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How to integrate outside research into your own writing

How to integrate outside research into your own writing

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  • 1. From Research to Writing . . . HOW?
  • 2. Why do we cite sources?
    • To let our readers know how we arrived at our conclusions (gives more credibility to our ideas)
    • To stand on the shoulders of the scholars who came before us – and allow others to stand on our shoulders
    • Because giving credit to others is the honest thing to do!
  • 3. What should I cite?
    • Direct quotations
    • Someone else’s unique ideas (in a paraphrase)
    • Statistics
    • Diagrams, images, sound clips
  • 4. I don’t have to cite:
    • My own ideas or conclusions
    • Things that are “commonly known” by my audience
  • 5. How to paraphrase
    • Read the other person’s idea/opinion, and understand it.
    • Close the book/website/article.
    • If stuck here, try to explain the idea verbally to someone else.
    • Write out the idea/opinion.
    • Make sure to include the person’s name/affiliation in your paraphrase.
    • Check back with the original.
    • Don’t forget your citation!
  • 6. Example:
    • Dr. Buddhima Lokuge, a spokesperson for Doctors Without Borders, that the current drug patent system does not encourage researchers to invent new drugs to combat HIV/AIDS. Instead, , the system actually inhibits the distribution of desperately-needed antiretroviral HIV/AIDS drugs in poor countries, by driving up the costs per patient (qtd. in Bristol).
    Person’s name & affiliation In-text citation suggests he writes
  • 7. Integrating your paraphrase
    • Make a “sandwich” with your research information:
      • Start with your point (the topic sentence of the paragraph).
      • Use a transitional phrase or word to bring in your research.
      • End with your conclusions or a summary of the research, in your own words.
  • 8. Integrating the paraphrase
    • There is a common misconception that US drug patent policies will help encourage drug companies to work on new medicines that work against the HIV/AIDS virus. On the contrary, Dr. Buddhima Lokuge, a spokesperson for Doctors Without Borders, suggests that the current drug patent system does not encourage researchers to invent new drugs to combat HIV/AIDS. Instead, he writes, the system actually inhibits the distribution of desperately-needed antiretroviral HIV/AIDS drugs in poor countries, by driving up the costs per patient (qtd. in Bristol). Sticking to current policy will only lead to more spread of the virus; clearly, policy needs to change.
    Introduce the idea of the paragraph (topic sentence) research End the paragraph with your summary/conclusions transition
  • 9. P.S. Here’s how the two citation pieces fit together:
    • In text citation:
    • . . . by driving up the costs per patient (qtd. in Bristol).
    • Works Cited citation:
    • Bristol, N. (2007, October 26). Battling HIV/AIDS. CQ Researcher , 17 , 889-912. Retrieved November 4, 2007, from CQ Researcher Online, http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2007102600.