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# Questionnaire design

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### Questionnaire design

1. 1. QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Questionnaire design is a process where we get accurate answers from respondents and makes it possible to analyse the responses to be used in making decisions. Being the primary instrument of data collection in marketing research, it is vitally important to the usefulness of the study. One of the foremost things to remember in questionnaire design is that the respondent must understand what the question means, and therefore the language used must be simple enough for the man on the street. Management jargon or any other difficult words should be avoided unless there is an appropriate target respondent. The purpose of a questionnaire is to collect data required from the target respondents in the marketing research. The questionnaire must be easy to understand, easy to fill and must fulfil its purpose. SCALE OF MEASUREMENT USED IN MARKET SURVEY Broadly, marketing survey uses the four major types of scales: 1. Nominal 2. Ordinal 3. Interval 4. Ratio Nominal Scale-: A nominal scale is one in which numbers are only used as labels, and have no numerical sanctity. For example, if we want to categorise male and female respondents, we could use a nominal scale of 1 for male and 2 for female. Nominally scaled variables cannot be used to perform many of the statistical computations such as mean, standard deviation, mean deviation and so on. Ordinal Scale-: Ordinal scale variables are ones which have a meaningful order to them. These ranks are not interchangeable, as nominal scale labels are. This is because rank 1 means it is ranked higher than rank 2. The statistics which can be used with the ordinal scale are the median, various percentiles and rank order correlation. Interval Scale-: Most of the behavioural measurement scales used to measure attitudes of respondents on a scale of 1 to 5 or 1 to 7 or 1 to 10 can be treated as interval scales. These types of scales also known as Rating Scale.
2. 2. Ratio Scale-: All arithmetic operations are possible on a ratio-scaled variable. These include computation of geometric mean, harmonic mean, standard deviation, correlation, regression test, t-test and F-test. TYPES OF QUESTIONS Having looked at the four major scales lets us look at the six major types of questions that most questionnaires would generally use:  Open-ended  Dichotomous  Multiple Choice  Ratings or Rankings  Paired Comparisons  Semantic Differential  Other Special Types of Scale Open-ended Question This is one which leaves it to the respondent to answer it as he chooses. An example is “What do you think of the taste of Pepsi ?” . No alternatives are suggested. The answer can be in the respondent’s own words. Dichotomous questions These are questions which ask the respondent to choose between two given alternatives. The most common example of this is the yes or no type of questions like” Are you a user of brand X ? Yes or No are the alternatives given. Multiple Choice Questions These are extensions of dichotomous questions, except that the alternatives listed number more than two. A common example is as follows: Please tick against the factors which made you buy this brand of car:
3. 3. (a) Reasonable Price (b) Great Looks (Appearance) (c) Fuel Economy (d) Easy Availability of Services In the above question, more than one category can be chosen. In some other multiple choice questions, only one category is to be chosen. For example, look at the following question. Please specify your age group: (a) Below 15 (b) 16-25 (c) 26-40 (d) Above 40 Paired Comparisons A special type of question is the paired comparison. This requires the respondent to choose between pairs of choices at a time. For example, there could be six brands of colour TVs, brands A, B, C, D, E and F. A respondent may be asked to do a paired comparison to say which brand is better, but for only two brands at a time. Semantic Differential Semantic differential is a type of a rating scale designed to measure the connotative meaning of objects, events, and concepts. The connotations are used to derive the attitude towards the given object, event or concept Special Types Scale There may be questions based on other scales which are standard or specially constructed, scales like the Likert scale
4. 4. Likert Scale A Likert item is simply a statement which the respondent is asked to evaluate according to any kind of subjective or objective criteria; generally the level of agreement or disagreement is measured. It is considered symmetric or "balanced" because there are equal amounts of positive and negative positions. Often five ordered response levels are used, although many psychometricians advocate using seven or nine levels. The format of a typical five-level Likert item is: 1. Strongly disagree 2. Disagree 3. Neither agree nor disagree 4. Agree 5. Strongly agree