Rich snippets(microdata, microformats, RDFa, and Data Highlighter)About rich snippetsSnippets - the few lines of text that appear under every searchresult—are designed to give users a sense for what’s on the page andwhy it’s relevant to their query.If Google understands the content on your pages, we can create richsnippets—detailed information intended to help users with specificqueries. For example, the snippet for a restaurant might show theaverage review and price range; the snippet for a recipe page mightshow the total preparation time, a photo, and the recipe’s review These rich snippets help users recognize when your site is relevant torating; and the snippet for a music album could list songs along with a their search, and may result in more clicks to your pages.link to play each song.
3 Steps to rich snippets1. Pick a markup format. 2. Mark up your content.Google suggests using microdata, but any of the three formats Google supports rich snippets for these content types:below are acceptable. You dont need any prior knowledge of • Reviewsthese formats, just a basic knowledge of HTML. • People • Products • Businesses and organizations • Microdata (recommended) • Recipes • Microformats • Events • RDFa • Music Google also recognizes markup for video content and uses it to improve our search results. Want author information to appear in search results? Heres how to do it.
3 Steps to rich snippets3. Test your markup.Use the structured data testing tool to make sure that Google can read and extract your marked-up data.That’s it! Once youve added and tested your rich snippets markup, Google will discover it the next time we crawlyour site.A few points to note: • It may take some time for rich snippets to appear in search results or Place Pages. • If rich snippets arent appearing for your site, see possible reasons why. • Marking up your data for rich snippets wont affect your pages ranking in search results, and Google doesn’t guarantee to use your markup.
MicrodataThe HTML5 microdata specification is a way to label content to describe a specific type of information—forexample, reviews, person information, or events. Each information type describes a specific type of item, suchas a person, and event, or a review. For example, an event has the properties venue, starting time, name, andcategory.Microdata uses simple attributes in HTML tags (often <span> or <div>) to assign brief and descriptive names toitems and properties. Heres an example of a short HTML block showing basic contact information for BobSmith.
MicrodataHere is the same HTML marked up with microdata.Heres how this sample works.• In the first line, itemscope indicates that the content in the <div> is an item. itemtype="http://data- vocabulary.org/Person indicates that the item is a Person.• Each property of the Person item is identified with the itemprop attribute. For example, itemprop="name" describes the persons name.
Microdata – nested entitiesThe example above shows contact information about Bob Smith, but it doesnt include his address. The example belowshows the same HTML, but in this case, it includes the address property. Heres how this sample works: • The address property is itself an item, containing its own set of properties. This is indicated by putting the itemscope attribute on the item that declares the address property, and using the itemtype attribute to specify the type of item being described, like this: <span itemprop="address" itemscope itemtype="http://data- vocabulary.org/Address">. For more examples, see Nested items.
Microdata – date and informationTo specify dates and times unambiguously, use the time element with the datetime attribute. Here, the startDateproperty indicates the start date of an event. The value in the datetime attribute is specified using the ISO date format.Using this format lets you provide search engines with detailed date, time and—optionally—time zone in ISO format("2009-10-15T19:00-08:00"), while still displaying the date on your page in a user-friendly way ("15 October 2009,7PM").
Microdata – non-visible contentIn general, Google wont display content that is not visible to the user. In other words, dont show content to users in oneway, and use hidden text to mark up information separately for search engines and web applications. You should markup the text that actually appears to your users when they visit your web pages.There are a few exceptions to this guideline. In some situations it can be valuable to provide search engines with moredetailed information, even if you dont want that information to be seen by visitors to your page. For example, if arestaurant has a rating of 8.5, users (but not search engines) will assume that the rating is based on a scale of 1–10. Inthis case, you can indicate this using the meta element, like this:Heres how this sample works:• The meta tag is used to specify additional information that is not visible on the page—in this case, the fact that the "best possible" rating is 10. The value of the property is specified using the content attribute.
Microdata – non-visible contentSimilarly, providing the duration of an event in ISO duration format can help ensure that it appears correctly in searchresults, like this:Heres how this sample works:• Use the meta tag to specify the value of the property (in this case a duration). This allows you to use the value of the content attribute ("PT1H30M") to specify the duration in ISO 8601 duration format, while still displaying the duration in user-friendly text ("1 hour 30 minutes") on the page itself.• Google looks at the parent element of the meta element to identify what information that is being represented in an alternate way inside the meta tag. So in this case, it is important to make sure that the immediate parent node of the meta tag wraps around the text "1 hour 30 minutes".
MicrodataFor specific vocabulary and examples, see: • Reviews • People • Products • Businesses and organizations • Recipes • Events • Video (note that while Google supports video markup, we currently use it only to improve our video search results).To check your markup, use the structured data testing tool.
Microdata - reviewsWhen review information is marked up in the body of a web page, Google can identify it and use it to understand andpresent the information on your pages. Review information such as ratings and descriptions can help users to betteridentify pages with good content. (Learn more about rich snippets for Local Search.)Usage guidelinesThe goal of a review rich snippet is to provide users with review information about a specific product or service, such asthe star rating (1 to 5 stars) and the name of reviewer(s).The following guidelines apply to review snippets:• When using review markup, the main topic of the page needs to be about a specific product or service. For example, using review markup on a page containing multiple products is not supported.• Review of adult-related products or services are not supported.• If the markup contains a single review, the reviewer’s name needs to be a valid name (Person or Organization). For example, "50% off until Saturday" is not a valid name for a reviewer.
Microdata - reviewsYou can mark up either individual reviews (for example, an editors review of a product), or aggregate reviewinformation—for example, the average rating for a local business or the total number of user reviews submitted.Use the individual Review format for pages containing a single review. For pages containing a collection of reviews, usethe Review-aggregate format. If your page contains both (for example, an editors review plus a set of user reviews), werecommend picking one format.Use the individual Review format to mark up the editors review OR you can use the Review-aggregate format tosummarize the set of user reviews. If a page contains both types of markup, Google will use the Review-aggregatemarkup for display. • Individual reviews • Aggregate reviewsNote: There are many possible ways to indicate review ratings—for example, stars, percentages, and various ratingscales. More information about how to convey review ratings.
Individual reviewsPropertiesA Review can contain a number of different properties which you can label using microdata, microformats, or RDFamarkup. Google recognizes the following Review properties, derived from the hReview microformat.In general, you can use the same property name for microdata, microformats, and RDFa; where the microdata/RDFaand microformats property names differ, the microformats name appears in parentheses.Properties in bold are required. In addition, at least one of the following must be present: rating or dtrviewed.
Individual reviewsProperty Descriptionitemreviewed (item) The item being reviewed. In microformats, can include the name of the item reviewed (fn).rating A numerical quality rating for the item (for example, 4). You can indicate a rating scale by specifying best (default: 5) and worst (default: 1). More information about review ratings.reviewer The author of the review.dtreviewed The date that the item was reviewed in ISO date format.description The body of the review.summary A short summary of the review.The following HTML code contains a review of LAmourita Pizza.
Individual reviewsHere is the same HTML code marked up with microdata:Heres how this sample works:• On the first line, <itemscope itemtype="http://data-vocabulary.org/Review"> indicates that the HTML enclosed in the <div> represents a review. itemscope indicates that the content of the <div> describes an item, and itemtype="http://data-vocabulary.org/Review" indicates that the item is a review.• The sample describes properties of the review, such as the subject of the review, the reviewer, and the date reviewed. To label review properties, each element containing one of these properties (such as <div> or <span>) is assigned an itemprop attribute indicating a property. For example, <span itemprop="reviewer">.
Aggregate reviewsGoogle also recognizes markup about aggregated reviews. For example, a restaurant may have 24 reviews, with anaverage rating of 9 out of 10. Aggregating reviews allows you to convey this information.PropertiesGoogle recognizes the following aggregate review properties, derived from the hReview-aggregate microformat. Ingeneral, you can use the same property name for microdata, microformats, and RDFa; where the microdata/RDFa andmicroformats property names differ, the microformats name appears in parentheses.Properties in bold are required. Each item must include at least one of either count or votes.
Individual reviewsHeres the same HTML code marked up with microdata.Heres how this sample works:• On the first line, <itemscope itemtype="http://data-vocabulary.org/Review-aggregate"> indicates that the HTML enclosed in the <div> represents an aggregate review. itemscope indicates that the content of the <div> describes an item, and itemtype="http://data- vocabulary.org/Review" indicates that the item is a review.• The sample describes properties of the aggregate review, such as the subject of the review and the rating. To label aggregate review properties, each element containing one of these properties (such as <div> or <span>) is assigned an itemprop attribute indicating a property. For example, <span itemprop="itemreviewed">.• A property can consist of another item (in other words, an item can include other items). For example, the review above includes a rating (itemtype="http://data-vocabulary.org/Rating") with the properties average, best, and count. More information about review ratings.
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