CR181: Lecture #4Richard Leo MA(Hist), BA, Dip.EdChristian Heritage College, Sem I 2012
Community and Remembrance: Two thoughts? ‘National commemorations use the events of history but the stories they tell are ...
Community and Remembrance for ACARA is…?       Point to ponder: to what         extent is this list from          ACARA is...
The ‘nation’, community and remembrance?   David Brown shows nationalism diagrammatically:                                ...
Community & Remembrance deals with symbols:Symbols are representative of nationalidentity and cultureWhen we encounter sym...
Do symbols shape or reflect cultural identity?   ‘the imagined landscape, rather than the imagined community, and the ‘bus...
Do symbols shape or reflect cultural identity?Functions of national symbols (how we remember as a community)   1.   Includ...
Do symbols shape or reflect cultural identity?We emphasise history as a collective story that embodies the essence of the ...
Do symbols shape or reflect cultural identity? Australia a case-study in the invention of symbolic traditions and processe...
Communal Celebrations: Australia DayAustralia Day:‘…the historical significance of Australia Day is generally recognized, ...
Communal Celebrations: Australia Day       The Bicentennial:       ‘The sharing of a past is arguably most effectively dis...
Communal Celebrations: Australia DayThe Bicentennial:‘The sharing of a past is arguably most effectively disseminated when...
Communal Celebrations: Australia DayThe Bicentennial:Slogan went from ‘Living Together’ (conservative moralist objections)...
Communal Celebrations: Australia DayThe Bicentennial:Graeme Davison talks about the ‘Great Voyage’ ideal as a unifying con...
Communal Celebrations: Australia DayThe Bicentennial:Graeme Davison talks about the ‘Great Voyage’ ideal as a unifying con...
Symbolic Traditions Classic national symbols are formal symbols legitimised by government, for example, flags, coat of arm...
Symbolic TraditionsGov’ts tended to combine neutral symbols with British symbols – Southern Cross,flora and fauna, for exa...
Symbolic Traditions1981 – Ausflag formed – private non-profit organisation to stimulate discussion,debate and ran flag com...
Symbolic TraditionsAlternative symbolic languages:Vernacular use of symbols contain no overt reference to a British connec...
Symbolic TraditionsAlternative symbolic languages:Eureka Stockade (Dec 3 1854)What was the fight actually over?• Quest for...
Symbolic TraditionsAlternative symbolic languages:Eureka Stockade (Dec 3 1854)The meaning of the symbol has become quite f...
Symbolic TraditionsConscious multiculturalism has caused attempts to create formal nationalsymbolism to founder• Three (no...
Symbolic TraditionsConscious multiculturalism has caused attempts to create formal nationalsymbolism to founder• Three (no...
Symbolic TraditionsConscious multiculturalism has caused attempts to create formal nationalsymbolism to founder• Three (no...
Symbolic TraditionsIndigenous symbols?• Called on to fill the gap created by breaking monarchical ties?• Gives a spiritual...
What do symbols tell us about                 community & remembrance?We go for symbols that are more ‘fluid’• Arthur Stac...
What do symbols tell us about                community & remembrance?1.     Symbols tell us about the origin of the ‘natio...
What do symbols tell us about                  community & remembrance?Functions of national symbols    1.     Include /ex...
What do symbols tell us about                    community & remembrance?Functions of national symbols    1.      Include ...
Communal Celebrations: ANZAC DayAnzac Day has always been as exclusionary as Australia Day:‘Nationalism notes participatio...
Communal Celebrations: ANZAC DayWhy has ANZAC Day gained in popularity?Jenny Macleod attempts identify reasons for the dif...
Communal Celebrations & RemembranceFinal thoughts: In the 19th century there was ‘little in the ceremonial life of the  Au...
BibliographyBrown, D., 2000. Contemporary Nationalism: civic, ethnocultural and mulitcultural politics. London: Routledge....
CR181: Tutorial Material #4
Communal Celebrations & RemembranceFinal thoughts: In the 19th century there was ‘little in the ceremonial life of the  Au...
What do symbols tell us about cultural identity?  The power of symbols is found in how the meaning flows in and out throug...
Do symbols shape or reflect cultural identity?Symbols are representative of nationalidentity and culture: Jigsaw exerciseb...
Lecture #4 communities and remembrance
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Lecture #4 communities and remembrance

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Lecture 4 for education students in CR 181 Introduction to History and Geography at Christian Heritage College, Brisbane, Australia.

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Lecture #4 communities and remembrance

  1. 1. CR181: Lecture #4Richard Leo MA(Hist), BA, Dip.EdChristian Heritage College, Sem I 2012
  2. 2. Community and Remembrance: Two thoughts? ‘National commemorations use the events of history but the stories they tell are determined more by the politics of the present that the ideals of the past’. (Davison, 2000, p. 57) ‘The sharing of a past is arguably most effectively disseminated when the experience of its dissemination is itself shared, the imagined community actively sharing its history as a communal event, the moment when the nation is imagined in relation to that shared past. (White, 2003, pp. 56-57)
  3. 3. Community and Remembrance for ACARA is…? Point to ponder: to what extent is this list from ACARA is shaped by ‘politics of the present’ or an attempt to share ‘history as a communal event’Image grab from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/History/Curriculum/F-10#level=3 [accessed March 18, 2012]
  4. 4. The ‘nation’, community and remembrance? David Brown shows nationalism diagrammatically: Constructivist Psychological/political myth Ideologically filtered perception Ideology Fig 1. National identity – the three conceptual languages in D. Brown, Contemporary nationalism: civic,ethnocultural and multicultural politics, Routledge, London, 2000, p. 5. Instinct Rational Perception Emotional Loyalty Interest Primordialist Situationalist Fixed identity Fluid identity
  5. 5. Community & Remembrance deals with symbols:Symbols are representative of nationalidentity and cultureWhen we encounter symbols we ask:1. Where do they come from?2. What do they mean?3. What effect do they have? Telstra advertisement: We are Australian [avail http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZuKpJv0PlSE ] What symbols are present used in this advertisement? Use the three questions on the left to begin to evaluate this advertisement.
  6. 6. Do symbols shape or reflect cultural identity? ‘the imagined landscape, rather than the imagined community, and the ‘bush’ rather than the city, have supplied the majority of Australia’s national symbols’ R White, ‘Symbols of Australia’ in Lyons & Russel, Australia’s History: themes and debates, p. 125Vernacular symbolism called on the distinctive flora and faunaExample: kangaroo• The devp’t of a ‘national cuisine’ in the 1980s  debates over whether national symbols ought to be eatenExample: the Heidelberg School• Neo-nazis• Builders Labourer’s Federation• Motorbike gangs Arthur Streetons Still Glides the Stream and Shall Forever Glide shows the Yarra at Eaglemont [avail http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2004/01/03/1072908952186.html?from=storyrhs ]
  7. 7. Do symbols shape or reflect cultural identity?Functions of national symbols (how we remember as a community) 1. Include /exclude 2. Tap emotions and consumer markets 3. Help us to remember and forget 4. Represent nations to each other and to themselves Complicated by how origins, meaning and impact have changed over time Effect of globalisation: a. Nation-state is in decline b. Growth of international meeting points  proliferation of national symbols
  8. 8. Do symbols shape or reflect cultural identity?We emphasise history as a collective story that embodies the essence of the nation –it is the nation – and so endlessly contest it in an attempt to get it right. Theintractable problem is that collectively, we all have an investment in this thing calledhistory. We all have our own histories. That’s why it is fought so passionately.Anna Clark, 2003, Moving Forward in a Time of Fear, www.manningclark.org.au/papers/AnnaClark.html Australia a case-study in the invention of symbolic traditions and processes of remembering as a community have become contested over time as it has been a settler society since only 1788.
  9. 9. Do symbols shape or reflect cultural identity? Australia a case-study in the invention of symbolic traditions and processes of remembering as a community have become contested over time as it has been a settler society since only 1788. Two community celebrations investigated today: 1. Australia Day (including the Bicentennial) 2. Anzac Day
  10. 10. Communal Celebrations: Australia DayAustralia Day:‘…the historical significance of Australia Day is generally recognized, but thatprecisely is its problem as a national day …. The associations with convicts were anembarrassment in the nineteenth century; by the late twentieth, the associationwith Indigenous dispossession made it problematic again …. [and] as a nationalday, its association with Sydney meant other states would only ever celebrate ithalf-heartedly.’ (White, 2003, p. 61) Image from http://jeanettemaynes.com.au/wp- content/uploads/2009/01/australia-day.jpg [accessed March 19, 2012
  11. 11. Communal Celebrations: Australia Day The Bicentennial: ‘The sharing of a past is arguably most effectively disseminated when the experience of its dissemination is itself shared, the imagined community actively sharing its history as a communal event, the moment when the nation is imagined in relation to that shared past. (White, 2003, pp. 56-57)Image of protest march from http://pool.abc.net.au/media/aboriginal-invasion-day-march-26th-january-1988 [accessed March 18, 2012] ; Image of Tall Ships from http://vrroom.naa.gov.au/records/?ID=24750 [accessed March 18, 2012]; Advertisement for Bicentennial from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ydz3lO9FcXQ [accessed March 18, 2012]
  12. 12. Communal Celebrations: Australia DayThe Bicentennial:‘The sharing of a past is arguably most effectively disseminated when the experience of its dissemination is itselfshared, the imagined community actively sharing its history as a communal event, the moment when the nation isimagined in relation to that shared past. (White, 2003, pp. 56-57) Image of protest march from http://pool.abc.net.au/media/aboriginal-invasion-day-march-26th-january-1988 [accessed March 18, 2012] ; Image of Tall Ships from http://vrroom.naa.gov.au/records/?ID=24750 [accessed March 18, 2012]
  13. 13. Communal Celebrations: Australia DayThe Bicentennial:Slogan went from ‘Living Together’ (conservative moralist objections) to ‘TheAustralian Achievement’ (under Hawke government) to finally ‘Celebration of a Nation’Implications in final choice: was the Bicentennial to be a celebration or acommemoration?Graeme Davison talks about the ‘Great Voyage’ ideal as a unifying concept for theofficial events of the day • Instead of recounting or reenacting the events of 1788, organisers settled for a ‘vague and largely synthetic historicism’ (Davison, 2000, p. 71) To give you a taste of proceedings……..
  14. 14. Communal Celebrations: Australia DayThe Bicentennial:Graeme Davison talks about the ‘Great Voyage’ ideal as a unifying concept for the officialevents of the dayHighlight of proceedings was the arrival of the Tall Ships crewed by the youth of manynations – multicultural ‘Great Voyage’ ideal.• At same time was the arrival of the First Fleet re-enactment organized by a group of enthusiasts led by Jonathon King, a descendant of one of Governor Phillip’s lieutenants (echoes of a ‘colonial Abraham’?)• Re-enactment not financially supported by the Bicentennial committee due to concerns about cost (ultimately justified) but more importantly the moral and political implications of re-enacting the events of 1788. • Unfortunate precedent of the virtual kidnapping of about 30 Aborigines from outback reserves to perform a corroboree and shake their spears at the arriving Redcoats in the re-enactment that occurred in the 1938 Sesquicentenary. (Davison, 2000, p. 69)
  15. 15. Communal Celebrations: Australia DayThe Bicentennial:Graeme Davison talks about the ‘Great Voyage’ ideal as a unifying concept for the official events of thedayUse of Great Voyage ideal did not include everyone.Protest march of 15000 Aborigines and supporters through Sydney on the morning of January 26, 1988.• Indigenous protests came at the end of a decade that had seen the emergence of a self -confident political movement seeking land rights and calls for a treaty between white and black Australia.• In the preceding months there had been a number of violent deaths of young Aboriginal men in police custody: ‘It was hard for white Australians to rejoice in their emancipation from the fetters of convictism while descendants of the country’s original inhabitants were dying in prison cells’ (Davison, 2000, p. 72)Reflects an ongoing concern with Australian symbolic traditions
  16. 16. Symbolic Traditions Classic national symbols are formal symbols legitimised by government, for example, flags, coat of arms, seals, anthems Gavin Souter identifies how the newly federated government (c. 1901) sought to reflect the constitutional reality of a nation within the British Empire – expression of dual loyalties to Britain and Australia Hands across the sea postcard. Joseph Lebovic collection, National Museum of Australia. [availhttp://www.nma.gov.au/exhibitions/symbols_of_aust ralia/kangaroo/ ]
  17. 17. Symbolic TraditionsGov’ts tended to combine neutral symbols with British symbols – Southern Cross,flora and fauna, for example, the National Flag• 1960s – debate stimulated by Canada changing to a (perceived) more modern maple leaf flag • Against: ‘we’d gone to war under the flag’ – RSL • For: Union Jack seemed irrelevant for a post-WWII Australia The Federation Flag. [avail http://flags-and- anthems.com/historical/flag-new-south-wales- ensign-australian-federation-flag.html ]
  18. 18. Symbolic Traditions1981 – Ausflag formed – private non-profit organisation to stimulate discussion,debate and ran flag competitionsFormal symbols state drew on traditional ideas (southern cross, flora & fauna,monarchy)Q’n: was this organic or imposed? An expression of sentiment or invention oftradition? The Federation Flag. [avail http://flags-and- anthems.com/historical/flag-new-south-wales- ensign-australian-federation-flag.html ]
  19. 19. Symbolic TraditionsAlternative symbolic languages:Vernacular use of symbols contain no overt reference to a British connectionIn flags and emblems, the preference was for the skies – Southern Cross or the‘rising sun’ Two examples of the ‘rising sun’ from the Federation period [avail http://maps.thefullwi ki.org/Rising_Sun_(b adge) ]
  20. 20. Symbolic TraditionsAlternative symbolic languages:Eureka Stockade (Dec 3 1854)What was the fight actually over?• Quest for liberty and Enlightenment values?• Democratic rights (Australiasian chartists?)• Tax avoidance?• Irish nationalism?• Multiculturalism? The Eureka Flag. [avail http://www.visitballarat.com. au/?id=theeurekaflag ]
  21. 21. Symbolic TraditionsAlternative symbolic languages:Eureka Stockade (Dec 3 1854)The meaning of the symbol has become quite fluid, used by:• Catholic Church• Communist Party of Australia• Neo-nazis• Builders Labourer’s Federation• Motorbike gangs The Eureka Flag as a symbol [avail http://www.peacebus.com/FlagDesigns/ ]
  22. 22. Symbolic TraditionsConscious multiculturalism has caused attempts to create formal nationalsymbolism to founder• Three (not one) mascot for Sydney Olympics – Can you remember their names?
  23. 23. Symbolic TraditionsConscious multiculturalism has caused attempts to create formal nationalsymbolism to founder• Three (not one) mascot for Sydney Olympics – Can you remember their names?
  24. 24. Symbolic TraditionsConscious multiculturalism has caused attempts to create formal nationalsymbolism to founder• Three (not one) mascot for Sydney Olympics – Can you remember their names?• The ‘folk’ mascot was ‘Fatso the fat-arsed wombat’ created by comedians Roy and HG
  25. 25. Symbolic TraditionsIndigenous symbols?• Called on to fill the gap created by breaking monarchical ties?• Gives a spiritual dimension lacking in the imagery of flora and fauna? • The ‘red centre’ as a symbolic heart? (‘Celebration of a Nation’ filmed with Uluru as the backdrop?) • Co-option of the Aboriginal flag?Motivations for incorporation of Indigenous symbolism are mixed: Reconciliation and Appropriation, absorption by sincere imitation dominant culture Uluru? Image of ‘Secret Women’s Business’ in popular culture?
  26. 26. What do symbols tell us about community & remembrance?We go for symbols that are more ‘fluid’• Arthur Stace – ‘Eternity’Meaning?• Urban sophistication?• Nostalgia for past eccentricty?• Vague spiritual awareness?• New Age take on Aboriginal Dreamtime?• NOT the ‘fire and brimstone’ of its original usage
  27. 27. What do symbols tell us about community & remembrance?1. Symbols tell us about the origin of the ‘nation’Spontaneous expression Imposition or invention of of popular feeling dominant ‘group’2. Often created and used in context that encouraged transnational comparisons (esp. imperial ones)The power of symbols is found in how the meaning flows in and out through thegraphic image ‘The function of a national symbol lies … its power to spark recognition in a population in which shared understanding of what the nation stands for is impossible. Its role is thus to identify and map, to imagine the community without imagining it united.’ R White, ‘Symbols of Australia’ in Lyons & Russel, Australia’s History: themes and debates, p. 130
  28. 28. What do symbols tell us about community & remembrance?Functions of national symbols 1. Include /exclude 2. Tap emotions and consumer markets 3. Help us to remember and forget 4. Represent nations to each other and to themselves Complicated by how origins, meaning and impact have changed over time Effect of globalisation: a. Nation-state is in decline b. Growth of international meeting points  proliferation of national symbols (Image grab from Jones & Mawby, 2012)The power of symbols is found in how the meaning flows in and out through the graphic image ‘The function of a national symbol lies … its power to spark recognition in a population in which shared understanding of what the nation stands for is impossible. Its role is thus to identify and map, to imagine the community without imagining it united.’ R White, ‘Symbols of Australia’ in Lyons & Russel, Australia’s History: themes and debates, p. 130
  29. 29. What do symbols tell us about community & remembrance?Functions of national symbols 1. Include /exclude 2. Tap emotions and consumer markets 3. Help us to remember and forget 4. Represent nations to each other and to themselves Complicated by how origins, meaning and impact have changed over time Effect of globalisation: a. Nation-state is in decline b. Growth of international meeting points  proliferation of national symbols (Image grab from Jones & Mawby, 2012)The power of symbols is found in how the meaning flows in and out through the graphic image ‘The function of a national symbol lies … its power to spark recognition in a population in which shared understanding of what the nation stands for is impossible. Its role is thus to identify and map, to imagine the community without imagining it united.’ R White, ‘Symbols of Australia’ in Lyons & Russel, Australia’s History: themes and debates, p. 130
  30. 30. Communal Celebrations: ANZAC DayAnzac Day has always been as exclusionary as Australia Day:‘Nationalism notes participation rather than non-participation and has written [those excluded by theANZAC narrative] – and their families – out of the national myth’ (White, 2003, p. 62)When it was a day of private grief and personal loss it could be a day of remembrance but once nationalrhetoric began to give the day shape from the 1930s the following became alienated: • Pacifists – we have focused on the passing of the last ‘heroes’ of major campaigns. What about the last ‘heroes’ the same campaign who refused to sign up for reasons that were as varied and legitimate as those who did sign up (pacifism, political disapproval, fear vs patriotism, six bob a day, political pressure, free trip overseas) – are they not just as ‘heroic’ for their stance? • Women – Anzac has distinctive masculine tendencies. Despite the feminist critiques of the 1970s and 80s, when women are present in the historical record they tend to ‘motherly’, observers rather than participators in conflict. • The ‘civilian’ aspect of the AIF has been lost as Anzac Day has been adopted as a day for the professional military • Those without a family connection – 2 groups a) post-war migrants and their children b) those families where the fall of generations has been different (White, 2003, p. 62)
  31. 31. Communal Celebrations: ANZAC DayWhy has ANZAC Day gained in popularity?Jenny Macleod attempts identify reasons for the differences in approach when comparingAnzac Day 1965 (‘shambolic’) to Anzac Day 1990 (highly choreographed) • Growing beyond the RSL • Failure to explain rectified • Burgeoning Anzac education industry (historians, AWM, films, directed teaching in schools, popular media) • Academic interest in Gallipoli (led by Ken Inglis who shifted his gaze onto what he perceived to be a civic religion which led to increased interest in CEW Bean and how he ‘wrote’ or ‘invented’ (?) the idea of Anzac • The influence of cinema • Schools and Gallipoli – use of education packs sent to schools each year (Macleod, 2002)
  32. 32. Communal Celebrations & RemembranceFinal thoughts: In the 19th century there was ‘little in the ceremonial life of the Australian colonies, or in the environs of their cities, to inspireAustralians with a similar sense [when compared with the United States of America] of their country’s history. “Australia has no state religion; Australia has no shrine; Australia has no Capitol,’ one patriot mournfully observed.’ (Davison, 2000, p. 67) Its role [Symbols, Communal Celebrations and Remembrance] is … to identify and map, to imagine the community without imagining it united.’ (White, 2005, p. 130)
  33. 33. BibliographyBrown, D., 2000. Contemporary Nationalism: civic, ethnocultural and mulitcultural politics. London: Routledge.Clark, A., 2003. Moving Forward in a Time of Fear. [Online]Available at: www.manningclark.org.au/papers/AnnaClark.html[Accessed 13 August 2007].Davison, G., 2000. The Use and Abuse of Australian History. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.Jones, G. & Mawby, N., 2012. Gallipoli anniversary could divide Australia, Federal Government warned. [Online]Available at: http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/more-news/gallipoli-anniversary-could-divide-australia-federal-government-warned/story-fn7x8me2-1226309694960?sv=d4d7f8b784720e532bf35c181d7fefa7[Accessed 26 March 2012].Macleod, J., 2002. The fall and rise of Anzac Day: 1965 and 1990 compared. War & Society, 20(1), pp. 149-168.White, R., 2003. National Days and the National Past in Australia. Australian Cultural History, Volume 23, pp. 55-72.White, R., 2005. Symbols of Australia. In: M. Lyons & P. Russell, eds. Australias History: themes and debates. Sydney: UNSW, pp. 116-133.
  34. 34. CR181: Tutorial Material #4
  35. 35. Communal Celebrations & RemembranceFinal thoughts: In the 19th century there was ‘little in the ceremonial life of the Australian colonies, or in the environs of their cities, to inspireAustralians with a similar sense [when compared with the United States of America] of their country’s history. “Australia has no state religion; Australia has no shrine; Australia has no Capitol,’ one patriot mournfully observed.’ (Davison, 2000, p. 67)
  36. 36. What do symbols tell us about cultural identity? The power of symbols is found in how the meaning flows in and out through the graphic image ‘The function of a national symbol lies … its power to spark recognition in a population in which shared understanding of what the nation stands for is impossible. Its role is thus to identify and map, to imagine the community without imagining it united.’ R White, ‘Symbols of Australia’ in Lyons & Russel, Australia’s History: themes and debates, p. 130 Sam Kekovic in the original Australia Day lamb ad. To what extent does this advertisement reflect White’s conclusion? [avail at: http://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=tt8wZ-xTKAU ]
  37. 37. Do symbols shape or reflect cultural identity?Symbols are representative of nationalidentity and culture: Jigsaw exercisebased on the ANM exhibition, ‘Symbolsof Australia’When we encounter symbols we ask:1. Where do they come from?2. What do they mean? Screen shot of the homepage of the new exhibition, ‘Symbols3. What effect do they have? of Australia’ at the Australian National Museum [avail http://www.nma.gov.au/exhibitions/symbols_of_australia/ ]

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