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Brain Cancer SGP
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  • Photo Credit Rob Griffith
  • This is important to me because five years ago my cousin Jordan Bono was killed by his second bout with brain cancer. He beat it and was in remission. Then a month later the cancer came storming back and there was nothing the doctors could do but try and keep him comfortable. He died shortly after his 6th birthday.Picture-Rob Griffith
  • This information can be useful to my fellow classmates in case they, anybody in their family, or their friends get brain or any other type of cancer and need help with information on treatment, support groups, etc..
  • Picture-http://www.zazzle.com/brain_cancer_celtic_butterfly_3_mousepad-144899580015640177
  • Cerebrum-Two separate hemispheres. Largest part of the brain and higher reasoning takes place.Cerebellum-Under the cerebrum. Controls coordination and balance. Brain Stem-Lowest part of brain. Connects to the spinal cord. Controls essential involuntary functions such as breathing. Meninges-3 separate membranes that protect the brain and the spinal cord.Picture-http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/sciences/lifescience/generalbiology/physiology/nervoussystem/Brain/Brain.htm
  • -Cancer types are classified by the cells they originate from-Oncologists describe tumors based on characteristics of them.-Non-filtrating-Grow slowly and do not invade its surroundings.-Well-differentiated-Slow growing but can be invasive (spreads)-Anaplastic-Generally very aggressive.Picture-http://v1.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20061121.wwaittimes21/BNStory/LISA+PRIEST
  • -Primary Tumors-Tumors which arise from the tissues of the brain, its blood vessels, bony and membrane coverings. Primary Tumors can be benign or malignant. Examples of primary tumors are glioblastomas, meningiomas, pituitary tumors and acoustic neuromas.-Secondary Tumors-Secondary brain tumors  arise from malignant sources outside the brain may invade the intracranial cavity, usually as blood- borne metastases. Common sources of these  malignant tumors are carcinoma of the lungs, breast, and skin (melanoma).Picture-“http://www.sd-neurosurgeon.com/diseases/brain_tumors.html”
  • -Most types of brain cancer is glioma. They usually originate in the glial cells.-Glialcells-Supportive cells of the nervous system-Low-grade--Slow growing.-Intermediate-grade--More aggressive-High-grade--Very aggressive Picture-http://www.wral.com/news/political/image/2979114/?ref_id=2974643
  • -Astrocytoma-Begins in the astrocytes in the cerebrum. Glioblastoma is a very aggressive form. It is also the most commom type of Astrocytoma.-Oligodendroglioma-Develops from the oligodendrocytes (insulation of axons which is the long projection of nerve cells)-BrainStem Glioma-Begins in the glial cells of the brain stem.-Ependymoma-Starts in the ependyma (the cells that line the passageways in the brain where the cerebrospinal fluid is made and stored.-Mixed Tumors-Combination of one of more glial cell types.Picture-http://oneana.com/what-is-a-brain-stem-glioma/
  • Vestibular Nerve-One of the two branches of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Occurs in the vestibular nerve.-Meningiomas-Originates in the meninges around the brain and the spinal column. Usually are benign, but may cause significant symptoms as they grow and press on the brain and spinal cord. The begin neast the pituitary gland.-Medulloblastoma-It arises from the granular cells in the cerebellum-Granular cells-Tiny neurons that are found within the granular layer of the cerebellum.-Primary CNS Lymphoma-Located near the base of the brain, and can be the source of tumors. This is the pineal and the pituitary glands.Picture-http://www.advancedpsy.com/brain_tumors___cancer-page-32.html
  • Secondary tumors have all the same features of the primary tumors. Secondary tumors spread to other areas though. Brain cancer is such at such a low percentage that most tumors that are found in the brain that they are secondary tumors. When cancer spreads from another organ such as the lungs or breast they are called Metastatic tumors. It is a lot more likely for cancer to spread from another organ to the brain then just getting brain cancer, but once this happens it is pretty much done deal that the patient is going to die.Picture-commons.wikimedia.org
  • Metastatic disease can be viewed as two simultaneously occurring diseases. Brain cancer  and systemic cancer (elsewhere in the body). Each disease has quite different  mortality rates. Untreated brain metastases are rapidly fatal, while systemic cancer may not be.Picture- http://www.sd-neurosurgeon.com/diseases/brain_tumors.html
  • Cancer is very complex. Brain cancer is especially complex. No two sets of symptoms are the same. This is so because different parts of the brain control your different bodily functions. It does not matter if the functions are voluntary or involuntary. The only symptom that is universal are headaches. The headaches get more frequent and worse over time. They become migraines which are very painful.-Tumors can be found on the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and the temporal lobe.Motor Skills.-Tumors that are found on either lobe can severely impact your motor skills.Picture-http://www.dwp.gov.uk/publications/specialist-guides/medical-conditions/a-z-of-medical-conditions/stroke/specific-nps-stroke.shtml
  • -FrontalLobe-It is located at the front of the cerebral hemisphere positioned in front of the parietal lobes, and above and in front of the temporal lobe. -The frontal lobe separate from the parietal lobe by the primary motor complex.-The primary motor complex is responsible for controlling all voluntary movements for specific body parts in-conjunction with the precentral gyrus which is a ridge on the cerebral cortex. -Behavioral and emotional changes-Impaired judgment and sense of smell-Memory Loss-Paralysis of the left side of the body-Vision Loss Picture-www.rhododendrites.com
  • -Parietal Lobe-It is positioned above the occipital lobe and to the rear of the frontal lobe. -The parietal lobes integrates sensory and allows you to see patterns and other similar objects. Tumors on the parietal lobes give you symptoms that make you slur your words, have trouble writing basic word, can’t tell things apart and patients can have seizures.-Impaired speech-Inability to write-Spatial Disorder-Cannot tell patterns apartPicture-http://www.xara.com/news/october06/tutorial2.asp
  • Most brain tumors are found in elderly people that are 70 years of age and older. The other cases of brain cancer are found in children. The age spread is 8 years of age and younger. Picture-www.harrycutting.com
  • -Radiation-People that work in the nuclear industry such as the Nuclear Power Generating Plants in Limerick will give a person an increased risk of developing a brain tumor.-Formaldehyde-is a colorless, odorless gas in a solution made by oxidizing methanol. This is most common in pathologists and embalmers. Scientists have not found any other increased risk for brain cancer in any other types of workers. Pathologists work in labs and study the causes and effects of different diseases in the human body.-Vinyl Chloride-This refers mainly to people who work in places where plastic is made.-Acrylonitirle-This refers mainly to people that work in textile mills and plasticsPicture-http://www.npl.washington.edu/teeshirt.html
  • Scientists are still conducting ongoing studies to see whether or not the radiation from cell phone usage. Scientists are also studying to see if prior head injuries are causing brain tumors. These include concussions, internal bleeding, etc.. Picture-www.healthjockey.com
  • -The physical exam is when a doctor just gives a routine physical to look for abnormal health signs. -The Neurological exam is when a doctor checks for muscle strength, alertness, coordination, reflexes, and muscle pain. The doctor also examines the eyes to check for swelling by a tumor pressing on a nerve that connects the eye with the brain. www.fotosearch.com
  • -Angiogram-Dye injected into the bloodstream flows into the blood vessels in the brain to make them show up on an x-ray. If a tumor is present, the doctor may be able to see it on the x-ray. -Skull X-ray-Some types of brain tumors cause calcium deposits in the brain or changes in the bones of the skull. With an x-ray, the doctor can check for these changes. -SpinalTap-The doctor may remove a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (the fluid that fills the spaces in and around the brain and spinal cord). It is used with local anesthesia. The doctor uses a long needle to remove the fluid from the patients spinal column. The whole procedure takes about 30 seconds.-Myelogram-This is an x-ray of the spine. A special dye is injected into the patients spinal column. This test helps to see if there is a tumor in a patients spinal cord. Picture-http://www.migraineheadachepain.com/tmj_xray_diagnostics.html
  • -Biopsy-It is the removal of tissues to look for cancer cells. A pathologist looks at the cells under a microscope to check for abnormal cells.A biopsy can show cancer, tissue changes that may lead to cancer, and other conditions. A biopsy is the only sure way to diagnose a brain tumor. -Needle Biopsy-The surgeon makes a small incision in the scalp and drills a small hole into the skull. This is called a burr hole. The doctor passes a needle through the burr hole and removes a sample of tissue from the brain tumor. -Stereotactic Biopsy-An imaging device, such as CT or MRI, guides the needle through the burr hole to the location of the tumor. The surgeon withdraws a sample of tissue with the needle.-Biopsy at the same time as treatment-Tissue sample is taken during surgery while removing a tumor.Picture-http://www.imsitaly.com/eng/ffdb-digitalbiopsy.htm
  • -Computerized Axial Tomography-Used to look for abnormal structures in the body and help with surgery procedures.-Check for tumors in the brain and spinal column.-The recorded images are called tomograms.Three dimensional pictures are taken. It is like looking at a loaf of bread. You continually take slices away you see the different surfaces from the crust to center of the bread. During CT scans the body is viewed as slices, and it eventually makes the three dimensional images see the abnormalities. Picture-www.gamespot.com
  • The intravenous material is an injection of liquid form of iodine. This material is injected into your veins and into your bloodstream to make your internal organs, blood vessels, etc. more vivid on the tomograms. The iodine can sometimes cause the patient to be very itchy, rashes, hives, and can almost have a feverish feeling. These reactions go away rather quickly. If needed antihistamines will be provided to get rid of the symptoms. If an anaphylactic reaction occurs you can get severe hives and difficulty breathing. This can be life threatening if not treated. This is very rare. Picture-http://pluaustralia.wordpress.com/2009/01/07/im-itching/
  • The MRI and the CAT scan are similar in what they do and what their purposes are. The MRI and CAT both scan and take pictures of body organs, blood vessels, and other structures that are inside the body. The way that each machine goes about going and getting the computer generated images. The MRI uses magnetic fields and radio frequencies to get the images. Also if anybody has gotten an MRI it is very loud when you go inside the tube.Picture-http://ipohmom.wordpress.com/2009/09/09/mri-scan/
  • MRI is a very safe procedure as long as all safety procedures are followed. Patients may covered with a lead cover to protect from the magnetic field and radio waves because lead is a poor conductor. The lead cover is pretty heavy but safe. The only major potential problem is sedation. If a patient goes into an MRI heavily sedated it could be trouble, but the radiologists and or the nurses keep a close eye on your vital signs when patients are sedated. Just like the CT scan they MRI may use the iodine solution to make what the radiologists are viewing more vivid. Again it is harmless, but if and allergic reaction does occur then the doctors on hand will take immediate action.
  • -The patient's doctor may refer the patient to one or more specialists. At cancer centers, several specialists often work together as a team. Need a new diagnosis and a treatment plan.-Many health insurance companies ask for you to get a second opinion.-The Cancer Information Service, at 1-800-4-CANCER, can tell callers about nearby treatment centers. -A local or state medical society, a nearby hospital, or a medical school can usually provide the names of specialists.-Request a consultation with a team of specialists in NCI's Neuro-Oncology Branch of the Warren Grant Magnuson Clinical Center at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland.Picture-www.kevinmd.com
  • WBR-Whole Brain RadiationKPS-Karnofsky Performance Scale-It rates the funtional rate of individual. A KPS >70 means an individual is capable of living independently, without assistance.Graph-“http://www.sd-neurosurgeon.com/diseases/brain_tumors.html”
  • External Beam Radiation-It is the most common method of treatment given to patients with primary malignant brain tumors. The treatment is an X-ray beam. This beam is much stronger then those used for X-ray of the chest and even CT Scans. No need for invasive procedures and usually last anywhere from 5-7 weeks. A benefit of giving this treatment over an extended period of time is that they will feel fewer side effects. Also the beam is focused so it does not damage any other healthy tissue around the tumor. The treatment requires one planning session called a simulation.Stereotactic Radiosurgery-This is just another way to treat many other types of brain tumors with external brain radiation. This involves various high powered beams to pinpoint tumors in the brain and treat them. This is also designed to try and limit damage to healthy tissue around the malignant tumors. This requires high tech X-ray equipment and technology. It also requires close teamwork amongst surgeons to pinpoint and eliminate these tumors.Picture-http://tcropa.com/services/
  • -Chemotherapy is a single drug or combination of drugs used at a given time.-It can be given orally or through an IV. The IV is quicker because it gets right into your bloodstream. There are two brand new drugs for malignant tumors they are called Temodar and Avastin. These are more effective drugs and come with fewer side effects. The advantage for Temodar is that it is admitted orally so that there are less hospital lines this menas for a shorter stay in the hospital. A single drug can cost up to $10,000 a month.-Usually given in cycles. Which means a time of intensive treatment and then a period of rest and recovery. These cycles usually last a few weeks.-Regimens are designed so that 2 to 4 cycles are completed. They do this so the doctors can see how the tumor reacts during the time of rest.-The side effects are well known and can be hard to tolerate for most people. They include nausea and vomiting, mouth sores, loss of appetite, loss of hair, and many others. Some of these side effects can be relieved or improved by medication.Picture-http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2006-07-10-cancer-costs_x.htm
  • Surgery for metastatic deposits is an appealing treatment, but only applicable in a minority of patients. Less than 1/2 of patients with metastatic disease have a single tumor and about 1/2 of these patients have surgically  accessible  tumors. The remainder of patients have many tumors or deeply-situated deposits which increases the surgical complexity if not the risk.Picture-http://www.msfc.nasa.gov/news/news/photos/2000/photos00-336.htm
  • -Local control of intracranial metastases improves the quality and length of survival.-Local control reduces neurological death in vast majority of individuals.-Surgery depends upon adjuvant WBR to achieve local control.-Radiosurgery alone may achieve local control effectively without the need for WBR in terms of median survival.-Since brain metastases are a focal disease, non-invasive, outpatient focal treatment is appealing. In certain circumstances radiosurgery alone may be the best treatment.Studies by PirkzallGraph-Picture-“http://www.sd-neurosurgeon.com/diseases/brain_tumors.html”
  • -Rehabilitation is very important part of the treatment plan. The goals depend on the needs of the patients. The healthcare team makes sure that the patient gets back to normal activities as soon as possible.-Physical Therapists-Brain tumors and their treatment may cause paralysis. They may also cause weakness and problems with balance. Physical therapists help patients regain strength and balance. -Speech Therapists-Speech therapists help patients who have trouble speaking, expressing thoughts, or swallowing. -Occupational Therapists-Occupational therapists help patients learn to manage activities of daily living, such as eating, using the toilet, bathing, and dressing.Picture-http://qvh.nhs.uk/patients_and_services/specialist_care_and_clinical_services/occupational_therapy.html
  • Brain cancer does not take up a big amount of the cancer cases currently in the United States, but it is a very physiological cancer. This is so because of the effect it has on a persons decision making and emotion. Although brain cancer cases are on the rise the new technologies are helping to do a better job of detecting the cancer. When doctors used to read the MRI and CT Scans they used to think that these brain abnormalities were dementia, stroke, or some other neurological disorder. The type of brain cancer called Central Nervous System Lymphoma is up 300% form 10 years ago. This type of tumor is very rare.
  • Brain Cancer has the sixth lowest five-year survival rate behind pancreatic, liver cancer, esophagus, lung, and the stomach cancers. The chances of living after five years is still not very good at 33%. It is a lot better for children if the tumors have not spread. In my cousin Jordan’s case he beat brain cancer then about a month later it came back and they spread and he died within two months. Brain cancer is very rare but it is very tough to beat. Patients must be extremely lucky. Picture-http://www.thompsonfineartsinc.com/CurrentProjects.html
  • -There are more than 1,200,000 new cases  and 130,000 deaths from brain metastases each year. -Recent outcome studies of the various treatments for brain metastasis have enlarged our understanding of the management of this disorder. Untreated patients with metastatic brain tumors may survive only a few weeks, and the addition of steroids to treat brain swelling may add  a month to survival.Picture-http://www.interment.net/column/2006/07/stained-glass-tombstones.html
  • -The National Brain Tumor Society (NBTS) is the the leader in the brain tumor community. -They have centers on the east (Watertown, Maryland) and west coast (San Francisco, California) of the United States. -They offer top notch research and caring support for patients, friends, and families that are all affected by brain tumors. They offer many sources for people to get help in support groups.-People have been quoted as saying that they have been put at ease because they feel like that they are not alone.Picture-www.braintumor.org
  • -Founded in 1980. The mission of the Make-A-Wish foundation is to help grant dreams for children with life-threatening illnesses. These wishes include meeting somebody famous, going on a vacation or helping to achieve a life-long dream. They have over 25,000 volunteer workers. They have reached over 191,447. There is a wish granted every 40 minutes.-The first wish was in 1980 when they helped a seven-year-old boy with Leukemia to become a police officer.
  • For my application I held a car wash at the King of Prussia Volunteer Fire Company on Sunday April 18. Before selecting to have a car wash my family and I weighed our options. I wanted to do an activity that would raise a lot of money. The car wash had to go through an approval process at the fire house. Then we made flyers and hung them up around King of Prussia, announcements were made on pulse, various emails and text messages were sent to get the word out. Had to get help washing, needed towels and buckets as well. Not only did people donate money, generous people donated close to 30 towels and various buckets. Also people donated a lot of man-hours to make this a success. The final count of the donations came to $950.00. The money went to the Make-A-Wish Foundation in memory of my cousin. Picture-Rob Griffith
  • Picture-http://home.comcast.net/~kathyholleger/jordan/index.html

Transcript

  • 1. Brain Cancer
    Rob Griffith
    Period 1
  • 2. Thesis
    Brain cancer is a very serious disease that affects all different types of people. With the help of research and new medical advances there is a brighter future.
  • 3. Self Relevance
    Jordan Bono
    Cousin
  • 4. Relevance to Others
    Yourself
    Family
    Friends
  • 5. Overview
    Brain Make-Up
    Diagnosis
    Treatment
    Survival Rates
    Support Groups
  • 6. Brain Makeup
    Cerebrum
    Cerebellum
    Brain Stem
    Meninges
  • 7. Identifying Tumors
    Classified by the cells they originate from.
    Describe tumors based on characteristics.
    Non-filtrating
    Well-differentiated
    Anaplastic
  • 8. Two Categories
    Primary Brain Tumors
    Secondary Tumors
  • 9. Types of Brain Tumors
    Glioma
    Can be described as
    Low-grade
    Intermediate-grade
    High-grade
  • 10. Different types of Gliomas
    Astrocytoma
    Oligodendroglioma
    Brain Stem Glioma
    Ependymoma
    Mixed Tumors
  • 11. Non-Glial Tumors
    Acoustic Schwannoma
    Craniopharyngloma
    Meningiomas
    Medulloblastoma
    Primary CNS Lymphoma
  • 12. Secondary Tumors
    Have the same abnormalities as regular tumors
    Metastatic tumor
    Far more common
  • 13. Secondary Tumors Cont.
    Two Simultaneous Diseases
    Brain Cancer
    Systemic Cancer
  • 14. Signs and Symptoms
    Headaches
    Motor Skills
  • 15. Signs and Symptoms Cont.
    Frontal Lobe
  • 16. Signs and Symptoms Cont.
    Parietal lobe
  • 17. Age
    Over 70
    Under the age of 8
  • 18. Exposure at Work
    Radiation
    Formaldehyde
    Vinyl Chloride
    Acrylonitrile
  • 19. Ongoing Studies
    Cell Phones
    Past Head Injuries
  • 20. Diagnosis
    Starts with
    Physical Exam
    Neurological Exam
  • 21. Other Tests
    Angiogram
    Skull X-ray
    Spinal Tap
    Myelogram
  • 22. Biopsy
    Three Types
    Needle Biopsy
    Stereotactic Biopsy
    Biopsy Same Time As Treatment
  • 23. CAT Scans
    CT Scans (CAT Scan)
    Combines X-ray and computer generated images.
    Tomograms
  • 24. CAT Scans Cont.
    A very safe procedure.
    One common problem
    The intravenous material
    Medicine can be provided
    More serious problem
    Anaphylactic reaction
    Symptoms are more severe
    Can be life threatening
    Vary rare
  • 25. MRI
    MRI
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    Helps to diagnose and treat medical conditions
    In
    Organs
    Soft tissue
    Bone
    Uses
    Powerful magnetic field
    Radio frequency impulses
    Computer generated images
  • 26. MRI Cont.
    Also a safe procedure when proper safety guidelines are followed.
    The magnetic field is not harmful.
    Although extra metal medical devices can interfere with the MRI.
    Iodine solution
    Used to make organ or structure more vivid on the images.
    Allergic reaction can occur.
    Doctors will treat immediately.
  • 27. Second Opinion
    Patients might want a second opinion
    Number of ways to get second opinion
  • 28. Treatment Protocol
  • 29. Radiation
    External Beam Radiation
    Stereotactic Radiosurgery
  • 30. Chemotherapy
    What is it?
    Administered?
    Cycles
    Regimens
    Side-effects
  • 31. Surgery Alone
    Appealing treatment
    Only select few can get it
  • 32. Radiosurgery Alone
    Very appealing
    Possible best treatment
    “http://www.sd-neurosurgeon.com/diseases/brain_tumors.html”
  • 33. Rehabilitation
    Physical Therapists
    Speech Therapists
    Occupational Therapists
  • 34. Survival Rates
    Brain cancer accounts for 2% of all cancers in the United States.
    13,000 deaths annually.
    Brain cancer is the leading cause of death in patients 35 and under.
    Brain cancer cases are on the rise.
    Central Nervous System Lymphoma is up 300% in the past 10 years.
    New technologies in CT Scans and MRI’s are finding it earlier.
  • 35. Survival Rates Cont.
    5 Year Survival Rates
    Brain cancer is the 6th lowest.
    After 5 years the patient has a 33% chance of living.
    This percentage is better in children.
    70%-85% if tumor has not spread.
    30%-40% if tumors have spread.
    Males have slightly increased rate.
    Vary with age.
    Mortality rate goes up every decade.
    At the age of 55 and up the rates jump dramatically.
  • 36. Metastases
    1,200,000 yearly cases
    130,000 yearly deaths
  • 37. Support Group
    The National Brain Tumor Society (NBTS)
    Leader in Brain Tumor Community
    National Presence
    East Coast
    West Coast
  • 38. Make-A-Wish Foundation
    Their Mission
    First Wish
  • 39. Class Activity
    Split class in half
    Family Feud
  • 40. Family Feud
  • 41. Application
    Planning
    Car Wash
    Donations
    Final Profit
    Make-A-Wish
    Video
  • 42. Jordan
    September 4, 1997 - September 18, 2003
  • 43. Works Cited
    "Brain Tumors." Complete Home Medical Guide: n. pag. ProQuest 5000. Web. 1 Dec. 2009. <http://elibrary.bigchalk.com/elibweb/elib/do/document?set=sea>.
    Cuckier, Daniel, M.D., Virginia E. McCullough, and Frank Gingerelli, M.D.      Coping with Radiation Therapy. Ed. Peter Hoffman. Los Angeles: Lowell ,      2000. Print.
    Kenny, Paraic A. Stages of Cancer Development. New York: Chelsea House , 2007.      Print. Biology of Cancer.
    Kunschner, Lara, M.D., and , hosts. A New Tool Designed to Fight Brain Cancer      Zaps the Tumors at Their Core.Web MD. Web. 1 Dec. 2009.      <http://www.webmd.com/video/electrifying-brain-cancer>.
    Matray-Devoti, Judith. Cancer Drugs. Ed. David J. Triggle. New York: Chelsea,      2007. Print. Drugs, The Straight Facts.
    Panno, Joseph, Ph.D. Cancer the Role of Genes Lifestyle and Environment. New      York: Facts on File, 2005. Print. The New Biology.
    Patt, Richard B., M.D., and Susan S. Lang. The Complete Guide to Relieving      Cancer Pain and Suffering. New York: Oxford, 2004. Print.
  • 44. Works Cited
    Tannenhaus, Norra. Cancer. Ed. Jay Hyams and Susan Cass. Springhouse,      Pennsylvania: Springhouse, 1986. Print.
    John, Angelo P., Sr. "What is Brain Cancer?" www.apjohncancerinstitute.org.      N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2010. <http://www.apjohncancerinstitute.org/      cancer/brain.htm>.
    "Brain Cancer Symptoms." www.oncologychannel.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2010.      <http://www.oncologychannel.com/braincancer/symptoms.shtml>.
    Web Site"Brain Tumor." Medicinenet. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2010.      http://www.oncologychannel.com/braincancer/symptoms.shtml
    Web link"SD-neurosurgeon." Diseases-Brain Tumors. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2010.      <http://www.sd-neurosurgeon.com/diseases/brain_tumors.html>.
    "Brain Cancer Survival Rates." Cancer Survival Rates. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr.      2010. <http://www.cancersurvivalrates.net/      brain-cancer-survival-rates.html>.