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    The choiceless choice   lessons learned at yv The choiceless choice lessons learned at yv Presentation Transcript

    • ‘The ChoiceLess Choice’
      Workshop presented at the CSA Conference,
      Citipointe Centre, Brisbane, QLD, Australia, 13 July 2010
      Lessons learned at YadVashem, Jerusalem, Israel
      A section of the museum display at YadVashem on international reticence to accept refugees in the pre-war years.
      Presenter: Mr. Richard Leo MA(Hist), BA, Dip. Ed.
      Head of Humanities, Nambour Christian College
      Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History, Christian Heritage College
    • Gandel Holocaust Studies Program for Australian Educators
      In January, 2010, scholarship recipient for this program held at YadVashem, Jersualem, Israel
      Scholarship provided by the Gandel Charitable Trust
      See ‘Educators Israel-bound for Holocaust studies’, The Australian Jewish News, 22 December, 2009 http://jewishnews.net.au/2009/12/22/educators-israel-bound-for-holocaust-studies/10507
      Information on future opportunities for Australian Educators (including scholarships) are available at: http://www1.yadvashem.org/yv/en/education/international_projects/australian_educators/index.asp
      Schedule for the scholarship program in 2010 is available at http://www1.yadvashem.org/yv/en/education/seminars/seminar_pdf/seminar_january_10.pdf
      Left: the entrance to YadVashem;
      Right: The Australian participants at the inaugural Holocaust Studies Program.
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • Why the ‘choiceless choice’? Some questions
      Challenges our notions of humanity - in a world of choiceless choices, people still ask moral questions
      A challenge for Western morals and ethics: a ‘laboratory’ of human behaviour (Y. Bauer, ‘On the place of the Holocaust in History’, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, vol 2, no. 2, 1987, p. 219)
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • Why the ‘choiceless choice’? Some questions
      As an educator, How to express the ‘dehumanizing’ process?
      When you are dehumanized, acts of humanity take on new meaning (ethics and morals)
      Ethics are about making choices
      Choices where if you turn left, you’re correct; if you turn right; you’re correct
      The Crying Baby
      It’s wartime, and you’re hiding in a basement with your baby and group of other people. Enemy soldiers are outside and will be drawn to any sound. If you’re found, you will all be killed immediately. Your baby starts to cry loudly and cannot be stopped. Smothering him to death is the only way to silence him and save the lives of everyone in the room. Could you do so? Assume the baby is not yours, the parents are unknown and there will be no penalty for killing him. Could you be the one who smothers this baby if no one else would?
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • On January 18, 1943 the Germans surrounded the Grodno ghetto in order to round up the Jews for deportation to Auschwitz-Birkenau. The Frejdowicz family and friends hid in an attic. Three babies were not hidden for fear that their crying would expose the others. Grandfather Nahum Frejdowicz chose to stay with the babies – two of them his grand children – and together they were taken to their deaths. Dr. Felix Zandman is the only grandson of Nahum Frejdowicz who survived the Holocaust. (Photograph taken by presenter)
    • On January 18, 1943 the Germans surrounded the Grodno ghetto in order to round up the Jews for deportation to Auschwitz-Birkenau. The Frejdowicz family and friends hid in an attic. Three babies were not hidden for fear that their crying would expose the others. Grandfather Nahum Frejdowicz chose to stay with the babies – two of them his grand children – and together they were taken to their deaths. Dr. Felix Zandman is the only grandson of Nahum Frejdowicz who survived the Holocaust. (Photograph taken by presenter)
    • Why the ‘choiceless choice’? Some questions
      Challenges our notions of humanity - in a world of choiceless choices, people still ask moral questions
      A challenge for Western morals and ethics: a ‘laboratory’ of human behaviour (Y. Bauer, ‘On the place of the Holocaust in History’, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, vol 2, no. 2, 1987, p. 219)
      Why this event? Aren’t other genocides just as bad?
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • Words
      Two years before the destruction
      They did not call ‘destruction’ ‘destruction’
      Two years before the Holocaust
      It did not have a name.
      What was the word ‘destruction’
      Two years before the destruction?
      A word for something bad, that should never happen.
      What was the word ‘Holocaust’
      Two years before the Holocaust?
      It was a word for a great upheaval
      Something with a tremendous din.
      Meir Wieseltier, ‘Words.’ Translated by Gabriel Levin
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • Why the ‘choiceless choice’? Some questions
      Challenges our notions of humanity - in a world of choiceless choices, people still ask moral questions
      A challenge for Western morals and ethics: a ‘laboratory’ of human behaviour (Y. Bauer, ‘On the place of the Holocaust in History’, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, vol 2, no. 2, 1987, p. 219)
      Why this event? Aren’t other genocides just as bad?
      Is this a unique event?
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • Written in Pencil in the Sealed Freightcar
      Here in this carload
      I am Eve
      With my son Abel
      If you see my older boy
      Cain so of Adam
      Tell him that I
      Dan Pagis, trans. Stephen Mitchell)
      Photograph of a freightcar that transported Jews to camps such as Auschwitz, from http://pl.auschwitz.org.pl/m/images/stories/news2009/wagon2.jpg
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • Why the ‘choiceless choice’? Some questions
      Challenges our notions of humanity - in a world of choiceless choices, people still ask moral questions
      A challenge for Western morals and ethics: a ‘laboratory’ of human behaviour (Y. Bauer, ‘On the place of the Holocaust in History’, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, vol 2, no. 2, 1987, p. 219)
      Why this event? Aren’t other genocides just as bad?
      Is this a unique event?
      Citizenship issues
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • Why the ‘choiceless choice’? Some questions
      Challenges our notions of humanity - in a world of choiceless choices, people still ask moral questions
      A challenge for Western morals and ethics: a ‘laboratory’ of human behaviour (Y. Bauer, ‘On the place of the Holocaust in History’, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, vol 2, no. 2, 1987, p. 219)
      Why this event? Aren’t other genocides just as bad?
      Is this a unique event?
      Citizenship issues
      Multi-/Inter-disciplinary approaches
      In a religious setting, a form of Christian ‘reconciliation’ (HJ Cargas, ‘The Uniqueness of the Holocaust for Christians’, At the Edge of the 21st Century: Second Scholars’ Conference on the Teaching of the Holocaust, The National Catholic Center for Holocaust Education, Seton Hill College, Greensburg, Penn., October 6-7, 1991, p. 19)
      ????
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • The Holocaust as a Paradigm
      Nazi ideology towards the Jews:
      Hitler to Goering in a memorandum, 1933, identifies international Jewry, through Bolshevism, is endangering the German nation
      Jan 30, 1939, discusses the ‘Jewish question’ in a speech (see Hitler’s speech, Jan 30, 1939, from Documents of the Holocaust, avail at: http://www1.yadvashem.org/about_holocaust/documents/part1/doc59.html )
      The crux of the Nazi regime: Bolshevism uses international financiers to take over the world
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • The Holocaust as a Paradigm
      European nationalist thought:
      Humanity is developed into ‘we’ groups eg. ‘We Australians’
      ‘Out’ groups who are neutral, friendly or unfriendly
      Jews did not fit into this paradigm  the ‘third’ outside grouping  anti-semitism because the Jews were outside ‘normalcy’ eg. Covers of the various editions of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion published in Europe in the 1930s (see next slide)
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • The Holocaust as a Paradigm
      Covers of two French editions of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion published in the 1930s available at: http://www.history.ucsb.edu/faculty/marcuse/classes/33d/projects/protzion/DelaCruzProtocolsMain.htm
    • The Holocaust as a Paradigm
      Two schools of thought on Holocaust:
      Functionalist (the result of anti-semitism in Europe)
      Intentionalist (the result of pre-planning with Hitler at centre)
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • The Holocaust as a Paradigm
      Both have problems:
      Intentionalist
      Hitler’s speech of 1939 does not indicate concrete planning
      Documented concrete planning on the Holocaust begins in the spring of 1941
      For example from the ‘Instructions for the Deportation of the Jews From the Palatinate (Pfalz), October 1940’:
      Items 1 & 13:
      1. Only full Jews will be deported. Mischlinge, partners in mixed marriages and foreign Jews, as long as they are not citizens of enemy nations or of areas occupied by us, will be excluded from the Aktion. Stateless Jews will, on principle, be detained. Every Jew is considered fit to be moved; the only exceptions are Jews who are actually bedridden.
      13. It is absolutely necessary that the Jews will be dealt with in a proper manner when they are detained. Excesses are in any case to be avoided absolutely.
      Document avail at: http://www1.yadvashem.org/about_holocaust/documents/part1/doc64.html
      Functionalist
      People kill but have to be motivated to kill
      Mein Kampf does not give a solution to the ‘Jewish question’
      Himmler implies a solution in a speech in 1920
      Important to note that once the ideology of the Nazis is accepted the other political, social or economic factors come into play
      The Holocaust has an ideology which is unique to all other genocides
      Added significance as it arose for the ‘centre’ of European civilisation: Germany
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • The Holocaust as a Paradigm
      Important to note that once the ideology of the Nazis is accepted the other political, social or economic factors come into play
      ALL Jews were to be killed
      Germans often preferred ideological motivation rather than economic motivations
      The issue of ‘race’
      The issue of ideas being transmitted in society: Dawkins’ ‘meme’
      Western Civilization is the product of:
      Ancient Greece, Rome and the ethics of the Prophets ie. Athens, Rome and Jerusalem
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • The Holocaust as a Paradigm
      Important to note that once the ideology of the Nazis is accepted the other political, social or economic factors come into play
      The Holocaust is NOT unique so can be repeated
      It is a tragedy that is unprecedented in human history:
      a human event, perpetrated for human reasons which can be historically explained. As an event within history, it is unique in terms of the murderers’ motivation: a mission to rescue Germany, Europe and the world from their supreme enemy, the Jews
      (Y. Bauer, ‘On the place of the Holocaust in History’, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, vol 2, no. 2, 1987, p. 209)
      It is a paradigmatic case for Western Civilization of extreme mass murder
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • Educational Philosophy of the Holocaust
      Why might teachers avoid teaching the Holocaust?
      Issue in the Australian Curriculum:
      From the Australian Curriculum: History (draft) 2010, http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Explore/History and the Australian Curriculum: Modern History (draft) 2010 http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/SeniorYears/History/Modern%20History [accessed July 9, 2010]
    • Educational Philosophy of the Holocaust
      Why might teachers avoid teaching the Holocaust?
      Issue in the Australian Curriculum:
      Mandated curriculum requires only students to learn about the Holocaust
      No mandates that teachers enrol in accredited courses in Holocaust history, literature or pedagogy:
      ‘Thus the vast majority of educators, through no fault of their own, currently lack the basic skills necessary to implement state mandates with professional integrity’
      (K Shawn, ‘Current issues in Holocaust Education’, Dimensions, vol 9, no. 2, p. 16)
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • Educational Philosophy of the Holocaust
      SWOT analysis of the Challenges facing Holocaust educators by Deidre Burke, University of Wolverhampton, UK:
      (D. Burke, ‘Teaching the Holocaust: a SWOT analysis of the Challenges facing Holocaust educators’, unpublished article, copy in personal collection of presenter, photocopied from the archives at YadVashem, Jerusalem, Israel, January, 2010.)
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • Educational Philosophy of the Holocaust
      As an educator, what is stressed?
      The Jewish uniqueness of the Holocaust?
      Universal human elements?
      Israel: tendency to regard the Holocaust as the culminating point of Jewish history, a symbol of Jewish fate, interdependence and identity
      See Y Bauer, (2002) Rethinking the Holocaust for a critique of the dangers of these concepts
      See Rabbi Sir J Sacks, ‘Address to the 2008 Lambeth Conference: Exposition of the Hebrew Scriptures: The Relationship Between the People and God — the Covenant’, available at http://www.bc.edu/research/cjl/meta-elements/texts/cjrelations/news/Sacks'_Lambeth_Address.htm for an investigation of recent Jewish theological developments of the Holocaust
      Other countries tend to stress the universal and human elements of the Holocaust eg. Human rights issues
      Both approaches risk losing and distorting the historic truth and human meaning of the Holocaust
      (C Schatzker, ‘The Teaching of the Holocaust: dilemmas and considerations’, The Annals of the American Academy, 450, July, 1980, p. 224)
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • Educational Philosophy of the Holocaust
      As an educator, what is stressed?
      The key is the human story
      The story of the victim
      How do students relate to the figures (6 million) and the piles of bodies?
      Students need to relate to the notion that a whole body of culture was erased
      Teach the culture of Jews pre-1933
      They were Jews living in the Modern world: 70% of those killed were living in the cities
      The Holocaust took place in the modern world so introduce them as people of the modern world (eg not at relics of Fiddler on the Roof)
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • Educational Philosophy of the Holocaust
      As an educator, what is stressed?
      The key is the human story
      Acknowledge that you will never know
      Teach the history and the meaning ie the dehumanisation
      Use the interdisciplinary approach – more voices give meaning – ‘when words disappear’
      Consider using the recommended 3-step approach as recommended by the Education Department at YadVashem:
      Pre-war / Pre-Holocaust life
      The Holocaust (1933-1945): The ghettoes, extermination campaigns (Einsatzgruppen), concentration camps (Auschwitz)
      Liberation
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • Educational Philosophy of the Holocaust
      Liberation:
      Two questions asked by survivors:
      Why did I survive?
      Revenge?
      Survivors searched for:
      Family
      The life that was
      recreating humanness
      Survivors found new meaning in words:
      What does it mean to be ‘alone’, ‘revenge’, ‘family’  ‘continuation’
      We need to talk about how the survivors CHOSE to return to life after the Holocaust
      Point to Ponder: Can you ever be liberated from Auschwitz?
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • Educational Philosophy of the Holocaust
      As a teacher can a study of the Holocaust be used to envision a better world?
      Point to Ponder:
      How do we move ppl from ‘A to B’?
      Many of the ppl rewarded as rescuers began as bystanders
      For example in the Spielberg’s film Schindler’s List what made him move from the ‘A to the B’?
      Answer: the girl in the red coat scene – the moment where he sees the other as someone as himself – the scene is historically accurate from testimony – this ‘girl’ is then seen 8 more times in the film
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • Educational Philosophy of the Holocaust
      As a teacher:
      The transfer occurs and is explained from emotional intelligence rather than intellectual intelligence (EQ ≠ IQ)
      What does it mean to see ‘the other’?
      To see the face of the other: ‘I see me in you’
      Students should not be passive:
      We study the past to take responsibility for the future
      We can’t mend the past but can take involvement in the past
      Students can contribute to something greater than themselves
      Holocaust education can be integrated into many other areas
      Not as trauma but as life
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • For the Christian – Reconciliation: What is it with walls?
      As theologians seek to understand the meaning of the Nazi slaughter of six million Jews, they are often overwhelmed by the magnitude of the event itself
      (S. Daniel Breslauer, ‘The Holocaust and the Chosen People: A Methodological Paradox’, in Z. Garber( 1988) ed., Methodology in the Academic Teaching of the Holocaust, p. 6)
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • For the Christian – Reconciliation: What is it with walls?
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • For the Christian – Reconciliation: What is it with walls?
      The Church of Christ is rooted in the life of the People of Israel. We Christians look upon Abraham as our spiritual ancestor and father of our faith... The ministry of Jesus and the life of the early Christian communities were thoroughly rooted in the Judaism of their day, particularly in the teaching of the Pharisees. The Christian Church is still sustained by the living faith of the patriarchs and prophets, kings and priests, scribes and rabbis, and the people whom God chose for His own. Christ is Abraham’s ‘offspring’ and therefore fellow-heirs with the Jews according to God’s promise. It is a tragedy of history that Jesus, our bond of unity with the Jews, has all too often become a symbol and source of division and bitterness because of human weakness and pride.
      (The Second Vatican Council, Nostra Aetate, quoted in HJ Cargas, ‘The Uniqueness of the Holocaust for Christians’, At the Edge of the 21st Century: Second Scholars’ Conference on the Teaching o the Holocaust, The National Catholic Center for Holocaust Education, Seton Hill college, Greensburg, Penn., October 6-7, 1991, p. 15)
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • An act of hospitality – of inviting someone to share your table with you – being able to meet someone and share so that bridges can be built
      Sabbath Meal
      Right: The Sabbath Meal that your presenter experienced whilst involved with this program. Other educators from around Australia are present around the table
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • 17 After Abram returned from defeating Kedorlaomer and the kings allied with him, the king of Sodom came out to meet him in the Valley of Shaveh (that is, the King's Valley).
       18 Then Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine. He was priest of God Most High, 19 and he blessed Abram, saying,        "Blessed be Abram by God Most High,        Creator of heaven and earth.
       20 And blessed be God Most High,        who delivered your enemies into your hand.“  
      Genesis 14: 17 – 20
      The Meal of Hospitality
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • 17 After Abram returned from defeating Kedorlaomer and the kings allied with him, the king of Sodom came out to meet him in the Valley of Shaveh (that is, the King's Valley).
       18 Then Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine. He was priest of God Most High, 19 and he blessed Abram, saying,        "Blessed be Abram by God Most High,        Creator of heaven and earth.
       20 And blessed be God Most High,        who delivered your enemies into your hand.“  
      Genesis 14: 17 – 20
      The Meal of Hospitality
      An act of hospitality
      Inviting someone to share your table with you – being able to meet someone and share so that bridges can be built
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • He has showed you, O man, what is good.        And what does the LORD require of you?        To act justly and to love mercy        and to walk humbly with your God.  (Micah 6:8)
      The Meal of Hospitality
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • He has showed you, O man, what is good.        And what does the LORD require of you?        To act justly and to love mercy        and to walk humbly with your God.  (Micah 6:8)
      27Religion that God our Father accepts as pure and faultless is this: to look after orphans and widows in their distress and to keep oneself from being polluted by the world. (James 1: 27)
      The Meal of Hospitality
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • Zaglembie Memorial
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • Zaglembie Memorial
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • In 1939 a synagogue fire lit by the Nazis
      All that remained was this page from the Torah scroll
      The story of Cain and Abel in Genesis
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College
    • For the Christian – Reconciliation: What is it with walls?
      Recommendation 16:
      We Christians need to get on our knees and repent our sins against the Jewish people. I mean the Jews of history: past, present, yes future Jews too. They must all understand that we know of our errors and that we have collective (and individual) firm purpose of amendment.
      (HJ Cargas, ‘The Uniqueness of the Holocaust for Christians’, At the Edge of the 21st Century: Second Scholars’ Conference on the Teaching o the Holocaust, The National Catholic Center for Holocaust Education, Seton Hill college, Greensburg, Penn., October 6-7, 1991, p. 19)
      ‘The Choiceless Choice', CSA Conference workshop, Citipointe, Brisbane, QLD, July 13, 2010 - Richard Leo MA(Hist) BA Dip.Ed., HOD Humanities Nambour Christian College; Sessional Lecturer in Australian and World History Christian Heritage College