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Bentham ’s theory can be divided into three parts:
The Principle of Utility
The Utility or Hedonic
First a re-cap of Bentham…
PLEASURE All types of pleasure and pain can be measured on the same scale Pleasures can be compared quantitatively because there is no difference between them What is good and bad for each person is a matter for each person to decide by following the hedonic (felicific) calculus Bentham once said that “quantity of pleasure being equal, push-pin (a simple child’s game) is as good as poetry.”
The Hedonic Calculus The Hedonic Calculus is: Democratic Egalitarian (classless) “ Everybody is to count for one, and nobody for more than one.” In keeping with the enlightenment thinking the Hedonic Calculus was a rational and scientific way to measure pleasure. Bentham claimed that goodness could be empirically (through experience) proven. “ No one person’s pleasure is greater than another’s”
John Stuart Mill 1806-1873
Believed that happiness, not pleasure, should be the standard of utility.
Mill agreed with Bentham in emphasising that a persons ’ well being is of the utmost importance.
Mill agreed with the utility principle but had an issue with the quantitative element.
Mill developed a system of higher and lower pleasures.
To pursue pleasures of the intellect were ‘ higher ’ than, say, the pursuits if pleasures of the body.
J. S. Mill
Mill wanted to reformulate the utilitarian theory to reflect the fact that pleasures are not all of equal value.
He also wanted to take human nature into account.
Pleasure is not the same as happiness!
There are two main differences between pleasure and happiness
HAPPINESS An indirect by-product of another activity PLEASURE Pursued as an end in its own right Gratification HAPPINESS Satisfaction PLEASURE
A divorced, wealthy, young man may seek pleasure from drugs, alcohol and an active sex life with many partners, but lack the happiness of true friendship and the love of his family
Mill ’s utilitarianism has been referred to as being eudaimonistic (human well being) utilitarianism, as opposed to Bentham’s hedonistic (pleasure) utilitarianism.
Eudaimonia is found in
the writings of Aristotle
Aristotle distinguished between pleasure and happiness
For Mill the difference in happiness over pleasure is significant; happiness having a higher qualitative edge over the quantity of lower bestial (base) pleasures
Mill defines utilitarianism as…
“ The creed which accepts as the foundation of morals, Utilitarianism, or the greatest happiness principle, holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. By happiness is intended pleasure and absence of pain: by unhappiness pain and privation of pleasure.”
Utilitarianism Chapter 2
Higher and Lower pleasures
“ It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied.”
Mill, 1863, Chapter 2
Mill maintained that pleasures of the mind were higher than those of the body.
To pursue bodily pleasures – food, drink, drugs and sex – was not as high an objective as those that are intellectually demanding.
Are bodily pleasures lower than intellectual pleasures?
On your own, arrange the following from higher to lower quality: eating, listening to music, making music, drinking alcohol, watching a good movie, viewing beautiful artwork, spending time with your partner, spending time with your friends, attending family gatherings, eating chocolate, reading or hearing poetry, playing sport, achieving fame.
How do we distinguish between two higher pleasures? How could the pleasures to be gained from playing Bach be measured against the pleasures to be gained from seeing a Shakespearian play? Give examples if you can.
Is it better to be intellectually aware of the world ’s imperfections and the sufferings of people and, hence, be unhappy or dissatisfied, or is it better to be blissfully ignorant of the world’s troubles and, hence, be happy and content with ;life?
Explain and illustrate Bentham and Mill ’ s Utilitarianism. Who do you find more convincing and why? (50 marks)