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  1. 1. THUNDERBOLT I/O INTERFACE B.Tech Colloquium Presentation by Raghav Aggarwal School of Electronics and communication Engineering SMVDU, Katra , Jammu & Kashmir
  2. 2. THUNDERBOLT I/O INTERFACE Raghav Aggarwal 2
  3. 3. Brief View • • • • • • • • • • • What Is Thunderbolt? Key Features Of Thunderbolt General Specifications Connector Pin Diagram Copper vs. Optical Protocol Architecture Controller Architecture Early Versions of Thunderbolt Thunderbolt vs. other existing I/O interfaces Future-Thunderbolt 2 Conclusion Raghav Aggarwal 3
  4. 4. What is Thunderbolt? Thunderbolt Technology is a transformational high speed, dual core protocol I/O protocol which provides unmatched excellent performance over current I/O technologies which are available in the market with 10Gbps bi-directional transfer speed. It provides flexibility and simplicity by supporting both data and video on a single cable connection that can daisy-chain up to six devices With this Thunderbolt technology it is now possible to enable the thinnest and lightest laptops can connected over a single cable to high performance storage, external media drives, multiple HD displays, HD media and editing systems 4 Raghav Aggarwal as well as legacy I/O hubs and devices
  6. 6. Key Features • 10Gbps bi-directional, dual channel data transfer • Data & Video on single cable with Dual-protocol (PCI Express and DisplayPort) • Daisy chain up to six devices • Compatible with existing DisplayPort devices • Low latency with highly accurate time synchronization • Uses native PCIe and DisplayPort protocol software drivers • Power over cable for bus-powered devices (electrical cables only) Raghav Aggarwal 6
  7. 7. General Specifications Parameters Specific values Length 3 metres (9.8 ft) (copper) max 100 metres (330 ft) (optical) max Width 7.4 mm male (8.3 mm female) Height 4.5 mm male (5.4 mm female) Hot Pluggable Yes Daisy Chain Yes, up to 6 devices Audio/Video signal Via DisplayPort Protocol Pins 20 Connectors Mini-display Port Max Voltage 18V (bus power) Max Current 550mA (9.9 W max) Bit Rate 10 Gbps per channel (20 Gbps in total) 7
  8. 8. Connector Pin Diagram PIN NO. PIN 1 PIN 2 PIN 3 PIN 4 PIN 5 PIN 6 PIN 7 PIN 8 PIN 9 PIN 10 PIN 11 PIN 12 PIN 13 PIN 14 PIN 15 PIN 16 PIN 17 PIN 18 PIN 19 PIN 20 SIGNAL GND HPD HS0TX(P) HSORX(P) HS0TX(N) HS0RX(N) GND GND LSR2P TX GND LSR2P RX GND GND GND HS1TX(P) HS1TX(P) HS1TX(P) HS1TX(P) Ground DPPWR FUNCTION Ground Hot plug detect High speed transmitter 0 (positive) High speed receiver 0 (positive) High speed transmitter 0 (negative) High speed receiver 0 (negative) Ground Ground Low speed transmit Reserved Low speed receiver Reserved Ground Ground High speed transmitter 1 (positive) High speed receiver 1 (positive) High speed transmitter 1 (negative) High speed receiver1 (negative) Ground power Raghav Aggarwal 8
  9. 9. Copper vs. Optical The interface was originally intended to run exclusively on an optical physical layer using components and flexible optical fiber cabling developed by Intel partners and at Intel's Silicon Photonics lab. However, it was discovered that conventional copper wiring could furnish the desired 10 Gbps Thunderbolt bandwidth per channel at lower cost which lead Intel switched to electrical connections to reduce costs Raghav Aggarwal 9
  10. 10. Protocol Architecture Thunderbolt technology is based on a switched fabric architecture with full-duplex links. The Thunderbolt protocol architecture can be abstracted into four layers A Thunderbolt connector is capable of providing two full duplex channels. Each channel provides bi-directional 10Gbps of band-width 10
  11. 11. Protocol Architecture continuation The Thunderbolt protocol physical layer is responsible for link maintenance including hot-plug detection, and data encoding to provide highly efficient data transfer The heart of the Thunderbolt protocol architecture is the Transport layer. DisplayPort and PCI Express protocols are mapped onto the transport layer. The mapping function is provided by a protocol adapter which is responsible for efficient encapsulation of the mapped protocol information into transport layer packets Raghav Aggarwal 11
  12. 12. Controller Architecture A Thunderbolt controller is the building block used to create Thunderbolt products. A Thunderbolt controller contains: • A high-performance, cross-bar Thunderbolt protocol switch • One or more Thunderbolt ports • One or more DisplayPort protocol adapter ports • A PCI Express switch with one or more PCI Express protocol adapter port Thunderbolt technology leverages the native PCI Express and DisplayPort device drivers available in most operating systems today. Native software support means no additional software development is required to use a Thunderbolt technology enabled product Raghav Aggarwal 12
  13. 13. Controller Architecture Continue Raghav Aggarwal 13
  14. 14. Early versions of thunderbolt Apple's introduction came as a major surprise when it was revealed that the port was based on Mini DisplayPort, not USB. As the system was described, Intel's solution to the display connection problem became clear Different Controllers MODEL CHANNEL POWER FAMILY RELEASING TIME FEATURES 82523EF 4 3.8 W Light Ridge Q4 2010 DEMO 82523EFL 4 3.2 W Light Ridge Q4 2010 DEMO L2310 2 1.85 W Eagle Ridge Q1 2011 L2210 1 0.7 W Port Ridge Q4 2011 DEVICE ONLY L3510H 2 3.4 W Cactus Ridge CANCELLED HOST ONLY L3310 4 2.2 W Cactus Ridge Q2 2012 L4410 2 ------- Redwood Ridge Q4 2013 Raghav Aggarwal HOST ONLY 14
  15. 15. Journey of thunderbolt Raghav Aggarwal 15
  16. 16. Thunderbolt vs. other existing I/O interfaces Raghav Aggarwal 16
  17. 17. Thunderbolt 2 In June 2013, Intel announced that the next generation of Thunderbolt, based on the controller codenamed "Falcon Ridge" (running at 20 Gbps), is officially named "Thunderbolt 2" and slated to begin production before the end of 2013 Raghav Aggarwal 17
  18. 18. Conclusion Thunderbolt technology brings a new balance of performance, simplicity and flexibility to end users and product designers alike Due to cost factor, it is out of reach for an average product for now, USB still more popular which practically free At present it is running at electrical standard but it will be at optical standard in long run Raghav Aggarwal 18
  19. 19. REFERENCES: [1] “Thunderbolt Technology brief”,, 2012 [2] Apple-India, “Thunderbolt next generation high speed technology”, Apple website,2011 [3] Andrew Ku,” everything you need to know about thunderbolt” Tom’s hardware, 2013 [4] Intel, ”Thunderbolt Ready-upgrade program for PC, Motherboard, workstation computers”, Benchmark, 16 Nov 2013. [5] James Gilbraith, “Promise preps for MAC Pro with Thunderbolt 2”, 16 Sep 2013 [6] Thunderbolt (interface), Wikipedia, Retrieved Nov 18, 2013 [7] Jason Ziller, “Thunderbolt Technology update” Intel, 8 April, 2013 [8] Gordon Mah Ung, “Thunderbolt vs. USB 3.0 “, 29 Jan 2013 Raghav Aggarwal 19
  20. 20. Raghav Aggarwal 20