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Happiness Presentation Happiness Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • Positive Psychology and Happiness
  • States of Affect
    • “I am now the most miserable man living. If what I feel were equally distributed to the whole human family, there would not be one cheerful face on earth. Whether I shall ever be better, I cannot tell; I awfully forebode I shall not. To remain as I am is impossible. I must die or be better, it appears to me.”
  • Is Misery Increasing?
    • If you had fallen asleep in 1960 and awakened today, what would you find?
  • 1960 – 2000: • 2 X Divorce Rate • 3 X Teen Suicide • 4 X Reported Violent Crime • 5 X Prison Population. • 6 X Babies Born to Unmarried Parents. • 7 X Cohabitation (a predictor of future divorce). • 10 X Depression Myers, David G. (April 24, 2000) Wanting More in an Age of Plenty. Christianity Today Dr. David Myers Hope College
  • Depression: Incidence / Prevalence
    • Lifetime prevalence: 17% - 25%
    • 8 million new cases of depression / year
    • Antidepressants among most commonly prescribed drugs with over 90% being prescribed by PCPs.
    • Depression rapidly increasing worldwide (Cohort born 1925 had 4% lifetime prevalence)
    Bent & Masters, ibid.
  • Increasing Risk of Depression
    • Each generation since 1900 has seen a higher incidence of depression.
      • 1 /25 ca. 1900; 1/5 or greater ca. 2000.
    • Seen in all industrialized countries
      • Exceptions?: Maybe tightly knit non-industrial groups
    • Reason is unknown:
      • Possibly change in social values?
      • Change in diet: depression as an inflammatory disease?
    Klerman, G.L. & Weissman, M.M. (1989) Increasing rates of depression. Journal of the American Medical Association, 261 , 2229-35.
  • A dysfunctional person is one who has lost the capacity to give and receive love, and to love oneself.
  • What Good is Happiness?
    • Happy people are shallow and uninteresting? (Woody Allen, Annie Hall )
    • Happy people are in denial?
      • The suffering artist, the anguished intellectual.
    • Happy people are passive?
  • You Should Know:
    • Happy people are smarter and more creative.
    • Happy people have more stable and happy marriages.
    • Happy people make more money.
    • Happy people are healthier and live longer.
    • Happy people are generous.
  • Bio Social Psycho
  • The Six Dimensions of Happiness
  • The Mental Health Continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life.
    • 17.2 % are flourishing. As employees, spouses, and neighbors, they are the best.
    • 56.6 % are moderate; they are well but not great.
    • 12.1 % are languishing; they are not happy and not very productive.
    • 14.1 % are clearly depressed; they under-perform, are quite unhappy, over-use medical services, etc.
    Keyes, Corey L. M. (2002) Journal of Health and Social Behavior . 43 (2), 207-222.
    • Anger: 5,584
    • Anxiety: 41,416
    • Depression: 54,040
    Psychological Abstracts (1967-2000)
    • Joy: 415
    • Happiness: 1,710
    • Life satisfaction: 2,582
    Ratio: 21/ 1 Source: Tal Ben Shahar, Harvard U. Since 1998, an explosion of research.
  • Are Happy People Healthier? Do they really live longer?
  • The Nun Study (Danner et al., 2001)
    • Only positive feelings predicted longevity
      • Age 85: 90% of most cheerful quartile alive; 34% of least cheerful quartile alive.
      • Age 94: 54% of most cheerful quartile alive; 11% of least cheerful quartile alive
  • “ God started my life off well by bestowing upon me grace of inestimable value... The past year which I spent as a candidate studying at Notre Dame has been a very happy one. Now I look forward with eager joy to receiving the Holy Habit of Our Lady and to a life of union with Love Divine.” Celia O’Payne “ I was born on September 26, 1909, the eldest of seven children, five girls and two boys... My candidate year was spent in the mother-house, teaching chemistry and second year Latin at Notre Dame Institute. With God’s grace, I intend to do my best for our Order, for the spread of religion and for my personal sanctification.” Marguerite Donnelly
  • Heart Health & Happiness
    • Erik Giltay in Holland followed 999 older men and women for ten years
    • The upper third in optimism had half the heart attacks of the bottom third!
    Giltay, E.J., Geleijnse, J.M., Aitman, F.G., Hoekstra, T., & Schouten, E.,G. (2004). Dispositional optimism and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in an elderly cohort of Dutch men and women. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61 , 1126-1135.
  • Giltay’s Optimism Questions
    • I expect much from life.
    • I do not look forward to what lies ahead for me in the years to come.
    • My days seem to be passing slowly.
    • I am full of plans.
  • Scoring
    • Statement No. 1: Give yourself two points if you fully agree, one point if you partially agree or don't know, and no points if you disagree.
    • Statement No. 2: Give yourself no points if you fully agree, one point if you partially agree or don't know, and two points if you disagree.
    • Statement No. 3: Give yourself no points if you fully agree, one point if you partially agree or don't know, and two points if you disagree.
    • Statement No. 4: Give yourself two points if you fully agree, one point if you partially agree or don't know, and no points if you disagree.
    Seven or eight means you are optimistic.
  • Creativity & Intelligence
  • Harvard Professor Teresa Amabile has studied creativity for twenty years. Creative people are: Happier & likely to have a positive event the day before a creative breakthrough. She has shown that pressure, layoffs, and competition all reduce creativity. “Running scared” does NOT produce more creativity. A positive mood is a necessary precursor.
  • Optimists and Sales Martin Seligman found that among new Met Life agents: - Strong optimists outsold moderate optimists 21% the first year . . . 57% the second year . . . And the difference continues to grow!
  • Happiness & Relationships
    • Happier people cause happy marriages.
      • More likely to have a large circle of friends.
      • More attractive, independent of physical beauty.
      • More likely to marry & stay married.
      • Easier to feel passionately committed.
    Lynbomirsky, S. (2008) The How of Happiness . New York: Penguin, pp 138-146.
  • What Increases Happiness?
    • Moderate pleasure .
    • Social skills - being involved w/ people:
      • Wide range of acquaintances; Appreciate & enjoy others; Deep connection with spouse.
    • Optimism & Zest:
      • Expect good to multiply & bad to pass quickly.
    • A Sense of Mission
      • Do more of what you are good at.
    • Gratitude
      • Reframing bad toward good.
      • Gratitude diary & service
  • Worrying is using your imagination to create something you do not want.
  • Organic Functional
  • Organic Functional
  • Can We Teach Happiness & Optimism?
  • Can we prevent depression in vulnerable children?
  • Adults: We can increase our happiness - Interventions Genetics ~ 50% Circumstances ~ 10% Under own control ~ 40% Lynbomirsky, S. (2008) The How of Happiness . New York: Penguin.
  • The Emotional Gradient
    • Joy/Love/Freedom
    • Passion
    • Enthusiasm
    • Optimism
    • Contentment
    • Boredom
    • Pessimism
    • Frustration
    • Burn-out
    • Disappointment
    • Jealousy
    • Anger
    • Blame/Hatred/Rage/
    • Revenge
    • Insecurity/Anxiety
    • Guilt/Unworthiness
    • Fear/Grief
    • Depression/Hopelessness
  • The Emotional Gradient
    • Joy/Love/Freedom
    • Depression/Hopelessness
    • Enthusiasm
    • Optimism
    • Contentment
    • Boredom
    • Pessimism
    • Disappointment
    • Jealousy
    • Anger
    • Blame/Hatred/Rage/
    • Revenge
    • Insecurity/Anxiety
    • Guilt/Unworthiness
    • Fear/Grief Passion
    • Frustration
    • Burn-out
  • Don’t worry, be happy.