. In phase one of a study, a researcher classically conditionsIn phase one of a study, a researcher classically conditions a dog to salivate to the ringing of a bell. In the seconda dog to salivate to the ringing of a bell. In the second phase, the researcher pairs a flashing light with the ringingphase, the researcher pairs a flashing light with the ringing of the bell. After several pairings of the light and the bell,of the bell. After several pairings of the light and the bell, the dog willthe dog will A.A. No longer salivate when the bell isNo longer salivate when the bell is rung.rung. B.B. Only salivate when the bell is rungOnly salivate when the bell is rung C.C. Salivate when the light is flashedSalivate when the light is flashed D.D. Stop salivating when the light isStop salivating when the light is flashedflashed E.E. Salivate when the researcher comesSalivate when the researcher comes into the roominto the room
  9. 9. A psychologist descries the following steps to a client, whileA psychologist descries the following steps to a client, while the client is practicing relaxation techniques, in order tothe client is practicing relaxation techniques, in order to treat a psychological disorder:treat a psychological disorder: 1. You are entering a large building.1. You are entering a large building. 2. You are pressing a button for the elevator.2. You are pressing a button for the elevator. 3. You are stepping into the elevator.3. You are stepping into the elevator. 4. You are watching the doors close.4. You are watching the doors close. 5. You are traveling 5 floors on the elevator.5. You are traveling 5 floors on the elevator. What type of treatment is beingWhat type of treatment is being described above?described above? A.A.Aversion therapyAversion therapy B.B.Systematic desensitizationSystematic desensitization C.C.ExtinctionExtinction D.D.FloodingFlooding E.Punishment
  10. 10. Jim eats a hamburger at a restaurant and develops a badJim eats a hamburger at a restaurant and develops a bad stomachache after eating. As a result of the sudden illness,stomachache after eating. As a result of the sudden illness, he cannot eat hamburgers anymore. Just thinking of themhe cannot eat hamburgers anymore. Just thinking of them makes Jim sick. In this scenario, the thought of amakes Jim sick. In this scenario, the thought of a hamburger is:hamburger is: A.A. An unconditioned stimulusAn unconditioned stimulus B.B. An unconditioned responseAn unconditioned response C.C. A conditioned stimulusA conditioned stimulus D.D. A conditioned responseA conditioned response E.E. A negative reinforcerA negative reinforcer
  11. 11. To produce the acquisition of aTo produce the acquisition of a conditioned response, one shouldconditioned response, one should A.A. Repeatedly present an unconditioned responseRepeatedly present an unconditioned response B.B. Administer the conditioned stimulus without theAdminister the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulusunconditioned stimulus C.C. Make sure that the conditioned stimulus comesMake sure that the conditioned stimulus comes at least one minute before the unconditionedat least one minute before the unconditioned stimulusstimulus D.D. Pair a neutral stimulus with an unconditionedPair a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus several timesstimulus several times E.E. Present the conditioned stimulus until it starts toPresent the conditioned stimulus until it starts to produce an unconditioned responseproduce an unconditioned response
  12. 12. Which of the following bestWhich of the following best illustrates generalization?illustrates generalization? A.A. A dog salivates to a tone but not to a buzzer.A dog salivates to a tone but not to a buzzer. B.B. A light is turned on repeatedly until a rat stopsA light is turned on repeatedly until a rat stops flexing its paw when it is turned on.flexing its paw when it is turned on. C.C. A pigeon whose disk pecking response has beenA pigeon whose disk pecking response has been extinguished is placed in a Skinner box threeextinguished is placed in a Skinner box three hours later and begins pecking the disk again.hours later and begins pecking the disk again. D.D. A child is startled when the door bell rings.A child is startled when the door bell rings. E.E. A rabbit that has been conditioned to blink to aA rabbit that has been conditioned to blink to a tone also blinks when a similar tone is sounded.tone also blinks when a similar tone is sounded.

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