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  • 10:00 – 12:15 Introductions To The Case Study Method 12:15 – 1:00 Lunch 1:00 – 2:15 Overview of U.S. Government, NGOs , and Prisoner Reentry  2:15 – 2:30 Break 2:30 – 3:30 Case One: Newark Prisoner Reentry 3:30 – 3:45 Break 3:45 – 4:15 Student Memo WritingPurposeEffective Outline4:15 - 5:00 Teaching Case Studies – Facilitating DiscussionsManaging a conversation Developing a teaching note   Saturday, June 16, 2012 10:00 – 11:15 Review of Performance Management and Evaluation 11:15 – 12:15 Case 2 TWC – An Approach to Performance Improvement12:15 – 1:00 Lunch 1:00 – 2:00 Case 3 California Global Warming Solutions – Cost Benefit Analysis and Evaluation in Implementing Local Legislation 2:00 – 2:20 End/Break for those staying for the afternoon session2:20 – 5:00 This time is an opportunity to break into groups and begin to outline Georgian-based case studies to be written and developed by ISU faculty. Richard Greenwald will come in with notes and ideas about drafting case studies on:Prisoner Reentry Policies in Georgia; Probation programs and its challengesProject Evaluation; Should local government provide certain pubic goods; Cost benefit analysis (Should Tbilisi build new roads, tunnels and bridges?)Environmental Policies of local governments; New projects in Tbilisi: cutting down old trees, planting new ones 
  •  11:15 – 12:15 Case 2 TWC – An Approach to Performance Improvement12:15 – 1:00 Lunch 1:00 – 2:00 Case 3 California Global Warming Solutions – Cost Benefit Analysis and Evaluation in Implementing Local Legislation 2:00 – 2:20 End/Break for those staying for the afternoon session2:20 – 5:00 This time is an opportunity to break into groups and begin to outline Georgian-based case studies to be written and developed by ISU faculty. Richard Greenwald will come in with notes and ideas about drafting case studies on:Prisoner Reentry Policies in Georgia; Probation programs and its challengesProject Evaluation; Should local government provide certain pubic goods; Cost benefit analysis (Should Tbilisi build new roads, tunnels and bridges?)Environmental Policies of local governments; New projects in Tbilisi: cutting down old trees, planting new ones 
  • What should Ingrid Johnson do? What strategy should she pursue to achieve Mayor Cory Booker’s vision of helping “formerly incarcerated individuals” to “return home and become successful, productive members of the Newark community.” In attempting to develop a performance strategy for Johnson, you might find it helpful to think about the following questions: 􏰟  What, exactly, should Johnson try to accomplish? 􏰟  What should be the key components of Johnson’s strategy for accomplishing this? 􏰟  How will Johnson (and Booker) know when she (they) have been successful? 􏰟  How long will this take? 􏰟  Who does Johnson have to convince that her strategy has been successful? 􏰟  What are the key challenges that Johnson faces? 􏰟  What are the assets that she can employ? 􏰟  How much authority does Johnson have? What exactly is the nature and the source of this authority? 􏰟  How should Johnson make use of her authority? 􏰟  How can Johnson compensate for her lack of authority? 􏰟  What is your causal theory — the leadership and management mechanisms that, you think, explain why your key components will have an impact?
  • By December 31, 2010, the Newark Prisoner Reentry Initiative, had placed 781 people in jobs. Under the NPRI, five nonprofit agencies that provided case management, mentoring and job placement services, were required to meet certain performance outcomes. During the two years of their contracts, the NPRI reported, these five agencies produced the following results: ❖  An enrollment of 1360 participants.The enrollment benchmark was 1340. The NPRI achieved 101% of this target. ❖  A recidivism rate of 7% percent.This benchmark was 22%. The NPRI exceeded this target. ❖  A total placement of 781 people in permanent jobs with an averagehourly wage of $9.30 per hour.This benchmark was 804 job placements (or 60% of the participant target) with an average hourly wage of $9.00 per hour. The NPRI agencies achieved nearly 97% of this job-placement benchmark and exceeded the hourly-wage requirement. ❖  A 71% job retention rate.This component of the contract focused on job retention for six months, and the benchmark was 70%. Thus the NPRI achieved this target. http://www.manhattan-institute.org/video/?c=NPRI
  • http://www.manhattan-institute.org/video/?c=NPRI
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  • 1. Case MethodDeveloping, Writing, and Teaching Columbia School of International and Public Affairs The Executive Master of Public Policy and Administration Presentation by Richard Greenwald, C.U. Adjunct Professor June 15-16, 2012 Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia
  • 2. Agenda Friday, June 15, 2012Time Topic10:00 – 11:00 Introductions To The Case Study Method11:00 – 11:15 Break11:15 – 12:30 Introductions To The Case Study Method Continued12:30 – 13:30 Lunch13:30 – 14:30 Overview of U.S. Government, NGOs , and Prisoner Reentry14:30 – 15:30 Case One: Newark Prisoner Reentry15:30 – 15:45 Break15:45 – 16:15 Student Memo Writing • Purpose • Effective Outline16:15 - 17:00 Teaching Case Studies – Facilitating Discussions • Managing a conversation • Developing a teaching note 6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 2
  • 3. Agenda Saturday, June 16, 2012 Time Topic 10:00 – 11:15 Review of Performance Management and Evaluation 11:15 – 11:30 Break 11:30 – 12:30 Case 2 TWC – An Approach to Performance Improvement 12:30 – 13:30 Lunch 13:30 – 14:30 Case 3 California Global Warming Solutions – Cost Benefit Analysis and Evaluation in Implementing Local Legislation 14:30 – 14:45 Break 14:45 – 17:00 Group Work Break into groups and Prisoner Reentry begin to outline Georgian- Project Evaluation ‐based case studies to be Environment Or written and developed by Infrastructure ISU faculty.6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 3
  • 4. Introduction To The Case Study Method & Experiential Learning6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 4
  • 5. What is the purpose of a case study? • Understand a theory or theme • Assess a situation • Apply a solution • Help people remember • Stimulate new ideas • Encourage independent thought • Take on leadership role6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 5
  • 6. Purpose • Professional education and training o Business o Public Administration o Public Planning6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 6
  • 7. What is a teaching case study? • “A detailed examination of singular circumstance within an organization” • Story about something real in which a decision by a leader must be made • “Something real” brought to the classroom with all the externals such as various pressures and considerations to make decisions • Opportunity for students to experiment on real world scenarios • A device for a facilitated discussion6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 7
  • 8. What is a teaching case study? • Designed for students who are becoming practitioners • A real world story that allows students to practice critical thinking skills and decision making • Is discussion based • Does not necessarily have a right answer6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 8
  • 9. What is a teaching case study?• A description of a management situation or management story• Case history of symptoms• Diagnosis of a problem• Set up for discussion of recommended actions o Actions that may second guess what the protagonist in the story did 9
  • 10. What is a teaching case study? • Meeting the objective for your students of o Conveying knowledge o Improving mastery of theories and applications of theory, governance, leadership, cost-benefit analysis o Improving critical analysis o Approaching teaching through o Stimulating new ideas o Encouraging creativity and independent thought o Demonstrated leadership and personal responsibility6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 10
  • 11. What is a teaching case study? • Students need to learn to be leaders who can think critically , create convincing arguments, and effective decisions6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 11
  • 12. Why use case studies • Experiential Learning o Students learn for themselves by struggling with the issues that the leaders in the stories face o Students deeply examine a scenario, use related assigned readings, and write a paper • The discussions help students gain knowledge about a subject • Use conceptual or analytical techniques • Good habit of asking “why” through analysis • Think about leaders’ perspectives6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 12
  • 13. What case is NOT • Not a lecture • Not just the teacher sharing information • Not memorization • Not one correct answer • Teaching is not the sole center of attention, but more of a facilitator6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 13
  • 14. Case Pros and Cons Pros Cons Anchored in Experience – There are no right answers learning “sticks” which can frustrate learners Learner Based The student owns the learning process The learning can be powerful It is harder work than other and intimate means of learning6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 14
  • 15. შესვენება6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 15
  • 16. Elements of a good case • It is interesting • Buried rewards of discovery • Connects to a wider theory or theme in the course • Analytical challenge • It is clearly presented • Carefully included exhibits • Teaching Notes • Answer what the student will be expected to do with the case6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 16
  • 17. Determining the purpose and your topic/thesis/theory • Is there a topic you are discussing in class like leadership, governance, cost/benefit analysis you want to test in the real world? • Is there a policy issue you want to illustrate? • Are you highlighting the decision making process?6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 17
  • 18. Developing a partner(s) funder and organization willing to be the subject of a case• Organizations agree to cooperate because o Insight into their own organization o Want to participate in educating leaders o Outside excited researchers and students can stimulate new ideas into their own organizations 6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 18
  • 19. Determining a timeline of research, writing, editing and the costs of developing a case • Be realistic • Prepare to go back several times to the organization to clarify assumptions • Engage an editor • Get a good set of outside people to comment on the case; including the organizations highlighted • Edit again • Get feedback from students as you teach the case for the first time6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 19
  • 20. Initial questions • What are you trying to accomplish in terms of fitting into the course? • Who is the audience? • What ancillary materials will you develop? • What decisions need to be made by the protagonist? • How much data is useful to move the story along? • How long will the case be? • What is the controversy; the context in which a decision needs to be made?6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 20
  • 21. Ethics of telling a true story • If you embellish, be upfront about it (don’t embellish though) • Be clear with your host organization about what your goals are for the case • Footnote and document your resources6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 21
  • 22. Acquiring useful supplemental appendix info. (e.g. budgets or organizational policies) • Samples include; • Organizational charts • Financials • Speeches • Meeting minutes • Organizational policies6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 22
  • 23. Getting feedback • Check Facts with lead organization • Test to ensure the flow of the narrative is logical and all the data is in6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 23
  • 24. Acknowledging sources • End Notes • Thank You Upfront6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 24
  • 25. Commitment • It could take 200 hrs getting the facts, interviewing the right people, checking your work6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 25
  • 26. სადილი6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 26
  • 27. Overview of U.S. Government, NGOs , and Prisoner Reentry6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 27
  • 28. Government System in the United States - Federal6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 28
  • 29. State and County6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 29
  • 30. Local City/Municipal6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 30
  • 31. Federal Income6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 31
  • 32. Source of Income6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 32
  • 33. Nonprofit Sector6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 33
  • 34. Size of the U.S. Nonprofit Sector • 1.8 million nonprofit organizations • 1.4 billion dollars in revenue and 3 trillion in assets in 2007 • 5.3 - 9% GDP • 10.9 million employees • 8.3 % total paid employment in U.S.6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 34
  • 35. 1950-2011 Growth in Nonprofit Sector Year Number of NFP 1940 12,500 2000 1,000,000 2011 1,800,0006/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 35
  • 36. Salamon on Nonprofits “It has been said that the quality of a nation can be seen in the way it treats its least advantaged citizens. But it can also be seen in the way it treats its most valued institutions.” Lester M. Salamon State of Nonprofit America, 20026/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 36
  • 37. Private Nonprofit Sector “A set of organizations that is privately constituted but serves some public purpose, such as the advancement of health, education, scientific progress or the free expression of ideas.” Lester M. Salamon6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 37
  • 38. Six Defining Characteristics • Organizations • Private • Self Governing • Voluntary • Of Public Benefit • Non-profit-distributing6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 38
  • 39. Why do we have a nonprofit sector? • Market Failure • Contract Failure • Government Failure • Pluralism/Freedom • Solidarity 6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 39
  • 40. Types of Nonprofit Organizations • Member Serving (400,000) • Public Serving (1,200,000)6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 40
  • 41. Creation of Modern Nonprofit Sector • Great Society expansion of government role in social welfare: o Medicare o Medicaid o Head Start o Community Action Agencies o Discretionary Programs6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 41
  • 42. Great Society Implications for Nonprofit Sector• Creation of new nonprofit organizations• Proliferation of resources• Partnership with government in delivery system• Nonprofit sector “fills gaps”• Heavy government regulation• Limited professional management expertise in nonprofit organizations6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 42
  • 43. Philanthropy6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 43
  • 44. 6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 44
  • 45. “Graduated” Level of Engagement Collaborating with government in private/public partnerships Telling your story Influencing government6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 45
  • 46. Prisoner Reentry in Georgia6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 46
  • 47. Facts about Corrections – U.S. • 2.3. million adults behind bars (24,000 in Georgia) o 1-100 adults o 1-31 (7.3M) are in the criminal justice system o 1-106 w; 1-36 h; 1-15b (1-9b 20-34) o 10 million in jail • 90% released eventually • 60% recidivism • Costs – $50B to states6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 47
  • 48. #1 US750/100,000#4 Georgia401/100,000 Pew Center on States: One in 100:Behind Bars in America 2008 48 6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012
  • 49. 6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 49
  • 50. Introduction to Prisoner Reentry• President Bush Raises the Profile 2007• Common Ground on both sides of the political aisle• Welfare was about women; reentry about men 6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 50
  • 51. Corrections • 1st about keeping people safe • Reentry is not necessarily Corrections, but some prep work goes on behind walls such as; o Drug treatment o Preparing for the outside o Handing off information to NGOs and local agencies6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 51
  • 52. Reentry Is… • What happens after Jails and Prisons • Federal, State, Local institutions • Local matter (jobs, housing, crime, families) • Addressing issues facing ex- offenders…banned from jobs, debt, period out of the labor market6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 52
  • 53. Authority Some of the biggest hurdles that cities and states face are just defining what reentry is, and in what agency it belongs, and who has authority6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 53
  • 54. Implementation of a strategy • Less a policy discussion about what legislatively should be done • More about best practices and implementation efforts • Implementation is the hardest thing for public leaders to do – particularly across governments6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 54
  • 55. Effective re-entry programs the US http://www.nationalreentryresourcecenter.org• Quick engagement; work; community corrections; day reporting center; work release o Baltimore, Jacksonville, Newark o CEO, America Works, Goodwill, Ready, Willing and Able o Ready4Work o Delancy Street6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 55
  • 56. Jobs • Most U.S. reentry efforts pay more rhetorical respect to jobs, but emphasizing placement and retention still seems to lag behind knocking out all other barriers first • The corollary of this is performance measurement that hold vendors accountable for the right things in a reasonable way • … and concurrently holds governments to track what is spent on reentry6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 56
  • 57. Policies• Changing maximum stays• Diversion programs in lieu of prison• Tax Credits & bonding for businesses who hire• Housing, substance abuse, employment• Child support forgiveness and enforcement• State laws mandating behind the walls reentry programming• Second Chance Act• Closing prison – diverting funds to communities6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 57
  • 58. Funding• Govt. o Federal DOJ & Faith Based Initiatives o State Corrections o DOL - Workforce• Foundations• Most public leaders are looking for revenue neutral solutions in the here and now– ones that don’t predicate savings after some future date when recidivism has gone down6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 58
  • 59. Did those programs have statistically significant impact on decreasing recidivism rate?• Define Recidivism• MDRC Study of CEO – Lowered recidivism• Urban Institute study of Maryland work release programs• Manhattan Institute – Montgomery County, MD incentives program6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 59
  • 60. Lessons learned throughout planning andimplementation of re-entry related policies • Clarify Expectations • Set up communication systems among all agencies and players • Provide info mgt system • Share information among agencies • Track results • Allow incentives and punishments to work together (housing, child support, etc.) 6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 60
  • 61. Winning over a skeptical public • What choice do have morally and in general? o In the U.S. 90% of offenders come home o 65% re-offend  Costly  Dangerous  Hurts Communities and families o Incarceration is expensive 50 billion a year o Takes people out of the labor market6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 61
  • 62. Newark Prisoner Reentry Case6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 62
  • 63. Newark Prisoner Reentry• Case Synopsis o Mayor Booker’s goals in the context of the Newark’s history on this issue; his need to leverage support; and what he was trying to accomplish o Ingrid Johnson’s challenges o Newark’s “theory of change”6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 63
  • 64. Show MI Video6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 64
  • 65. Newark Prisoner Reentry • Case Objectives: o Illustrate how a municipality takes on an imposing issue like prisoner reentry o Challenge you to assess one leader’s approach o Encourage critical thinking about the use of performance management and outcome based contracting with vendors6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 65
  • 66. Newark Prisoner Reentry• What is the context for the case? o Who are the main characters? o What is the policy issue? o What is the management issue? o What decision(s) need to be made? 6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 66
  • 67. Newark Prisoner Reentry http://www.manhattan-institute.org/video/?c=NPRI•What should be Ingrid •Who are the relevantJohnson’s strategy? skakeholders and how does that impact Johnson ?•What exactly should she try toaccomplish? •Key challenges?•How should they define •What are Johnson’s assets &success? How will they be what authority does she have?able to prove success?6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 67
  • 68. Newark Prisoner Reentry – Follow upBy December 31, 2010, the Newark Prisoner Reentry Initiative, had placed781 people in jobs. Under the NPRI, five nonprofit agencies that providedcase management, mentoring and job placement services, wererequired to meet certain performance outcomes. During the two years oftheir contracts, the NPRI reported, these five agencies produced thefollowing results:❖ An enrollment of 1360 participants.The enrollment benchmark was 1340. The NPRI achieved 101% of thistarget.❖ A recidivism rate of 7% percent.This benchmark was 22%. The NPRI exceeded this target.❖ A total placement of 781 people in permanent jobs with an averagehourly wage of $9.30 per hour.This benchmark was 804 job placements (or 60% of the participant target)with an average hourly wage of $9.00 per hour. The NPRI agenciesachieved nearly 97% of this job-placement benchmark and exceededthe hourly-wage requirement.❖ A 71% job retention rate.This component of the contract focused on job retention for six months,and the benchmark was 70%. Thus the NPRI achieved this target.6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 68
  • 69. Break6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 69
  • 70. Student Memo Writing6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 70
  • 71. Case Memo Purpose • Practicing direct precise communication • Maximum use of limited space • Quickly drawing the readers attention to the most essential ideas • Expresses those ideas clearly6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 71
  • 72. Case Memo Purpose • Students should read it to get a sense of the outline; who the main actors are; what is the important decision to be made • They should re-read it looking for what is said, implied, and is missing • Decide on a course of action and find evidence in the case and class readings to support it • Develop a plan to implement the course of action6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 72
  • 73. Case Memo Considerations• Who are the decision makers & other key characters?• What is his or her objective?• What are the key issues and how to they affect the decision?• What is the environment in which the decision needs to be made?• What are the possible courses of action a leader can make and what are the consequences of those actions?• What is plausible?• How will others react?6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 73
  • 74. Effective Case Memo Outline • What does your audience know? – usually there is a student assignment that asks the student to act like a staff person to the key decision maker • Define the subject upfront about exactly what you are writing about • Explain why you are writing the memo – what is the action you are seeking to encourage6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 74
  • 75. Effective Case Memo Outline• Header – Subject of the memo, date, to and from• State the purpose in the opening sentences; what are the main points of your memo; and why you are writing it?• Quick introduction and background for context• Short clear sentences; no passive voice• Clean Inviting appearance6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 75
  • 76. Teaching Case Studies – Facilitating Discussions6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 76
  • 77. Managing a Conversation • Case method is about the discussion • The teacher puts the group on the right path, motivates the students • The discussion flows from the facts of the case, the details - to some insights on what happened – to some conclusions about what should be done moving forward • Teachers are to moderate students discussion so that as a whole group you examine the problem • Summarize the progress of the conversation as you move forward6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 77
  • 78. Managing a Conversation • Determine what are the major issues which the case is intended to illustrate • How does it relate in context to the other work you are doing this semester with your class • How will you record the discussion • Keep a list of the traps in the case and ensure they get raised6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 78
  • 79. Developing a Teaching Note • A plan for using the case • Case summary • Statement of Learning Objectives • Assignment Questions • Decision discussion • Maybe a blackboard plan outlining role plays, exercises, time allotment for each major discussion focus6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 79
  • 80. Managing a Conversation • Teachers need to become experts at the facts of the case • Anticipate what questions you want answered and what questions might arise from students • Have a plan on how you want the conversation to flow6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 80
  • 81. Managing a Conversation • Students prepare for class by o Understanding who makes the key decisions o Determining what the key decisions will be o The environment or context for decisions that need to be made o And to what end – what is the key objectives that need to be met o Drawing a conclusion in class or in a memorandum6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 81
  • 82. Managing a Conversation • The teacher may give an introductory lecture on a theme • The teacher will have facilitated and recorded the discussion’s direction - a trail of blackboard evidence • The teacher will illuminate critical case conflicts if necessary or play “devil’s advocate” • The class case discussion will end up being upbeat, participatory, and satisfying6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 82
  • 83. Managing a Conversation • Students will be forced to think about their own answers • Repetitive exposure to ambiguous issues in a case help prepare students for real world ambiguities • The class case discussion will end up being upbeat, participatory, and satisfying6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 83
  • 84. Review of Performance Management and Evaluation6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 84
  • 85. Question Zero• What is your organization trying to accomplish?• What are your strategies for making this happen and how are your tracking the implementation of those strategies? o What do you know about the feasibility of your offering…is there a marketplace for it? o How do you take on work; how do you say NO to work that is not profitable or does not fit in etc. o What are your capabilities for doing this?6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 85
  • 86. Core Considerations to Support Your Brand • How does your Performance Measurement AND Management support what is distinct about your organization? • Are you proving your authenticity? • How are you demonstrating it? • Are you consistent (not in your indicators necessarily, but in your outcomes and impact)? 866/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012
  • 87. Proving What You Are Good At • How will your organization know if you are making progress; what goals are you tracking? • How will you measure your success? Define your terms. • What agreements have you made & what mechanisms do you have in place to track data? • Manage the process &communicate6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 87
  • 88. You can’t manage what you can’t measure – Peter Drucker “You can’t manage what you can’t message” – (maybe Deming?) 886/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012
  • 89. Efficiency is Doing things Right: Effectiveness is doing the Right Things6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 89
  • 90. Clarifying Expectations • Everyone’s role in collecting information • Train the team • Narrow focus on the right data • Integrity of data • Evaluating data • Scorecards with terms that makes sense • Using results to make decisions6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 90
  • 91. And Remember… • Get Work Done Through People • Measurement AND Management • Numbers represent something (people…parts of your mission) • Measure, make changes, measure again • Be Courageous6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 91
  • 92. 6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 92
  • 93. Activities • What the program does with the inputs to fulfill its mission • Case management services • Child care services • Technical assistance workshops • Feed and shelter homeless families • Mentoring programs for young people6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 93
  • 94. Outcome Measurement “The regular, systematic tracking of the extent to which program participants experience the benefits or changes intended.”6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 94
  • 95. Outcome Measurement Theoretical Framework Inputs Activities Outputs Outcomes: Initial Intermediate Long-term6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 95
  • 96. Inputs • Resources dedicated to or consumed by a program • Staff • Facilities • Equipment and supplies6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 96
  • 97. Activities • What the program does with the inputs to fulfill its mission • Case management services • Child care services • Technical assistance workshops • Feed and shelter homeless families • Mentoring programs for young people6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 97
  • 98. Outputs • The direct product of program activities. • Number of children served in the day care program • Number of training workshops provided • Number of families receiving food and shelter6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 98
  • 99. Outcomes • Benefits for participants during and after program activities • New knowledge • Increased skills • Changed attitudes or values6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 99
  • 100. Outcomes • Scorecards • Indicators toward goals performance • Indicators toward budget • Balanced • How all of it connected6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 100
  • 101. Essential Elements of a Good Performance Mgt. System1. Allocate resources based on strategic plan2. Benchmark to set standards3. Establish key indicators4. Set quarterly targets5. Create reporting and accountability system6. Communicate results7. Modify targets based on performance6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 101
  • 102. Essential Elements of a Good Performance Mgt. • System Performance helps everyone understand their role • An explicit target with feedback … • You can’t just say you work hard • Shows the outside world you are accomplishing the goals your org. was established to accomplish6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 102
  • 103. Evaluation • Fit Mission • TWC tried to prove a model for Policy Makers to use (i.e. Gov) • MDRC made it natl. • DPW committed then the new leadership didn’t • Legacy TWC does not use it6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 103
  • 104. Workforce Development6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 104
  • 105. Workforce in the U.S. • Focuses on people who are unemployed, dislocated, youth, welfare • Two Core Strategies o Place-Based…focusing on neighborhoods o Sector-Based…focusing on industries • Job placement, training, education, or a combination6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 105
  • 106. Approach • Training in NFP programs and community colleges • Addressing employment barriers • Supporting employers • Leveraging incentives for workers and employers6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 106
  • 107. Implementation • Federal Department of Labor • State Department of Labor • Local Workforce Investment Boards o Intermediaries o Providers6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 107
  • 108. Funding• U.S. spent about 17 billion last year (spending is down after the stimulus) on Welfare, and more when you factor in other funding for supportive services for TANF recipients who work such as childcare and transportation6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 108
  • 109. Scope• $3-7 K per slot• Performance Based contracts• 1,800 One Stop Centers (self directed and staff assisted job search)• Business Tax Credits and Training Dollars6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 109
  • 110. Problems• There is no open systematic way to account for and rank social and supportive services vendors in communities• Lack of innovation and competition• Transparency• Accountability6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 110
  • 111. Welfare Policies – U.S. A Work Based System• Welfare Reform • In 1996, President Clinton signed into law the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA)• Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) • Welfare reform placed a five-year (60 month) lifetime limit on TANF that applies to all adults and heads of household • After receiving TANF for 24 months, individuals are required to work at least 20 hours per week to continue receiving benefits6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 111
  • 112. Welfare Profile of so called “Hard to Serve” • All have received public assistance for 2 years • All have failed at least three other programs • Significant Barriers • Criminal Backgrounds, Mental Health Issues, Substance Abuse Issues, Domestic Violence, Poor Work History, Poor Academic Skills • Average participant • Single Mother • 3 Children • 5th grade reading and math levels (range 1st to 12th grade) • May have up to 6 months in transitional employment6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 112
  • 113. Program Expectations• Vary, but a program may require and pay for: o Enrollment (100% enrollment) o Placement (65% of enrollment) o Retention (70% of those placed)6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 113
  • 114. Profile of Recipient in 2007 • Average Client (in PA) with three children receives $403 per month in public assistance or $4,836 per year. ($14,508 over three years) • U.S. Census Bureau: approximately 46.2 million (15.1%, or 1/6th) of Americans are living in absolute poverty in 2011 • Poverty line for a family of 4 is $22,0506/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 114
  • 115. Unemployment Insurance • Unemployment benefits are made by the state • Involuntarily unemployed and who are able and willing to accept suitable employment • Employers pay a tax • Calculation based on time worked and is about 50% of wages for six months6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 115
  • 116. Case 2 TWC – An Approach to Performance Improvement employment (paid and short-term) + real work + skill development + supportive services (including tax credits = anti-poverty strategy6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 116
  • 117. TWC-http://www.fathom.com/mediaindex/vod/business/122607/index. htm • Transitional Work Corporation CEO Richard Greenwald, his staff, and clients explain how TWC is in the business of helping people on public assistance get and keep jobs. • The transitional job is like a paid internship at a government, city, or non-profit agency. • The next step after six months is permanent employment. TWC has a 96 percent rate of hire. 6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 117
  • 118. TWC • Who are the protagonists of the case? • What is the policy issue • What is the management issue • What did you think about the way TWC addressed the management issue • What was at stake? • How could you measure success?6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 118
  • 119. TWC • Environment o Welfare reform o Critics and Supporters of TWC o Who were the actors o Issue – performance improvement through TQM (teams, employees as experts, communication, amnesty, measurement, continuous improvement) o Greenwald management style • Retreats – their purpose • Decisions o Change performance outcomes o Costs and benefits of Reorganization o Should he provide more services in-house o How will they demonstrate improvement6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 119
  • 120. Lunch6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 120
  • 121. Case 3 California Global Warming Solutions – Cost Benefit Analysis and Evaluation in Implementing Local Legislation6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 121
  • 122. California • There is not consensus about global warming • Was it wise to pass AB 32? • Climate Change is a public good • Market based emissions controls o Standards vs. Cap and Trade, pros and cons o Carbon taxes6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 122
  • 123. What is Happening in Georgia • How serious is the global warming taken as a problem? • What are the costs? • Who are the leaders? • What should be the goals for industries and citizens? • What is the infrastructure in Govt/NGO to get things done?6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 123
  • 124. End/Break for those staying for the afternoon session6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 124
  • 125. Georgia Case Study Outlines • Tbilisi Infrastructure Case • Project Evaluation; Should local government provide certain pubic goods; Cost benefit analysis (Should Tbilisi build new roads, tunnels and bridges?) • Environmental Policy Case • Environmental Policies of local governments; New projects in Tbilisi: cutting down old trees, planting new ones • Prisoner Re-Entry Policy Case • Prisoner Reentry Policies in Georgia; Probation programs and its challenges6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 125
  • 126. Break Out Groups • Break into teams around the three Tbilisi/Georgia Cases (Infrastructure, Environmental, & Prisoner Re-entry)6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 126
  • 127. Case Writing Process • Developing leads • Site Visits • Determine what needs to go into the case including Exhibits • Review what is known • Outline • Goals and Purpose of the case; • Key Questions; • Timeline with Responsibilities6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 127
  • 128. Case Writing Process • Determining what you want to accomplish with your students • Make sure you have some substantive competence with the material • You pick a story that is interesting • Poses a problem that does not necessarily have a right answer • Clear about the actors and their authority • Generate enough information for a good analysis6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 128
  • 129. Case Writing Process • Prepare a prospectus; a proposal o Subject o Audience o Teaching purpose/objective o The story o Setting – where, when, why o Key actors and decision makers o Issues they face o Constraints and opportunities o Decisions and actions o Sources of information and data o Research plan6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 129
  • 130. Case Writing Process -Initial questions • What are you trying to accomplish in terms of fitting into the course? • Who is the audience? • What ancillary materials will you develop? • What decisions need to be made by the protagonist? • How much data is useful to move the story along? • How long will the case be? • What is the controversy; the context in which a decision needs to be made? 6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 130
  • 131. Case Writing Process • Research o Secondary sources like published reports, media, academic research, background documents like financials, board information o Primary sources – interviews of key actors and experts o Personal observations o Facts, charts, maps, timelines6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 131
  • 132. Case Writing Process • Research o Be inquisitive with the actors o Develop your characters and setting o What are people saying o Attitudes and body language o Side remarks o Get multiple perspectives6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 132
  • 133. Case Writing Process • Standard Components of a case study o Opening Paragraph dramatically stating the case issue or problem, the time, decision focus o Background and context of the firm, the actors, the industry o Case Story o Conclusion – generates tension, sets up the decision point, suggests options and considerations6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 133
  • 134. Case Writing Process • Answer the following in your description o Clearly identify who the decision maker is o What is that person’s role? why do they have to act? What action must be taken and when? o Clarify the timeline of the case o Describe the setting – where, when, why o The key problems and issues need to be revealed – you can nuance o Be organized…logical outline in the story; subheadings, numbered points, clear transitions, with supported appendices of graphs and charts6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 134
  • 135. Case Writing Process • Fact Checking and Editing o Ensure facts are correct o Attribute quotes6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 135
  • 136. ResourcesAuthor Document PublisherWilliamEimicke and Steve The Transitional Work Corporation: Managing For Better Fathom. WWW.Fathom.comCohen Outcomes. Part 1: Reorganization as a Strategy for May 2002. Performance Improvement Part 2: Implementation IssuesHarvard University Prisoner Reentry in Newark Harvard Kennedy School of(courtesy of Robert D. Behn Government , April 10, 2011Jose A. Gomez-Ibanez The California Global Warming Solutions Act (AB 32) Harvard Kennedy School of Government: Case Number 1944.0 , 2011Robert D. Behn PerformanceStat is a Leadership Strategy Not a Model or a Harvard Kennedy School of System: Or Why MimicStat Cant’ Really Work Government A Paper Prepared for The Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, November 5, 2011Robert D. Behn Why the Cops – And NYPD in Particular – Have it Easy Harvard Kennedy School of Government, March 2, 2012John Boehrer Writing Effective Memos The Electronic Hallway, University of Washington’s Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, 2003C. Roland Christensen Questions for Class Discussions Center for Teaching and Harvard Business School, 2008 LearningJohn Boehrer How to Teach a Case The Electronic Hallway, University of Washington’s Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, 19966/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 136
  • 137. ResourcesJonathan Brock MoreTools- A Framework for Analyzing Management The Electronic Hallway, University of Dilemmas Washington’s Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, 2004William Rotch Casewriting University of Virginia, Darden Graduate Business School, Case Number UV0541, 1989Jose A. Gomez-Ibanez Learning by the Case Method Harvard Kennedy School of Government: Case Number N15- 86-1136.0, 1986Laurence E. Lynn, Jr. Welcome to the Case Method! The Electronic Hallway, University of Washington’s Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, 1996Thomas V. Bonoma Learning by the Case Method in Marketing Harvard Business School, Case Number 9-590-008, July 13, 1989Mary C. Gentile Twenty-Five Questions to Ask as You Begin to Develop a New Harvard Business School, Case Case Study Number 9-391-042, August 13, 1990 Case Study Outline EWMI G-PAC Memo Writing Guideline EMPA Program Columbia UniversityStanford University Teaching with Case Studies, Speaking of Teaching Winter 1994,Newsletter on Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2 6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 137
  • 138. Thank You • Professor Bill Eimicke, Columbia University, for input toward this presentation, and for his contribution to the section on performance management in particular • Professor ArvidLukauskas, Columbia University, for his organization of and support of this session • Professor Bob Behn, Harvard University, for copies of and permission to use the Newark Prisoner Reentry case study, his suggested guiding case questions, as well as copies of his performance management pieces6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 138
  • 139. Contact Richard Greenwald Phone 212-851-0289 c/o Columbia University Email: rcg5@columbia.edu School of International and Public Affairs Picker Center for Executive Education 420 West 118th Street, Room 400 New York NY 100276/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 139