COI Presentation: Teaching Presence

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  • COI Presentation: Teaching Presence

    1. 1. Improving Teaching Presence in a Virtual Classroom Richard Bush; Patricia Castelli; Pamela Lowry; and Matthew Cole Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Community of Inquiry Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching Presence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Presence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Presence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purpose of the Study </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology and Instrument </li></ul><ul><li>Results and Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Implications and Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Next Steps </li></ul>Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    3. 3. About Lawrence Tech… <ul><li>Lawrence Technological University: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Located 5 miles North of Detroit in Southfield, Michigan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four Colleges: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arts and Sciences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>4,500 Students </li></ul><ul><li>Over 60 degree programs </li></ul><ul><li>Offering Associate, Bachelor, Master and Doctoral degrees </li></ul>Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    4. 4. Community of Inquiry (COI) Model <ul><li>Community: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A community is a social group of organisms sharing an environment, normally with shared interests. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A virtual community , e-community or online community is a group of people that primarily interact via communication media such as letters, telephone, email or Usenet rather than face-to-face. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiry: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is typically problem or question driven; has a small group feature; includes critical discourse; is frequently multi-disciplinary; and incorporates gathering of information and synthesis of ideas (Arbaugh et al., 2007; Garrison, 2007). </li></ul></ul>Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    5. 5. Community of Inquiry (COI) Model <ul><li>COI consists of three overlapping presences: Teaching , Social and Cognitive that create the learning experience in online and hybrid courses (Anderson, Rourke, Garrison & Archer, 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>The COI Model provides a means to analyze and understand higher order thought processes in online learning environments. </li></ul><ul><li>It assumes that valuable learning in online and blended courses is a function of the interaction between the three overlapping presences (Arbaugh et al., 2007, Garrison, 2007). </li></ul>Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    6. 6. SOCIAL PRESENCE Social Presence: The ability of participants to identify with the community (e.g. course of study), communicate purposefully in a trusting environment, and develop interpersonal relationships by way of projecting their individual personalities. Community of Inquiry (COI) Model (Arbaugh et al., 2007; Garrison, 2007) Communication Medium Community of Inquiry Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    7. 7. SOCIAL PRESENCE COGNITIVE PRESENCE Social Presence: The ability of participants to identify with the community (e.g. course of study), communicate purposefully in a trusting environment, and develop interpersonal relationships by way of projecting their individual personalities. Cognitive Presence: The extent to which learners are able to construct and confirm meaning through sustained reflection and discourse in a critical community of inquiry. Community of Inquiry (COI) Model Communication Medium Community of Inquiry (Arbaugh et al., 2007; Garrison, 2007) Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    8. 8. SOCIAL PRESENCE TEACHING PRESENCE (Structure/Process) COGNITIVE PRESENCE Social Presence: The ability of participants to identify with the community (e.g. course of study), communicate purposefully in a trusting environment, and develop interpersonal relationships by way of projecting their individual personalities. Cognitive Presence: The extent to which learners are able to construct and confirm meaning through sustained reflection and discourse in a critical community of inquiry. Teaching Presence: The design, facilitation, and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose of realizing personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes. Community of Inquiry (COI) Model (Arbaugh et al., 2007; Garrison, 2007) Communication Medium Community of Inquiry Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    9. 9. SOCIAL PRESENCE TEACHING PRESENCE (Structure/Process) Supporting Discourse Setting Climate Selecting Content COGNITIVE PRESENCE Social Presence: The ability of participants to identify with the community (e.g. course of study), communicate purposefully in a trusting environment, and develop interpersonal relationships by way of projecting their individual personalities. Cognitive Presence: The extent to which learners are able to construct and confirm meaning through sustained reflection and discourse in a critical community of inquiry. Teaching Presence: The design, facilitation, and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose of realizing personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes. Community of Inquiry (COI) Model Communication Medium Community of Inquiry (Arbaugh et al., 2007; Garrison, 2007) Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    10. 10. SOCIAL PRESENCE TEACHING PRESENCE (Structure/Process) Supporting Discourse Setting Climate Selecting Content EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE COGNITIVE PRESENCE Social Presence: The ability of participants to identify with the community (e.g. course of study), communicate purposefully in a trusting environment, and develop interpersonal relationships by way of projecting their individual personalities. Cognitive Presence: The extent to which learners are able to construct and confirm meaning through sustained reflection and discourse in a critical community of inquiry. Teaching Presence: The design, facilitation, and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose of realizing personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes. Community of Inquiry (COI) Model Communication Medium Community of Inquiry (Arbaugh et al., 2007; Garrison, 2007) Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    11. 11. The Impact of Teaching Presence <ul><li>Instructors can influence and best manage Teaching Presence </li></ul><ul><li>More frequent interactions with the instructor has resulted in higher levels of perceived student learning (Shea, Fredrickson, Pickett & Pelz, 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>Student perceptions of the learning experience is highly correlated with perceptions of quality instructor interactions (Jian & Ting, 2000). </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching presence takes into account the three component constructs of design, facilitation, and direction of cognitive and social processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Utilizing these three constructs creates personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile student learning outcomes. </li></ul>Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    12. 12. The Three Constructs of Teaching Presence <ul><li>Instructional Design and Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting curriculum; designing methods; establishing time parameters; and utilizing the medium effectively </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facilitation of Discourse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying areas of agreement and disagreement; seeking to reach consensus and understanding; encouraging, acknowledging, and reinforcing student contributions; setting the climate for learning; drawing in participants and prompting discussion; and assessing the efficacy of the process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Direct Instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presenting content and questions; focusing the discussion on specific issues; summarizing discussion; confirming understanding; diagnosing misperceptions; injecting knowledge from diverse sources; and responding to technical concerns </li></ul></ul>Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    13. 13. Purpose of the Study <ul><li>The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of COI dimensions (social, cognitive and teaching presences) that exist in blended and online courses offered at Lawrence Technological University. Of particular interest was the contribution of teaching presence with regard to student satisfaction and instructor interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships were determined between the COI dimensions and the correlations on demographic variables. </li></ul>Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    14. 14. Research Questions <ul><li>The following research questions were addressed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To what extent does social, cognitive and teaching presences relate to demographics (gender, age, degree status)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To what extent does the relationship between social, cognitive and teaching presences support online and blended communities of inquiry? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To what extent does the relationship between teaching presence (instructor interaction) and student satisfaction exist in our online and blended community of inquiry? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The results reflect our preliminary exploration into the COI model, specifically teaching presence. </li></ul>Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    15. 15. Methodology and Survey Instrument <ul><li>This study uses a quantitative procedure to collect the necessary data. </li></ul><ul><li>The survey was constructed using the Community of Inquiry instrument created by Arbaugh et al. (2007). </li></ul><ul><li>The survey: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows the researchers to examine the three presences within the Community of Inquiry model; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How they may be influenced by gender, age and degree status; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows the researchers to examine the relationships between the three presences of the model comparing them in online and blended/hybrid classroom settings. </li></ul></ul>Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    16. 16. Survey Delivery <ul><li>The research proposal and survey were evaluated and approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of Lawrence Technological University. </li></ul><ul><li>Students received multiple email communications and announcements were posted to the University course management system to encourage participation. </li></ul><ul><li>The survey was administered electronically using Surveymonkey (see attached copy of instrument). </li></ul>Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    17. 17. Results: Reliability <ul><li>Full scale (all 34 items) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>α = .974 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teaching presence factor (13 items) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>α = .969 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social presence factor (9 items) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>α = .922 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive presence factor (12 items) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>α = .963 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>George and Mallery (2003) provide the following guidelines: “> .9 – Excellent, > .8 – Good, > .7 – Acceptable, > .6 – Questionable, > .5 – Poor, and < .5 – Unacceptable” (p. 231). </li></ul>Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    18. 18. Results: Construct Validity <ul><li>Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EFA was conducted in SPSS using principle axis factoring as the extraction method, followed by direct oblimin rotation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determination of the number of factors to retain was based on eigenvalues > 1 and factor loadings > .30 (Comrey & Lee, 1992). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching and Cognitive Presences are well-represented by their respective items; Social Presence has cross-loadings on several items. </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Results: EFA of Teaching Presence Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    20. 20. Results: EFA of Social Presence Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    21. 21. Results: EFA of Cognitive Presence Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    22. 22. Results: Construct Validity <ul><li>Second or Higher-order Confirmatory Factor Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CFA was conducted in M plus using maximum likelihood estimation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Models that are good representations of the data have a χ 2 /df ratio of less than 2 to 1, a CFI and TLI value ≥ .90, and a RMSEA that is less than .08 (Bentler, 2007). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F irst-order factor loadings were all significant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second or Higher-order factor loadings were also significant: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching presence = .722 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social presence = .685 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive presence = 1.086 </li></ul></ul></ul>Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    23. 23. COI Model χ 2 = 801.51, df=508, p < .001 CFI = .911, TLI = .902 RMSEA = .077 Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    24. 24. Results: Hypothesis Testing <ul><li>ANOVA conducted in SPSS </li></ul><ul><li>** p < .01 and * p <.05 difference in amount of Teaching, Social or Cognitive Presence as a function of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Course satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Course knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of learning context (online vs. traditional) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probability of taking an online course in the future </li></ul></ul>Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    25. 25. Results: Course Satisfaction & Knowledge <ul><li>Amount of teaching presence is significantly related to the level of course satisfaction and course knowledge. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students who are satisfied with the course and the knowledge acquired perceive high teaching presence. </li></ul></ul>Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    26. 26. Results: Learning Context <ul><li>Amount of teaching presence is significantly related to the type of learning context. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students who prefer online learning context perceive low teaching presence. </li></ul></ul>Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    27. 27. Results: Probability of Future Online Course <ul><li>Amount of teaching presence is significantly related to the probability of future behavior. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students who are likely to take an online course in the future perceive low teaching presence. </li></ul></ul>Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    28. 28. Implications <ul><li>The research showed that teaching presence is most important to student satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Students who were dissatisfied (more than half) indicated that instructors need to do more to improve teaching presence to promote interest and increase effort by ensuring student satisfaction of the learning experience. </li></ul><ul><li>General Recommendations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required versus optional instructor training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on improving teaching performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include specific education and training as they relate to Social, Cognitive and Teaching Presences </li></ul></ul>Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    29. 29. Applications <ul><li>Social Presence: </li></ul><ul><li>The ability of participants to identify with the community (e.g. course of study), communicate purposefully in a trusting environment, and develop interpersonal relationships by way of projecting their individual personalities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The instructor must provide a learning environment based on trust at the onset of the course and continue to promote an ongoing ‘safe atmosphere’ for learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Students are shown respect and treated as equals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone’s opinions are welcomed and valued </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Students feel their point of view is acknowledged </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The instructor sets the pace by inviting collaboration and healthy debate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Students feel comfortable conversing online and interacting with others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Students feel safe to disagree with others and healthy conflict is encouraged </li></ul></ul></ul>Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    30. 30. Applications <ul><li>Cognitive Presence: </li></ul><ul><li>The extent to which learners are able to construct and confirm meaning through sustained reflection and discourse in a critical community of inquiry. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The instructor maintains a learning environment that captures the learners attention and promotes their curiosity for learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instructor finds creative ways to peak the students interest and attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instructor encourages creativity in problem solving and brainstorming activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instructor finds novel ways to motivate students to explore course content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The instructor encourages understanding through reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instructor provides feedback to ensure an understanding of concepts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Varied activities and discussions help students learn from other perspectives and construct viable solutions </li></ul></ul></ul>Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    31. 31. Applications <ul><li>Teaching Presence: </li></ul><ul><li>The design, facilitation, and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose of realizing personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>The instructor leads the course experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectively communicates course objectives, goals and topics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides instructions for assignments, due dates and expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sets the climate, structures and process for the course </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides feedback in a timely manner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The instructor finds meaningful ways to ensure satisfaction with the learning experience by engaging students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students see relevance in the learning to their profession </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussions are focused on current and relevant issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructor helps students to further develop their strengths and improve their weaknesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructor encourages students to explore and think ‘outside the box’ </li></ul></ul>Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    32. 32. Limitations <ul><li>Sample Size = 97 students in the Fall 2007 Semester </li></ul><ul><li>Limited to Lawrence Technological University </li></ul><ul><li>First phase/preliminary/exploratory – first foray into the COI model </li></ul>Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    33. 33. Next Steps <ul><li>Continue implementing the COI Survey each semester to gain a larger data set; analyze data and continue to report results through Spring 2009. We hope to see you next year. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare Lawrence Tech findings with previous studies conducted by other researchers at various institutions (Anderson, Rourke, Archer, Garrison, Arbaugh, and others). </li></ul><ul><li>Continue to identify specific interventions/applications designed to improve teaching presence and monitor the results. </li></ul><ul><li>Explore the relationship between COI and specific motivational strategies to increase interest and effort in a learning situation (Castelli, 1994, 2006). </li></ul>Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    34. 34. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Lawrence Technological University’s President and Provost Office for their support. </li></ul><ul><li>Dean DeGennaro and Associate Dean Landon for their encouragement and support. </li></ul><ul><li>Dean Moore and Associate Dean Bauer for their support. </li></ul><ul><li>LTU Institutional Review Board members for their thoughtful review, advice and approval. </li></ul><ul><li>As well as all of the students, faculty and staff that helped us to get the word out for this study. </li></ul>Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    35. 35. Questions Thank you for your time and attention! Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    36. 36. Please join our study. <ul><li>eMail us at bush@ltu.edu for a link or go directly to our study URL: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.surveymonkey.com/s.aspx?sm=Viw0H269yWJfJDnL4UcjuA_3d_3d </li></ul>Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008
    37. 37. References <ul><li>Anderson, T., Rourke, L., Archer, W., & Garrison, D. R. (2001). Assessing Teaching Presence in Computer Conferencing Transcripts [Electronic Version]. The Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks , 5 . Retrieved November 25, 2007 from http://www.aln.org/publications/jaln/v5n2/v5n2_anderson.asp. </li></ul><ul><li>Arbaugh, J. B. (2007). An Empirical Verification of the Community of Inquiry [Electronic Version]. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks , 11 . Retrieved November 13, 2007 from http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/jaln/v11n1/v11n1_9arbaugh.asp. </li></ul><ul><li>Arbaugh, J. B., Cleveland-Innes, M., Diaz, S., Garrison, D. R., Ice, P., Richardson, J., et al. (2007). Community of Inquiry Framework: Validation and Instrument Development. Unpublished Conference Presentation. 13th Annual Sloan-C Conference. </li></ul><ul><li>Bentler, P. M. (2007). On tests and indices for evaluating structural models. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(5), 825-829. </li></ul><ul><li>Castelli, P.A. (1994). An analysis of self-attributed achievement motives and their effects on instructional motivation needs of adult learners, Published dissertation, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI. </li></ul><ul><li>Castelli (2006). Achievement Motives and Their Effects on Instructional Motivating Strategies for Adult Learners . Academic Business World Conference, Nashville, TN. Conference Proceedings available at:http://academicbusinessworld.org/AWB-107.pdf. </li></ul><ul><li>Comrey, A. L., & Lee, H. B. (1992). A first course in factor analysis (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Garrison, D. R. (2007). Online Community of Inquiry Review: Social, Cognitive, and Teaching Presence Issues [Electronic Version]. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks , 11 . Retrieved November 13, 2007 from http://www.aln.org/publications/jaln/v11n1/v11n1_8garrison_member.asp. </li></ul><ul><li>Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (1999). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education (2), 87-105. </li></ul><ul><li>George, D., & Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference. 11.0 update (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. </li></ul><ul><li>Vaughan, N., & Garrison, D. R. (2006). How Blended Learning Can Support a Faculty Development Community of Inquiry [Electronic Version]. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks , 10 . Retrieved November 13, 2007 from http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/jaln/v10n4/v10n4_vaughan.asp. </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia contributors. (2008a). Community (Publication. Retrieved March 9, 2008, from Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Community&oldid=196278818 </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia contributors. (2008b). Virtual community (Publication. Retrieved March 9, 2008, from Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Virtual_community&oldid=197004962 </li></ul>Hawaii International Conference on Business – May 2008

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