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  1. 1. Roshan Gnyawali
  2. 2. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Process Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermittent Flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous Flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Break-even Analysis </li></ul></ul>Contents 3- <ul><li>Technology in Process Selection </li></ul><ul><li>CAD/CAM </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible Manufacturing System </li></ul><ul><li>Robot and Robotics </li></ul><ul><li>Group Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Process selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deciding on the way production of goods or services will be organized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Decision </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major implications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Layout of facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design of work systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Resources </li></ul></ul>Introduction 3- Process Selection has major Impact on Cost, Productivity and Competitiveness
  4. 4. Links to Process Selection 3- Forecasting Product and Service Design Technological Change Capacity Planning Process Selection Facilities and Equipment Layout Work Design
  5. 5. Process Selection Strategy 3- <ul><li>Key aspects of process strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital intensive – equipment/labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume and Variety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce-to-stock / Produce-to-order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment and Technological Change </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Process Selection Strategy Building, Furniture Plane Restaurant, Clothing, Molding Fast Food, Computer CFL Lamp Design Purchasing Production Assembly Delivery Make To Stock Assemble To Order Make To Order Purchase To Order Engineering To Order
  7. 7. Process Types 3- Project Form Intermittent Flow Continuous Flow Processing
  8. 8. <ul><li>Example: Building of Ship, Aircraft; Construction of Roads, Buildings; Annual Conference; Training </li></ul>Project Form 3-
  9. 9. <ul><li>Short Life Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Different Functional Specialization </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling and Control is important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CPM/ PERT techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time-bound, Different functional specialization, Immobile Product, Temporary team </li></ul>Project Form 3-
  10. 10. <ul><li>Example: Fork Lift Trucks, Home Appliances </li></ul>Intermittent Flow 3-
  11. 11. <ul><li>Various Standard Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Material Handling and In-Process Inventory High </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in Management of Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Variety at Low Cost </li></ul><ul><li>High Capacity Utilization </li></ul><ul><li>Highly skilled workers </li></ul><ul><li>Complex operation planning and control </li></ul>Intermittent Flow 3-
  12. 12. <ul><li>Computerized Production and Inventory Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated CAM </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II) </li></ul><ul><li>Group Technology </li></ul>Techniques for Intermittent Flow 3-
  13. 13. Computer-Aided Manufacturing <ul><li>Manufacturing Systems utilizing computer software programs that control the actual machine on the shop floor. </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable Instructions to machines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product quality consistent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close tolerances can be obtained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower labor costs </li></ul></ul>2-
  14. 14. Group Technology <ul><li>A way of organizing and using data for components that have similar properties and manufacturing requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Families of Component Parts, Machines, Equipments or People </li></ul><ul><li>Grouped in cells so that volumes are higher and variety smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Taking advantages of continuous flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time and cost reduced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Material handling reduced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter throughput time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-process inventory reduced </li></ul></ul>3-
  15. 15. <ul><li>Example: Refrigerator assembly, Car Assembly, Fast Food Restaurants, Bank Counter </li></ul>Continuous Flow 3-
  16. 16. Continuous Flow 3-
  17. 17. Continuous Flow <ul><li>Difficult to adapt </li></ul><ul><li>Problem of balancing the line </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility of stoppage of line </li></ul><ul><li>Low worker morale </li></ul><ul><li>Capital Intensive </li></ul>3-
  18. 18. <ul><li>Computer Numerical Control (CNC) / Direct Numerical Control (DNC) </li></ul><ul><li>Robotics </li></ul><ul><li>CAD / CAM / CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible Manufacturing (FMS) </li></ul>Techniques for Continuous Flow 3-
  19. 19. Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) <ul><li>It is a computer-controlled process technology suitable for producing a moderate variety of products in moderate volumes. </li></ul><ul><li>It contains several automated programmable work stations. </li></ul><ul><li>Automated Material-handling equipment are used. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) <ul><li>Introduce flexibility to continuous process in terms of component design, operation sequence, batch sizes, production capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Combine advantages of continuous flow process and intermittent flow process </li></ul><ul><li>Increased variety, improved response to customer order, updated product design </li></ul>3-
  21. 21. Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) 3-
  22. 22. Robotics <ul><li>Robot: A programmable machine capable of moving materials and performing routine, repetitive tasks. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace humans for heavy, dirty, dangerous, unpleasant, monotonous tasks. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Robotics: The science of selecting robots for various applications. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Example: Fertilizer, petrochemicals, milk, drugs </li></ul>Processing Industry 3-
  24. 24. Processing Industry <ul><li>Single Input </li></ul><ul><li>Analytic and Synthetic Process </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Low Labor Required </li></ul><ul><li>Capital Intensive </li></ul>3-
  25. 25. Process Selection <ul><li>Combination to take advantage of more forms </li></ul><ul><li>Stage in Life-cycle of product </li></ul><ul><li>Suited to the Market </li></ul><ul><li>Competitor approach </li></ul><ul><li>Technological Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Break-even analysis of processes </li></ul>
  26. 26. Break Even Analysis Intermittent Project Volume Cost Continuous
  27. 27. Computer Integrated Manufacturing <ul><li>CIM is a concept of a fully automated factory, where all manufacturing processes are integrated and controlled by computers. </li></ul><ul><li>CIM integrates information flows in marketing, design, manufacturing, engineering, resource requirements planning, purchasing, production process, quality assurance, administration etc. </li></ul>2-
  28. 28. Discussion Questions <ul><li>Define FMS. What is the general field of FMS application significant in terms of potential market size for its capability? State with reference to any production unit. </li></ul><ul><li>Why is mass production preferred over in some types of products with large volume? Explain the key elements of mass production with some examples. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate continuous flow processes from intermittent flow processes. Give examples. </li></ul><ul><li>On the basis of material flow, classify production systems and give examples for each type. </li></ul>
  29. 29. End of Unit 3 UNIT 4: Facilities Location