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Case MethodDeveloping, Writing, and Teaching       Columbia School of International and Public Affairs       The Executive...
Agenda                         Friday, June 15, 2012Time            Topic10:00 – 11:00   Introductions To The Case Study M...
Agenda                           Saturday, June 16, 2012  Time            Topic  10:00 – 11:15   Review of Performance Man...
Introduction To               The Case Study Method &                 Experiential Learning6/15-16/2012       Richard Gree...
What is the purpose of a                       case study?       •       Understand a theory or theme       •       Assess...
Purpose       • Professional education and training               o   Business               o   Public Administration    ...
What is a teaching case study?       • “A detailed examination of singular               circumstance within an organizati...
What is a teaching case study?      • Designed for students who are becoming        practitioners      • A real world stor...
What is a teaching case study?• A description of a management situation or  management story• Case history of symptoms• Di...
What is a teaching case study?       •       Meeting the objective for your students of               o   Conveying knowle...
What is a teaching case study?       • Students need to learn to be leaders               who can think critically , creat...
Why use case studies  •    Experiential Learning       o       Students learn for themselves by struggling with the       ...
What case is NOT      • Not a lecture      • Not just the teacher sharing information      • Not memorization      • Not o...
Case Pros and Cons       Pros                                      Cons       Anchored in Experience –                  Th...
შესვენება6/15-16/2012   Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012   15
Elements of a good case •    It is interesting •    Buried rewards of discovery •    Connects to a wider theory or theme i...
Determining the purpose and         your topic/thesis/theory      • Is there a topic you are discussing in        class li...
Developing a partner(s) funder      and organization willing to be          the subject of a case• Organizations agree to ...
Determining a timeline of  research, writing, editing and the     costs of developing a case      • Be realistic      • Pr...
Initial questions      • What are you trying to accomplish in terms of           fitting into the course?      •    Who is...
Ethics of telling a true story      • If you embellish, be upfront about        it (don’t embellish though)      • Be clea...
Acquiring useful supplemental     appendix info. (e.g. budgets or        organizational policies)      • Samples include; ...
Getting feedback      • Check Facts with lead organization      • Test to ensure the flow of the narrative           is lo...
Acknowledging sources      • End Notes      • Thank You Upfront6/15-16/2012      Richard Greenwald Columbia University Cop...
Commitment      • It could take 200 hrs getting the           facts, interviewing the right           people, checking you...
სადილი6/15-16/2012   Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012   26
Overview of U.S. Government,        NGOs , and Prisoner Reentry6/15-16/2012   Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyri...
Government System in the                United States - Federal6/15-16/2012       Richard Greenwald Columbia University Co...
State and County6/15-16/2012    Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012   29
Local City/Municipal6/15-16/2012      Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012   30
Federal Income6/15-16/2012   Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012   31
Source of Income6/15-16/2012    Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012   32
Nonprofit Sector6/15-16/2012   Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012   33
Size of the U.S. Nonprofit Sector    • 1.8 million nonprofit organizations    • 1.4 billion dollars in revenue and 3    tr...
1950-2011               Growth in Nonprofit Sector                 Year                Number of NFP                  1940...
Salamon on Nonprofits        “It has been said that the quality of a             nation can be seen in the way it         ...
Private Nonprofit Sector        “A      set of organizations that is privately               constituted but serves some p...
Six Defining Characteristics       • Organizations       • Private       • Self Governing       • Voluntary       • Of Pub...
Why do we have a nonprofit sector?        • Market Failure        • Contract Failure        • Government Failure        • ...
Types of Nonprofit Organizations       • Member Serving (400,000)       • Public Serving (1,200,000)6/15-16/2012   Richard...
Creation of Modern Nonprofit Sector        • Great Society expansion of               government role in social welfare:  ...
Great Society Implications            for Nonprofit Sector•   Creation of new nonprofit organizations•   Proliferation of ...
Philanthropy6/15-16/2012   Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012   43
6/15-16/2012   Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012   44
“Graduated” Level of                        Engagement               Collaborating with government in                  pri...
Prisoner Reentry in Georgia6/15-16/2012   Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012   46
Facts about Corrections – U.S.       •       2.3. million adults behind bars (24,000 in Georgia)               o   1-100 a...
#1 US750/100,000#4 Georgia401/100,000                                      Pew Center on States: One in 100:Behind Bars in...
6/15-16/2012   Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012   49
Introduction to Prisoner Reentry• President Bush Raises the Profile 2007• Common Ground on both sides of the  political ai...
Corrections       • 1st about keeping people safe       • Reentry is not necessarily Corrections,               but some p...
Reentry Is…       • What happens after Jails and Prisons       • Federal, State, Local institutions       • Local matter (...
Authority       Some of the biggest hurdles        that cities and states face are        just defining what reentry is,  ...
Implementation of a strategy       • Less a policy discussion about               what legislatively should be            ...
Effective re-entry programs the US               http://www.nationalreentryresourcecenter.org• Quick engagement; work; com...
Jobs       • Most U.S. reentry efforts pay more rhetorical               respect to jobs, but emphasizing placement       ...
Policies•   Changing maximum stays•   Diversion programs in lieu of prison•   Tax Credits & bonding for businesses who hir...
Funding• Govt.  o Federal DOJ & Faith Based Initiatives  o State Corrections  o DOL - Workforce• Foundations• Most public ...
Did those programs have   statistically significant impact on      decreasing recidivism rate?• Define Recidivism• MDRC St...
Lessons learned throughout planning andimplementation of re-entry related policies  • Clarify Expectations  • Set up commu...
Winning over a skeptical public      • What choice do have morally and in          general?          o In the U.S. 90% of ...
Newark Prisoner Reentry Case6/15-16/2012   Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012   62
Newark Prisoner Reentry•   Case Synopsis    o    Mayor Booker’s         goals in the         context of the         Newark...
Show MI Video6/15-16/2012   Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012   64
Newark Prisoner Reentry      •     Case Objectives:           o Illustrate how a municipality takes on             an impo...
Newark Prisoner Reentry• What is the context for the  case?  o Who are the main    characters?  o What is the policy issue...
Newark Prisoner Reentry               http://www.manhattan-institute.org/video/?c=NPRI•What should be Ingrid              ...
Newark Prisoner Reentry – Follow upBy December 31, 2010, the Newark Prisoner Reentry Initiative, had placed781 people in j...
Break6/15-16/2012   Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012   69
Student Memo Writing6/15-16/2012      Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012   70
Case Memo Purpose       • Practicing direct precise               communication       • Maximum use of limited space      ...
Case Memo Purpose       •       Students should read it to get a sense of the               outline; who the main actors a...
Case Memo Considerations•   Who are the decision makers & other key characters?•   What is his or her objective?•   What a...
Effective Case Memo Outline       • What does your audience know? – usually               there is a student assignment th...
Effective Case Memo Outline• Header – Subject of the memo, date, to and from• State the purpose in the opening sentences; ...
Teaching Case Studies –                Facilitating Discussions6/15-16/2012       Richard Greenwald Columbia University Co...
Managing a Conversation       •       Case method is about the discussion       •       The teacher puts the group on the ...
Managing a Conversation       •       Determine what are the major issues which the               case is intended to illu...
Developing a Teaching Note       •       A plan for using the case               •   Case summary               •   Statem...
Managing a Conversation       •       Teachers need to become experts at the facts               of the case       •      ...
Managing a Conversation       • Students prepare for class by               o   Understanding who makes the key           ...
Managing a Conversation       • The teacher may give an introductory               lecture on a theme       • The teacher ...
Managing a Conversation       • Students will be forced to think about               their own answers       • Repetitive ...
Review of Performance       Management and Evaluation6/15-16/2012   Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012  ...
Question Zero• What is your organization trying to accomplish?• What are your strategies for making this happen    and how...
Core Considerations to Support          Your Brand     •   How does your Performance Measurement AND         Management su...
Proving What You Are Good At    • How will your organization know if you are         making progress; what goals are you t...
You can’t manage what you         can’t measure – Peter Drucker   “You can’t   manage   what you   can’t   message” –   (m...
Efficiency is Doing things Right:        Effectiveness is doing the Right                      Things6/15-16/2012   Richar...
Clarifying Expectations       • Everyone’s role in collecting information               • Train the team               • N...
And Remember…       • Get Work Done Through People       • Measurement AND Management       • Numbers represent something ...
6/15-16/2012   Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012   92
Activities       •       What the program does with the inputs to fulfill its               mission               •   Case...
Outcome Measurement       “The regular, systematic tracking of the         extent to which program participants         ex...
Outcome Measurement                 Theoretical Framework               Inputs                  Activities                ...
Inputs       •       Resources dedicated to or consumed by a               program               •   Staff               •...
Activities       •       What the program does with the inputs to fulfill its               mission               •   Case...
Outputs       •       The direct product of program activities.               •   Number of children served in the day car...
Outcomes       •       Benefits for participants during and after               program activities               •   New k...
Outcomes       •       Scorecards               • Indicators toward goals                 performance               • Indi...
Essential Elements of a Good           Performance Mgt. System1.     Allocate resources based on strategic       plan2.   ...
Essential Elements of a Good                Performance Mgt.       • System Performance helps everyone               under...
Evaluation       • Fit Mission       • TWC tried to prove a model for Policy Makers               to use (i.e. Gov)       ...
Workforce Development6/15-16/2012   Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012   104
Workforce in the U.S.       • Focuses on people who are unemployed,               dislocated, youth, welfare       • Two C...
Approach       • Training in NFP programs and community               colleges       • Addressing employment barriers     ...
Implementation       • Federal Department of Labor       • State Department of Labor       • Local Workforce Investment Bo...
Funding• U.S. spent about 17 billion last year   (spending is down after the stimulus) on   Welfare, and more when you fac...
Scope• $3-7 K per slot• Performance Based contracts• 1,800 One Stop Centers (self directed and staff   assisted job search...
Problems• There is no open systematic way to account    for and rank social and supportive services    vendors in communit...
Welfare Policies – U.S.               A Work Based System• Welfare Reform  • In 1996, President Clinton signed into law   ...
Welfare Profile of so called “Hard              to Serve”       • All have received public assistance for 2 years       • ...
Program Expectations• Vary, but a program may require and    pay for:    o Enrollment                      (100% enrollmen...
Profile of Recipient in 2007       • Average Client (in PA) with three children               receives $403 per month in p...
Unemployment Insurance       •       Unemployment benefits are made by the state       •       Involuntarily unemployed an...
Case 2 TWC – An Approach to       Performance Improvement                              employment (paid and short-term)   ...
TWC-http://www.fathom.com/mediaindex/vod/business/122607/index.                          htm                 •   Transitio...
TWC       •       Who are the protagonists of the case?       •       What is the policy issue       •       What is the m...
TWC       •       Environment               o   Welfare reform               o   Critics and Supporters of TWC       o    ...
Lunch6/15-16/2012   Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012   120
Case 3 California Global   Warming Solutions – Cost Benefit     Analysis and Evaluation in   Implementing Local Legislatio...
California       • There is not consensus about global warming       • Was it wise to pass AB 32?       • Climate Change i...
What is Happening in Georgia       • How serious is the global warming taken as a               problem?       • What are ...
End/Break for those staying for          the afternoon session6/15-16/2012   Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyrig...
Georgia Case Study Outlines      •   Tbilisi Infrastructure Case           •   Project Evaluation; Should local government...
Break Out Groups       • Break into teams around the               three Tbilisi/Georgia Cases               (Infrastructu...
Case Writing Process       • Developing leads       • Site Visits       • Determine what needs to go into the case        ...
Case Writing Process       •       Determining what you want to accomplish with               your students       •       ...
Case Writing Process       •       Prepare a prospectus; a proposal               o   Subject               o   Audience  ...
Case Writing Process -Initial questions       • What are you trying to accomplish in terms of            fitting into the ...
Case Writing Process       • Research               o   Secondary sources like published                   reports, media,...
Case Writing Process       • Research               o   Be inquisitive with the actors               o   Develop your char...
Case Writing Process       •        Standard Components of a case               study               o Opening Paragraph dr...
Case Writing Process       •        Answer the following in your description               o Clearly identify who the deci...
Case Writing Process       • Fact Checking and Editing               o   Ensure facts are correct               o   Attrib...
ResourcesAuthor                         Document                                                    PublisherWilliamEimick...
ResourcesJonathan Brock           MoreTools- A Framework for Analyzing Management              The Electronic Hallway, Uni...
Thank You       •       Professor Bill Eimicke, Columbia University, for               input toward this presentation, and...
Contact      Richard Greenwald                          Phone 212-851-0289      c/o Columbia University                   ...
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  • 10:00 – 12:15 Introductions To The Case Study Method 12:15 – 1:00 Lunch 1:00 – 2:15 Overview of U.S. Government, NGOs , and Prisoner Reentry  2:15 – 2:30 Break 2:30 – 3:30 Case One: Newark Prisoner Reentry 3:30 – 3:45 Break 3:45 – 4:15 Student Memo WritingPurposeEffective Outline4:15 - 5:00 Teaching Case Studies – Facilitating DiscussionsManaging a conversation Developing a teaching note   Saturday, June 16, 2012 10:00 – 11:15 Review of Performance Management and Evaluation 11:15 – 12:15 Case 2 TWC – An Approach to Performance Improvement12:15 – 1:00 Lunch 1:00 – 2:00 Case 3 California Global Warming Solutions – Cost Benefit Analysis and Evaluation in Implementing Local Legislation 2:00 – 2:20 End/Break for those staying for the afternoon session2:20 – 5:00 This time is an opportunity to break into groups and begin to outline Georgian-based case studies to be written and developed by ISU faculty. Richard Greenwald will come in with notes and ideas about drafting case studies on:Prisoner Reentry Policies in Georgia; Probation programs and its challengesProject Evaluation; Should local government provide certain pubic goods; Cost benefit analysis (Should Tbilisi build new roads, tunnels and bridges?)Environmental Policies of local governments; New projects in Tbilisi: cutting down old trees, planting new ones 
  •  11:15 – 12:15 Case 2 TWC – An Approach to Performance Improvement12:15 – 1:00 Lunch 1:00 – 2:00 Case 3 California Global Warming Solutions – Cost Benefit Analysis and Evaluation in Implementing Local Legislation 2:00 – 2:20 End/Break for those staying for the afternoon session2:20 – 5:00 This time is an opportunity to break into groups and begin to outline Georgian-based case studies to be written and developed by ISU faculty. Richard Greenwald will come in with notes and ideas about drafting case studies on:Prisoner Reentry Policies in Georgia; Probation programs and its challengesProject Evaluation; Should local government provide certain pubic goods; Cost benefit analysis (Should Tbilisi build new roads, tunnels and bridges?)Environmental Policies of local governments; New projects in Tbilisi: cutting down old trees, planting new ones 
  • What should Ingrid Johnson do? What strategy should she pursue to achieve Mayor Cory Booker’s vision of helping “formerly incarcerated individuals” to “return home and become successful, productive members of the Newark community.” In attempting to develop a performance strategy for Johnson, you might find it helpful to think about the following questions: 􏰟  What, exactly, should Johnson try to accomplish? 􏰟  What should be the key components of Johnson’s strategy for accomplishing this? 􏰟  How will Johnson (and Booker) know when she (they) have been successful? 􏰟  How long will this take? 􏰟  Who does Johnson have to convince that her strategy has been successful? 􏰟  What are the key challenges that Johnson faces? 􏰟  What are the assets that she can employ? 􏰟  How much authority does Johnson have? What exactly is the nature and the source of this authority? 􏰟  How should Johnson make use of her authority? 􏰟  How can Johnson compensate for her lack of authority? 􏰟  What is your causal theory — the leadership and management mechanisms that, you think, explain why your key components will have an impact?
  • By December 31, 2010, the Newark Prisoner Reentry Initiative, had placed 781 people in jobs. Under the NPRI, five nonprofit agencies that provided case management, mentoring and job placement services, were required to meet certain performance outcomes. During the two years of their contracts, the NPRI reported, these five agencies produced the following results: ❖  An enrollment of 1360 participants.The enrollment benchmark was 1340. The NPRI achieved 101% of this target. ❖  A recidivism rate of 7% percent.This benchmark was 22%. The NPRI exceeded this target. ❖  A total placement of 781 people in permanent jobs with an averagehourly wage of $9.30 per hour.This benchmark was 804 job placements (or 60% of the participant target) with an average hourly wage of $9.00 per hour. The NPRI agencies achieved nearly 97% of this job-placement benchmark and exceeded the hourly-wage requirement. ❖  A 71% job retention rate.This component of the contract focused on job retention for six months, and the benchmark was 70%. Thus the NPRI achieved this target. http://www.manhattan-institute.org/video/?c=NPRI
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    1. 1. Case MethodDeveloping, Writing, and Teaching Columbia School of International and Public Affairs The Executive Master of Public Policy and Administration Presentation by Richard Greenwald, C.U. Adjunct Professor June 15-16, 2012 Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia
    2. 2. Agenda Friday, June 15, 2012Time Topic10:00 – 11:00 Introductions To The Case Study Method11:00 – 11:15 Break11:15 – 12:30 Introductions To The Case Study Method Continued12:30 – 13:30 Lunch13:30 – 14:30 Overview of U.S. Government, NGOs , and Prisoner Reentry14:30 – 15:30 Case One: Newark Prisoner Reentry15:30 – 15:45 Break15:45 – 16:15 Student Memo Writing • Purpose • Effective Outline16:15 - 17:00 Teaching Case Studies – Facilitating Discussions • Managing a conversation • Developing a teaching note 6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 2
    3. 3. Agenda Saturday, June 16, 2012 Time Topic 10:00 – 11:15 Review of Performance Management and Evaluation 11:15 – 11:30 Break 11:30 – 12:30 Case 2 TWC – An Approach to Performance Improvement 12:30 – 13:30 Lunch 13:30 – 14:30 Case 3 California Global Warming Solutions – Cost Benefit Analysis and Evaluation in Implementing Local Legislation 14:30 – 14:45 Break 14:45 – 17:00 Group Work Break into groups and Prisoner Reentry begin to outline Georgian- Project Evaluation ‐based case studies to be Environment Or written and developed by Infrastructure ISU faculty.6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 3
    4. 4. Introduction To The Case Study Method & Experiential Learning6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 4
    5. 5. What is the purpose of a case study? • Understand a theory or theme • Assess a situation • Apply a solution • Help people remember • Stimulate new ideas • Encourage independent thought • Take on leadership role6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 5
    6. 6. Purpose • Professional education and training o Business o Public Administration o Public Planning6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 6
    7. 7. What is a teaching case study? • “A detailed examination of singular circumstance within an organization” • Story about something real in which a decision by a leader must be made • “Something real” brought to the classroom with all the externals such as various pressures and considerations to make decisions • Opportunity for students to experiment on real world scenarios • A device for a facilitated discussion6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 7
    8. 8. What is a teaching case study? • Designed for students who are becoming practitioners • A real world story that allows students to practice critical thinking skills and decision making • Is discussion based • Does not necessarily have a right answer6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 8
    9. 9. What is a teaching case study?• A description of a management situation or management story• Case history of symptoms• Diagnosis of a problem• Set up for discussion of recommended actions o Actions that may second guess what the protagonist in the story did 9
    10. 10. What is a teaching case study? • Meeting the objective for your students of o Conveying knowledge o Improving mastery of theories and applications of theory, governance, leadership, cost-benefit analysis o Improving critical analysis o Approaching teaching through o Stimulating new ideas o Encouraging creativity and independent thought o Demonstrated leadership and personal responsibility6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 10
    11. 11. What is a teaching case study? • Students need to learn to be leaders who can think critically , create convincing arguments, and effective decisions6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 11
    12. 12. Why use case studies • Experiential Learning o Students learn for themselves by struggling with the issues that the leaders in the stories face o Students deeply examine a scenario, use related assigned readings, and write a paper • The discussions help students gain knowledge about a subject • Use conceptual or analytical techniques • Good habit of asking “why” through analysis • Think about leaders’ perspectives6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 12
    13. 13. What case is NOT • Not a lecture • Not just the teacher sharing information • Not memorization • Not one correct answer • Teaching is not the sole center of attention, but more of a facilitator6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 13
    14. 14. Case Pros and Cons Pros Cons Anchored in Experience – There are no right answers learning “sticks” which can frustrate learners Learner Based The student owns the learning process The learning can be powerful It is harder work than other and intimate means of learning6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 14
    15. 15. შესვენება6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 15
    16. 16. Elements of a good case • It is interesting • Buried rewards of discovery • Connects to a wider theory or theme in the course • Analytical challenge • It is clearly presented • Carefully included exhibits • Teaching Notes • Answer what the student will be expected to do with the case6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 16
    17. 17. Determining the purpose and your topic/thesis/theory • Is there a topic you are discussing in class like leadership, governance, cost/benefit analysis you want to test in the real world? • Is there a policy issue you want to illustrate? • Are you highlighting the decision making process?6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 17
    18. 18. Developing a partner(s) funder and organization willing to be the subject of a case• Organizations agree to cooperate because o Insight into their own organization o Want to participate in educating leaders o Outside excited researchers and students can stimulate new ideas into their own organizations 6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 18
    19. 19. Determining a timeline of research, writing, editing and the costs of developing a case • Be realistic • Prepare to go back several times to the organization to clarify assumptions • Engage an editor • Get a good set of outside people to comment on the case; including the organizations highlighted • Edit again • Get feedback from students as you teach the case for the first time6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 19
    20. 20. Initial questions • What are you trying to accomplish in terms of fitting into the course? • Who is the audience? • What ancillary materials will you develop? • What decisions need to be made by the protagonist? • How much data is useful to move the story along? • How long will the case be? • What is the controversy; the context in which a decision needs to be made?6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 20
    21. 21. Ethics of telling a true story • If you embellish, be upfront about it (don’t embellish though) • Be clear with your host organization about what your goals are for the case • Footnote and document your resources6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 21
    22. 22. Acquiring useful supplemental appendix info. (e.g. budgets or organizational policies) • Samples include; • Organizational charts • Financials • Speeches • Meeting minutes • Organizational policies6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 22
    23. 23. Getting feedback • Check Facts with lead organization • Test to ensure the flow of the narrative is logical and all the data is in6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 23
    24. 24. Acknowledging sources • End Notes • Thank You Upfront6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 24
    25. 25. Commitment • It could take 200 hrs getting the facts, interviewing the right people, checking your work6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 25
    26. 26. სადილი6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 26
    27. 27. Overview of U.S. Government, NGOs , and Prisoner Reentry6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 27
    28. 28. Government System in the United States - Federal6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 28
    29. 29. State and County6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 29
    30. 30. Local City/Municipal6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 30
    31. 31. Federal Income6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 31
    32. 32. Source of Income6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 32
    33. 33. Nonprofit Sector6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 33
    34. 34. Size of the U.S. Nonprofit Sector • 1.8 million nonprofit organizations • 1.4 billion dollars in revenue and 3 trillion in assets in 2007 • 5.3 - 9% GDP • 10.9 million employees • 8.3 % total paid employment in U.S.6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 34
    35. 35. 1950-2011 Growth in Nonprofit Sector Year Number of NFP 1940 12,500 2000 1,000,000 2011 1,800,0006/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 35
    36. 36. Salamon on Nonprofits “It has been said that the quality of a nation can be seen in the way it treats its least advantaged citizens. But it can also be seen in the way it treats its most valued institutions.” Lester M. Salamon State of Nonprofit America, 20026/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 36
    37. 37. Private Nonprofit Sector “A set of organizations that is privately constituted but serves some public purpose, such as the advancement of health, education, scientific progress or the free expression of ideas.” Lester M. Salamon6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 37
    38. 38. Six Defining Characteristics • Organizations • Private • Self Governing • Voluntary • Of Public Benefit • Non-profit-distributing6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 38
    39. 39. Why do we have a nonprofit sector? • Market Failure • Contract Failure • Government Failure • Pluralism/Freedom • Solidarity 6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 39
    40. 40. Types of Nonprofit Organizations • Member Serving (400,000) • Public Serving (1,200,000)6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 40
    41. 41. Creation of Modern Nonprofit Sector • Great Society expansion of government role in social welfare: o Medicare o Medicaid o Head Start o Community Action Agencies o Discretionary Programs6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 41
    42. 42. Great Society Implications for Nonprofit Sector• Creation of new nonprofit organizations• Proliferation of resources• Partnership with government in delivery system• Nonprofit sector “fills gaps”• Heavy government regulation• Limited professional management expertise in nonprofit organizations6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 42
    43. 43. Philanthropy6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 43
    44. 44. 6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 44
    45. 45. “Graduated” Level of Engagement Collaborating with government in private/public partnerships Telling your story Influencing government6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 45
    46. 46. Prisoner Reentry in Georgia6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 46
    47. 47. Facts about Corrections – U.S. • 2.3. million adults behind bars (24,000 in Georgia) o 1-100 adults o 1-31 (7.3M) are in the criminal justice system o 1-106 w; 1-36 h; 1-15b (1-9b 20-34) o 10 million in jail • 90% released eventually • 60% recidivism • Costs – $50B to states6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 47
    48. 48. #1 US750/100,000#4 Georgia401/100,000 Pew Center on States: One in 100:Behind Bars in America 2008 48 6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012
    49. 49. 6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 49
    50. 50. Introduction to Prisoner Reentry• President Bush Raises the Profile 2007• Common Ground on both sides of the political aisle• Welfare was about women; reentry about men 6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 50
    51. 51. Corrections • 1st about keeping people safe • Reentry is not necessarily Corrections, but some prep work goes on behind walls such as; o Drug treatment o Preparing for the outside o Handing off information to NGOs and local agencies6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 51
    52. 52. Reentry Is… • What happens after Jails and Prisons • Federal, State, Local institutions • Local matter (jobs, housing, crime, families) • Addressing issues facing ex- offenders…banned from jobs, debt, period out of the labor market6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 52
    53. 53. Authority Some of the biggest hurdles that cities and states face are just defining what reentry is, and in what agency it belongs, and who has authority6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 53
    54. 54. Implementation of a strategy • Less a policy discussion about what legislatively should be done • More about best practices and implementation efforts • Implementation is the hardest thing for public leaders to do – particularly across governments6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 54
    55. 55. Effective re-entry programs the US http://www.nationalreentryresourcecenter.org• Quick engagement; work; community corrections; day reporting center; work release o Baltimore, Jacksonville, Newark o CEO, America Works, Goodwill, Ready, Willing and Able o Ready4Work o Delancy Street6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 55
    56. 56. Jobs • Most U.S. reentry efforts pay more rhetorical respect to jobs, but emphasizing placement and retention still seems to lag behind knocking out all other barriers first • The corollary of this is performance measurement that hold vendors accountable for the right things in a reasonable way • … and concurrently holds governments to track what is spent on reentry6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 56
    57. 57. Policies• Changing maximum stays• Diversion programs in lieu of prison• Tax Credits & bonding for businesses who hire• Housing, substance abuse, employment• Child support forgiveness and enforcement• State laws mandating behind the walls reentry programming• Second Chance Act• Closing prison – diverting funds to communities6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 57
    58. 58. Funding• Govt. o Federal DOJ & Faith Based Initiatives o State Corrections o DOL - Workforce• Foundations• Most public leaders are looking for revenue neutral solutions in the here and now– ones that don’t predicate savings after some future date when recidivism has gone down6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 58
    59. 59. Did those programs have statistically significant impact on decreasing recidivism rate?• Define Recidivism• MDRC Study of CEO – Lowered recidivism• Urban Institute study of Maryland work release programs• Manhattan Institute – Montgomery County, MD incentives program6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 59
    60. 60. Lessons learned throughout planning andimplementation of re-entry related policies • Clarify Expectations • Set up communication systems among all agencies and players • Provide info mgt system • Share information among agencies • Track results • Allow incentives and punishments to work together (housing, child support, etc.) 6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 60
    61. 61. Winning over a skeptical public • What choice do have morally and in general? o In the U.S. 90% of offenders come home o 65% re-offend  Costly  Dangerous  Hurts Communities and families o Incarceration is expensive 50 billion a year o Takes people out of the labor market6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 61
    62. 62. Newark Prisoner Reentry Case6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 62
    63. 63. Newark Prisoner Reentry• Case Synopsis o Mayor Booker’s goals in the context of the Newark’s history on this issue; his need to leverage support; and what he was trying to accomplish o Ingrid Johnson’s challenges o Newark’s “theory of change”6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 63
    64. 64. Show MI Video6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 64
    65. 65. Newark Prisoner Reentry • Case Objectives: o Illustrate how a municipality takes on an imposing issue like prisoner reentry o Challenge you to assess one leader’s approach o Encourage critical thinking about the use of performance management and outcome based contracting with vendors6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 65
    66. 66. Newark Prisoner Reentry• What is the context for the case? o Who are the main characters? o What is the policy issue? o What is the management issue? o What decision(s) need to be made? 6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 66
    67. 67. Newark Prisoner Reentry http://www.manhattan-institute.org/video/?c=NPRI•What should be Ingrid •Who are the relevantJohnson’s strategy? skakeholders and how does that impact Johnson ?•What exactly should she try toaccomplish? •Key challenges?•How should they define •What are Johnson’s assets &success? How will they be what authority does she have?able to prove success?6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 67
    68. 68. Newark Prisoner Reentry – Follow upBy December 31, 2010, the Newark Prisoner Reentry Initiative, had placed781 people in jobs. Under the NPRI, five nonprofit agencies that providedcase management, mentoring and job placement services, wererequired to meet certain performance outcomes. During the two years oftheir contracts, the NPRI reported, these five agencies produced thefollowing results:❖ An enrollment of 1360 participants.The enrollment benchmark was 1340. The NPRI achieved 101% of thistarget.❖ A recidivism rate of 7% percent.This benchmark was 22%. The NPRI exceeded this target.❖ A total placement of 781 people in permanent jobs with an averagehourly wage of $9.30 per hour.This benchmark was 804 job placements (or 60% of the participant target)with an average hourly wage of $9.00 per hour. The NPRI agenciesachieved nearly 97% of this job-placement benchmark and exceededthe hourly-wage requirement.❖ A 71% job retention rate.This component of the contract focused on job retention for six months,and the benchmark was 70%. Thus the NPRI achieved this target.6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 68
    69. 69. Break6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 69
    70. 70. Student Memo Writing6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 70
    71. 71. Case Memo Purpose • Practicing direct precise communication • Maximum use of limited space • Quickly drawing the readers attention to the most essential ideas • Expresses those ideas clearly6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 71
    72. 72. Case Memo Purpose • Students should read it to get a sense of the outline; who the main actors are; what is the important decision to be made • They should re-read it looking for what is said, implied, and is missing • Decide on a course of action and find evidence in the case and class readings to support it • Develop a plan to implement the course of action6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 72
    73. 73. Case Memo Considerations• Who are the decision makers & other key characters?• What is his or her objective?• What are the key issues and how to they affect the decision?• What is the environment in which the decision needs to be made?• What are the possible courses of action a leader can make and what are the consequences of those actions?• What is plausible?• How will others react?6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 73
    74. 74. Effective Case Memo Outline • What does your audience know? – usually there is a student assignment that asks the student to act like a staff person to the key decision maker • Define the subject upfront about exactly what you are writing about • Explain why you are writing the memo – what is the action you are seeking to encourage6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 74
    75. 75. Effective Case Memo Outline• Header – Subject of the memo, date, to and from• State the purpose in the opening sentences; what are the main points of your memo; and why you are writing it?• Quick introduction and background for context• Short clear sentences; no passive voice• Clean Inviting appearance6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 75
    76. 76. Teaching Case Studies – Facilitating Discussions6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 76
    77. 77. Managing a Conversation • Case method is about the discussion • The teacher puts the group on the right path, motivates the students • The discussion flows from the facts of the case, the details - to some insights on what happened – to some conclusions about what should be done moving forward • Teachers are to moderate students discussion so that as a whole group you examine the problem • Summarize the progress of the conversation as you move forward6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 77
    78. 78. Managing a Conversation • Determine what are the major issues which the case is intended to illustrate • How does it relate in context to the other work you are doing this semester with your class • How will you record the discussion • Keep a list of the traps in the case and ensure they get raised6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 78
    79. 79. Developing a Teaching Note • A plan for using the case • Case summary • Statement of Learning Objectives • Assignment Questions • Decision discussion • Maybe a blackboard plan outlining role plays, exercises, time allotment for each major discussion focus6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 79
    80. 80. Managing a Conversation • Teachers need to become experts at the facts of the case • Anticipate what questions you want answered and what questions might arise from students • Have a plan on how you want the conversation to flow6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 80
    81. 81. Managing a Conversation • Students prepare for class by o Understanding who makes the key decisions o Determining what the key decisions will be o The environment or context for decisions that need to be made o And to what end – what is the key objectives that need to be met o Drawing a conclusion in class or in a memorandum6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 81
    82. 82. Managing a Conversation • The teacher may give an introductory lecture on a theme • The teacher will have facilitated and recorded the discussion’s direction - a trail of blackboard evidence • The teacher will illuminate critical case conflicts if necessary or play “devil’s advocate” • The class case discussion will end up being upbeat, participatory, and satisfying6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 82
    83. 83. Managing a Conversation • Students will be forced to think about their own answers • Repetitive exposure to ambiguous issues in a case help prepare students for real world ambiguities • The class case discussion will end up being upbeat, participatory, and satisfying6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 83
    84. 84. Review of Performance Management and Evaluation6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 84
    85. 85. Question Zero• What is your organization trying to accomplish?• What are your strategies for making this happen and how are your tracking the implementation of those strategies? o What do you know about the feasibility of your offering…is there a marketplace for it? o How do you take on work; how do you say NO to work that is not profitable or does not fit in etc. o What are your capabilities for doing this?6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 85
    86. 86. Core Considerations to Support Your Brand • How does your Performance Measurement AND Management support what is distinct about your organization? • Are you proving your authenticity? • How are you demonstrating it? • Are you consistent (not in your indicators necessarily, but in your outcomes and impact)? 866/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012
    87. 87. Proving What You Are Good At • How will your organization know if you are making progress; what goals are you tracking? • How will you measure your success? Define your terms. • What agreements have you made & what mechanisms do you have in place to track data? • Manage the process &communicate6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 87
    88. 88. You can’t manage what you can’t measure – Peter Drucker “You can’t manage what you can’t message” – (maybe Deming?) 886/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012
    89. 89. Efficiency is Doing things Right: Effectiveness is doing the Right Things6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 89
    90. 90. Clarifying Expectations • Everyone’s role in collecting information • Train the team • Narrow focus on the right data • Integrity of data • Evaluating data • Scorecards with terms that makes sense • Using results to make decisions6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 90
    91. 91. And Remember… • Get Work Done Through People • Measurement AND Management • Numbers represent something (people…parts of your mission) • Measure, make changes, measure again • Be Courageous6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 91
    92. 92. 6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 92
    93. 93. Activities • What the program does with the inputs to fulfill its mission • Case management services • Child care services • Technical assistance workshops • Feed and shelter homeless families • Mentoring programs for young people6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 93
    94. 94. Outcome Measurement “The regular, systematic tracking of the extent to which program participants experience the benefits or changes intended.”6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 94
    95. 95. Outcome Measurement Theoretical Framework Inputs Activities Outputs Outcomes: Initial Intermediate Long-term6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 95
    96. 96. Inputs • Resources dedicated to or consumed by a program • Staff • Facilities • Equipment and supplies6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 96
    97. 97. Activities • What the program does with the inputs to fulfill its mission • Case management services • Child care services • Technical assistance workshops • Feed and shelter homeless families • Mentoring programs for young people6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 97
    98. 98. Outputs • The direct product of program activities. • Number of children served in the day care program • Number of training workshops provided • Number of families receiving food and shelter6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 98
    99. 99. Outcomes • Benefits for participants during and after program activities • New knowledge • Increased skills • Changed attitudes or values6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 99
    100. 100. Outcomes • Scorecards • Indicators toward goals performance • Indicators toward budget • Balanced • How all of it connected6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 100
    101. 101. Essential Elements of a Good Performance Mgt. System1. Allocate resources based on strategic plan2. Benchmark to set standards3. Establish key indicators4. Set quarterly targets5. Create reporting and accountability system6. Communicate results7. Modify targets based on performance6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 101
    102. 102. Essential Elements of a Good Performance Mgt. • System Performance helps everyone understand their role • An explicit target with feedback … • You can’t just say you work hard • Shows the outside world you are accomplishing the goals your org. was established to accomplish6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 102
    103. 103. Evaluation • Fit Mission • TWC tried to prove a model for Policy Makers to use (i.e. Gov) • MDRC made it natl. • DPW committed then the new leadership didn’t • Legacy TWC does not use it6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 103
    104. 104. Workforce Development6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 104
    105. 105. Workforce in the U.S. • Focuses on people who are unemployed, dislocated, youth, welfare • Two Core Strategies o Place-Based…focusing on neighborhoods o Sector-Based…focusing on industries • Job placement, training, education, or a combination6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 105
    106. 106. Approach • Training in NFP programs and community colleges • Addressing employment barriers • Supporting employers • Leveraging incentives for workers and employers6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 106
    107. 107. Implementation • Federal Department of Labor • State Department of Labor • Local Workforce Investment Boards o Intermediaries o Providers6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 107
    108. 108. Funding• U.S. spent about 17 billion last year (spending is down after the stimulus) on Welfare, and more when you factor in other funding for supportive services for TANF recipients who work such as childcare and transportation6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 108
    109. 109. Scope• $3-7 K per slot• Performance Based contracts• 1,800 One Stop Centers (self directed and staff assisted job search)• Business Tax Credits and Training Dollars6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 109
    110. 110. Problems• There is no open systematic way to account for and rank social and supportive services vendors in communities• Lack of innovation and competition• Transparency• Accountability6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 110
    111. 111. Welfare Policies – U.S. A Work Based System• Welfare Reform • In 1996, President Clinton signed into law the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA)• Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) • Welfare reform placed a five-year (60 month) lifetime limit on TANF that applies to all adults and heads of household • After receiving TANF for 24 months, individuals are required to work at least 20 hours per week to continue receiving benefits6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 111
    112. 112. Welfare Profile of so called “Hard to Serve” • All have received public assistance for 2 years • All have failed at least three other programs • Significant Barriers • Criminal Backgrounds, Mental Health Issues, Substance Abuse Issues, Domestic Violence, Poor Work History, Poor Academic Skills • Average participant • Single Mother • 3 Children • 5th grade reading and math levels (range 1st to 12th grade) • May have up to 6 months in transitional employment6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 112
    113. 113. Program Expectations• Vary, but a program may require and pay for: o Enrollment (100% enrollment) o Placement (65% of enrollment) o Retention (70% of those placed)6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 113
    114. 114. Profile of Recipient in 2007 • Average Client (in PA) with three children receives $403 per month in public assistance or $4,836 per year. ($14,508 over three years) • U.S. Census Bureau: approximately 46.2 million (15.1%, or 1/6th) of Americans are living in absolute poverty in 2011 • Poverty line for a family of 4 is $22,0506/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 114
    115. 115. Unemployment Insurance • Unemployment benefits are made by the state • Involuntarily unemployed and who are able and willing to accept suitable employment • Employers pay a tax • Calculation based on time worked and is about 50% of wages for six months6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 115
    116. 116. Case 2 TWC – An Approach to Performance Improvement employment (paid and short-term) + real work + skill development + supportive services (including tax credits = anti-poverty strategy6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 116
    117. 117. TWC-http://www.fathom.com/mediaindex/vod/business/122607/index. htm • Transitional Work Corporation CEO Richard Greenwald, his staff, and clients explain how TWC is in the business of helping people on public assistance get and keep jobs. • The transitional job is like a paid internship at a government, city, or non-profit agency. • The next step after six months is permanent employment. TWC has a 96 percent rate of hire. 6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 117
    118. 118. TWC • Who are the protagonists of the case? • What is the policy issue • What is the management issue • What did you think about the way TWC addressed the management issue • What was at stake? • How could you measure success?6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 118
    119. 119. TWC • Environment o Welfare reform o Critics and Supporters of TWC o Who were the actors o Issue – performance improvement through TQM (teams, employees as experts, communication, amnesty, measurement, continuous improvement) o Greenwald management style • Retreats – their purpose • Decisions o Change performance outcomes o Costs and benefits of Reorganization o Should he provide more services in-house o How will they demonstrate improvement6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 119
    120. 120. Lunch6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 120
    121. 121. Case 3 California Global Warming Solutions – Cost Benefit Analysis and Evaluation in Implementing Local Legislation6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 121
    122. 122. California • There is not consensus about global warming • Was it wise to pass AB 32? • Climate Change is a public good • Market based emissions controls o Standards vs. Cap and Trade, pros and cons o Carbon taxes6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 122
    123. 123. What is Happening in Georgia • How serious is the global warming taken as a problem? • What are the costs? • Who are the leaders? • What should be the goals for industries and citizens? • What is the infrastructure in Govt/NGO to get things done?6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 123
    124. 124. End/Break for those staying for the afternoon session6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 124
    125. 125. Georgia Case Study Outlines • Tbilisi Infrastructure Case • Project Evaluation; Should local government provide certain pubic goods; Cost benefit analysis (Should Tbilisi build new roads, tunnels and bridges?) • Environmental Policy Case • Environmental Policies of local governments; New projects in Tbilisi: cutting down old trees, planting new ones • Prisoner Re-Entry Policy Case • Prisoner Reentry Policies in Georgia; Probation programs and its challenges6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 125
    126. 126. Break Out Groups • Break into teams around the three Tbilisi/Georgia Cases (Infrastructure, Environmental, & Prisoner Re-entry)6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 126
    127. 127. Case Writing Process • Developing leads • Site Visits • Determine what needs to go into the case including Exhibits • Review what is known • Outline • Goals and Purpose of the case; • Key Questions; • Timeline with Responsibilities6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 127
    128. 128. Case Writing Process • Determining what you want to accomplish with your students • Make sure you have some substantive competence with the material • You pick a story that is interesting • Poses a problem that does not necessarily have a right answer • Clear about the actors and their authority • Generate enough information for a good analysis6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 128
    129. 129. Case Writing Process • Prepare a prospectus; a proposal o Subject o Audience o Teaching purpose/objective o The story o Setting – where, when, why o Key actors and decision makers o Issues they face o Constraints and opportunities o Decisions and actions o Sources of information and data o Research plan6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 129
    130. 130. Case Writing Process -Initial questions • What are you trying to accomplish in terms of fitting into the course? • Who is the audience? • What ancillary materials will you develop? • What decisions need to be made by the protagonist? • How much data is useful to move the story along? • How long will the case be? • What is the controversy; the context in which a decision needs to be made? 6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 130
    131. 131. Case Writing Process • Research o Secondary sources like published reports, media, academic research, background documents like financials, board information o Primary sources – interviews of key actors and experts o Personal observations o Facts, charts, maps, timelines6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 131
    132. 132. Case Writing Process • Research o Be inquisitive with the actors o Develop your characters and setting o What are people saying o Attitudes and body language o Side remarks o Get multiple perspectives6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 132
    133. 133. Case Writing Process • Standard Components of a case study o Opening Paragraph dramatically stating the case issue or problem, the time, decision focus o Background and context of the firm, the actors, the industry o Case Story o Conclusion – generates tension, sets up the decision point, suggests options and considerations6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 133
    134. 134. Case Writing Process • Answer the following in your description o Clearly identify who the decision maker is o What is that person’s role? why do they have to act? What action must be taken and when? o Clarify the timeline of the case o Describe the setting – where, when, why o The key problems and issues need to be revealed – you can nuance o Be organized…logical outline in the story; subheadings, numbered points, clear transitions, with supported appendices of graphs and charts6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 134
    135. 135. Case Writing Process • Fact Checking and Editing o Ensure facts are correct o Attribute quotes6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 135
    136. 136. ResourcesAuthor Document PublisherWilliamEimicke and Steve The Transitional Work Corporation: Managing For Better Fathom. WWW.Fathom.comCohen Outcomes. Part 1: Reorganization as a Strategy for May 2002. Performance Improvement Part 2: Implementation IssuesHarvard University Prisoner Reentry in Newark Harvard Kennedy School of(courtesy of Robert D. Behn Government , April 10, 2011Jose A. Gomez-Ibanez The California Global Warming Solutions Act (AB 32) Harvard Kennedy School of Government: Case Number 1944.0 , 2011Robert D. Behn PerformanceStat is a Leadership Strategy Not a Model or a Harvard Kennedy School of System: Or Why MimicStat Cant’ Really Work Government A Paper Prepared for The Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, November 5, 2011Robert D. Behn Why the Cops – And NYPD in Particular – Have it Easy Harvard Kennedy School of Government, March 2, 2012John Boehrer Writing Effective Memos The Electronic Hallway, University of Washington’s Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, 2003C. Roland Christensen Questions for Class Discussions Center for Teaching and Harvard Business School, 2008 LearningJohn Boehrer How to Teach a Case The Electronic Hallway, University of Washington’s Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, 19966/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 136
    137. 137. ResourcesJonathan Brock MoreTools- A Framework for Analyzing Management The Electronic Hallway, University of Dilemmas Washington’s Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, 2004William Rotch Casewriting University of Virginia, Darden Graduate Business School, Case Number UV0541, 1989Jose A. Gomez-Ibanez Learning by the Case Method Harvard Kennedy School of Government: Case Number N15- 86-1136.0, 1986Laurence E. Lynn, Jr. Welcome to the Case Method! The Electronic Hallway, University of Washington’s Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, 1996Thomas V. Bonoma Learning by the Case Method in Marketing Harvard Business School, Case Number 9-590-008, July 13, 1989Mary C. Gentile Twenty-Five Questions to Ask as You Begin to Develop a New Harvard Business School, Case Case Study Number 9-391-042, August 13, 1990 Case Study Outline EWMI G-PAC Memo Writing Guideline EMPA Program Columbia UniversityStanford University Teaching with Case Studies, Speaking of Teaching Winter 1994,Newsletter on Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2 6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 137
    138. 138. Thank You • Professor Bill Eimicke, Columbia University, for input toward this presentation, and for his contribution to the section on performance management in particular • Professor ArvidLukauskas, Columbia University, for his organization of and support of this session • Professor Bob Behn, Harvard University, for copies of and permission to use the Newark Prisoner Reentry case study, his suggested guiding case questions, as well as copies of his performance management pieces6/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 138
    139. 139. Contact Richard Greenwald Phone 212-851-0289 c/o Columbia University Email: rcg5@columbia.edu School of International and Public Affairs Picker Center for Executive Education 420 West 118th Street, Room 400 New York NY 100276/15-16/2012 Richard Greenwald Columbia University Copyright 2012 139
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