Organ: Heart
System  <ul><li>Part of the Cardiovascular System </li></ul><ul><li>The blood vessels (arteries, capillaries and veins) ma...
Anatomy <ul><li>Composed of cardiac muscle fibers  </li></ul><ul><li>Size of a human fist </li></ul><ul><li>Includes 4 hea...
Anatomy (cont) <ul><li>The sternum is located directly in front of the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Shaped like an upside down ...
Function <ul><li>The most basic definition can be given as: Pumps blood throughout the entire body to transport nutrients,...
Function (cont.) <ul><li>We have NO voluntary control over our heart </li></ul><ul><li>Although the heart is part of the c...
Heart Disease-Diagnosis <ul><li>Cardiovascular disease is the #1 cause of death in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Angiogra...
Heart Disease Treatment <ul><ul><li>According to the NCEP guidelines (National Cholesterol and Educational Treatment Panel...
Procedures-Post Heart Attack <ul><li>“ Cabbage”CABG- This is a very invasive way to open up the chest and perform a corona...
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Heart chapter 2 r giger

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Presentation Chapter 2-The heart

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  • Obtained from: National Library of Medicine&apos;s MedlinePlus images
  • Heart chapter 2 r giger

    1. 1. Organ: Heart
    2. 2. System <ul><li>Part of the Cardiovascular System </li></ul><ul><li>The blood vessels (arteries, capillaries and veins) make-up the rest of the system </li></ul>
    3. 3. Anatomy <ul><li>Composed of cardiac muscle fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Size of a human fist </li></ul><ul><li>Includes 4 heart chambers (atria, interventricular septum, interatrial septum, and ventricles) </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of 3 layers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endocardium (inner) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myocardium (middle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epicardium (outer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*These layers are important when diagnosing serious conditions that affect certain parts of the heart. A Myocardial Infarction (MI) is a heart attack which results in dead tissue in the heart muscle. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Anatomy (cont) <ul><li>The sternum is located directly in front of the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Shaped like an upside down pear </li></ul><ul><li>Includes 4 heart valves (Tricuspid, Pulmonary, Mitral, Aortic) </li></ul><ul><li>The lower edge where the tip forms is called the Apex </li></ul>
    5. 5. Function <ul><li>The most basic definition can be given as: Pumps blood throughout the entire body to transport nutrients, oxygen, and wastes. </li></ul><ul><li>The 4 chambers and heart valves work to eject blood every time the heart contracts which is an average of 60-100 times per min. </li></ul><ul><li>The force at which the blood flows through the system can be measured: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take the systolic pressure (highest blood pressure rating) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take the diastolic pressure (when BP is at its lowest point) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*A “normal” reading for a healthy adult in their 20s would be 120/80; however, as we age this number changes. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Function (cont.) <ul><li>We have NO voluntary control over our heart </li></ul><ul><li>Although the heart is part of the cardiovascular system, it’s the autonomic nervous system that controls our heart rates. </li></ul><ul><li>An Electrocardiogram (EKG) can be used to measure our heart is function. Abnormalities can mean a variety of problems. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A P wave, QRS Complex, and T wave are analyzed </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Heart Disease-Diagnosis <ul><li>Cardiovascular disease is the #1 cause of death in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Angiogram-X-Rays are used to record the plaque build-up on the 4 major chambers of the heart. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CIMT-Carotid Intima Medial Thickness-An ultrasound is used for the carotid artery (located on the side of one’s neck) to determine thickness of an artery vessel. This is considered representative of what’s ocuring in a patient’s heart. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Echocardiography-Diagnostic method that uses an ultrasound to evaluate cardiac valve activity. (referred to as an EKG or EGG) </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Heart Disease Treatment <ul><ul><li>According to the NCEP guidelines (National Cholesterol and Educational Treatment Panel), approximately 50% of cholesterol problems are genetic. Knowing your family history is essential in early diagnosis and treatment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statins are widely accepted as the first drug of choice with hard evidence to support decreases in heart attacks and strokes. Blood pressure and diabetes must be managed to fully treat the disease as well. </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Procedures-Post Heart Attack <ul><li>“ Cabbage”CABG- This is a very invasive way to open up the chest and perform a coronary artery bypass graft. It requires a manual re-routing of the vessels to arteries where the blockage didn’t occur in order to attach to the main coronary arteries. </li></ul><ul><li>Stent-A drug-aleuding or bare metal sis used to create a bridge where the blockage occurred. The idea is to inhibit the intimal hyper plasia to avoid re-blocking of the artery. </li></ul>

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