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Cloud Computing Standards and Use Cases (Robert Grossman) 09-v8p


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This is a talk that I have given at several events in the fall of 2009.

This is a talk that I have given at several events in the fall of 2009.

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  • 1. Some Cloud Computing Use Cases, An Overview of Some Cloud Computing Standards Organizations, and a Bonus Slide.
    Robert Grossman
    Open Cloud Consortium
    September 3, 2009
    Revised October 9, 2009
  • 2. Outline
    Some definitions & some high level use cases
    Some current standards efforts
    More use cases (community use case document)
    De Facto Standards
  • 3. If you think of standardization as the best that you know today, but which is to be improved tomorrow; you get somewhere. Henry Ford.
    Ford assembly plant for Model T at Highland Plant Park around 1915.
  • 4. Sometimes there are reasons for a lack of interoperability…
    Train gauge in Russia is 1520 mm
    Train gauge in China is 1435 mm
    Change of gauge at Ussuriisk (near Vladivostok) at the Chinese –Russian border
  • 5. Cloud 3
    Cloud 2
    Cloud 1
    Cloud 2
    Cloud 1
    Extended enterprise cloud
    Standalone cloud
  • 6. Part 1Some Definitions and Two Use Cases
  • 7. First Two Use Cases
    Moving an existing cloud application from Cloud 1 to Cloud 2 without changing the application.
    Providing surge capacity for an application on Cloud 1 using any of the Clouds 2, 3, … (without changing the application).
    Migrate / port
    Surge / burst
    Cloud 2
    Cloud 1
  • 8. Portability
    Cloud 2
    Cloud 1
    The ease with which a system, component, application or data can be transferred from one hardware or software environment to another.
  • 9. Migration
    Cloud 2
    Cloud 1
    Moving a virtual machine (VM) between physical hosts within a network or virtual network with only a very short pause in execution (c. 50 – 500 ms).
    More generally, moving a VM between clouds with only a very short pause in execution.
    More generally, moving a virtual application, virtual network, etc. to a different physical infrastructure with only a very short pause in execution.
  • 10. Interoperability
    Cloud 2
    Cloud 1
    The ability of two or more systems, applications, or components to exchange and use information.
    The ability of systems to provide and receive services from other systems and to use the services so interchanged to enable them to operate effectively together.
    Source: Adopted from the Open Group Architecture Framework ( )
  • 11. Open Systems
    A system that implements sufficient open specifications for interfaces, services, and supporting formats to enable properly engineered Application Software:
    To be ported with minimal changes across a wide range of systems
    To interoperate with other applications on local and remote systems
    To interact with users in a style that facilitates user portability
    Source: The Open Group Architecture Framework ( )
  • 12. NIST Definition
    Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.
  • 13. Delivery & Deployment Models
    Three delivery models:
    Software as a Service
    Platform as a Service
    Infrastructure as a Service
    Deployment models
    Public Clouds
    Private Clouds
    Community Clouds
    Hybrid Clouds
  • 14. What Are the Layers?
    • Platform as a Service
    • 15. Cloud Compute Services
    • 16. Data/Table Cloud Services
    • 17. Cloud Storage Services
    Infrastructure as a Service
    Virtual Data Centers (VDC)
    Virtual Networks (VN)
    Virtual Machines (VM)
  • 18. Part 2.There Lots of Cloud Standards
  • 19. Where are the Standards Targeted?
    Corporate Standards
    • VMware’s vCloud API Programming Guide vCloud API Version 0.8 (IaaS)
    • 20. Amazon Web Services (AWS) (IaaS)
    • 21. Google App Engine (PaaS)
    • 22. Microsoft Azure Platform (PaaS)
    • 23. Citrix (IaaS)
    • 24. Platform as a Service
    • 25. Cloud Compute Services
    • 26. Data/Table Cloud Services
    • 27. Cloud Storage Services
    Large Data Cloud Interoperability Framework
    IF-MAP based dynamic infrastructure service linking IaaS and DaaS
    SNIA Cloud Data Management Interface (CDMI)
    Infrastructure as a Service
    Virtual Data Centers (VDC)
    Virtual Networks (VN)
    Virtual Machines (VM)
    Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI)
    Open Virtualization Format (OVF)
  • 28. Source:
  • 29. Cloud Standards Group (5 of 9)
    Wiki at
    Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF)
    Portability for virtual machine images
    Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA)
    Cloud data management interface
    Open Grid Forum (OGF)
    Provisioning and monitoring of IaaS
    Open Cloud Consortium (OCC)
    Large data clouds, information sharing between clouds
    Cloud Security Alliance (CSA)
    Best practices for providing security within a cloud
  • 30. Good (Partial) Summary of Efforts
    Presentations available from NIST, DMTF, SNIA, OGF, OCC, and others at
  • 31. Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF)
    Over 20 vendors including: Citrix, Dell, HP, IBM, Microsoft & VMware
    Virtualization Management (VMAN) Forum
    Their multi-vendor Open Virtualization Format (OVF) is the leading standard for portable virtual machines.
    They have an incubator for cloud
  • 32. DMTF Life Cycle Management for VMs
    Source: DMTF Standards; A Building Block for Cloud Interoperability, Winston Bumpus President, DMTF.
  • 33. Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA)
    40+ active members
    Working on Cloud Data Management Interface
    Targeted at ANSI and ISO certification
    Starting up a Cloud Storage Initiative
    There is a draft of SNIA Cloud Data Management Interface (CDMI) with reference implementation due at end of CY09
    Public web page
  • 34. SNIA Cloud Storage Containers
    Cloud storage container is one of their key abstractions
    Data Storage Interface (DSI_ protocols include: WebDAV, NFS, CIFS, iSCSI, OSD
    Management interfaces include proprietary, Web UI, SMI-S
    Source: SNIA Cloud Storage presentation at Cloud Computing Summit OMG Standards in Government and NGO Workshop
  • 35. Open Grid Forum (OGF)
    Open Grid Forum is leading organization creating grid standards with many members.
    Many of their standards are oriented towards universities and scientific applications.
    Focus is on Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) API.
    Goal is creation of simple RESTfull API with approximately 15 commands.
    Four providers and two projects to implement proposed standard.
  • 36. OCCI Feature Matrix
    Very nice feature matrix of 17 features and 11 vendors
  • 37. OGF Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI)
    Goal is to create RESTfull interfaces for managing IaaS.
    Source: Craig A. Lee, The Open Cloud Computing Interface for Interoperability Across Clouds, July 13, 2009
  • 38. Open Cloud Consortium (OCC)
    501(3)(c) Not-for-profit with over 12 members, including companies, universities, FFRDCs & open source projects.
    One focus area is on large data cloud services.
    Another focus is on bridging IaaS and PaaS standards.
    Operates wide area cloud testbed called the Open Cloud Testbed.
    Developed a benchmark for large data clouds called MalStone.
  • 39. OCC Large Data Cloud Interoperability
    large data cloud services
    Cloud Data Services (BigTable, etc.)
    Quasi-relational Data Services
    OCC is releasing open source reference implementations for interoperability of large data cloud storage and compute services.
    Cloud Compute Services (MapReduce & Generalizations)
    Cloud Storage Services
  • 40. Cloud Security Alliance (CSA)
    20 Corporate members.
    CSA is an industry advocacy group, not a standards organization.
    Deliverables are white papers describing best practices and recommendations for secure clouds.
  • 41. CSA White Paper
  • 42. Part 3. Some Additional Use Cases
  • 43. InterCloud Naming Use Case
    How do we name virtual machines (VM), virtual networks (VN), and virtual data centers (VDC) so that they can be accessed between clouds?
    Cloud 2

    Cloud n
    Cloud 1
    Source: Abstracted from some of the discussions at the First Infrastructure 2.0 Working Group Meeting.
  • 44. Large Data Cloud Use Cases
    Moving a large data cloud application from one large data cloud storage service to another.
    Moving a large data cloud application from one large data cloud compute service to another.
    App 1
    App 2
    Large Data Cloud Compute Services
    Large Data Cloud Storage Services
  • 45. Inter-Cloud Information Sharing Use Case
    How do we share information between two clouds with security and compliance requirements (e.g. HIPAA).
    Cloud 2
    Cloud 1
  • 46. Cloud Computing Use Case White Paper
  • 47. Additional Cloud Use Cases
    cloud 1
    cloud 2
  • 48. Requirements Mapped to Use Cases
  • 49. Requirements Mapped to Use Cases
  • 50. Part 4De Facto Standards
  • 51. Some of the De Facto Standards…
  • 52. Mindmeister Map of Cloud Computing
    Dupont’sMindmeister Map divides the industry:
    IaaS, PaaS, Management, Community
  • 53. For More Information
    Please see