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5.5 Classification

5.5 Classification



IB Topic 5: Ecology

IB Topic 5: Ecology



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    5.5 Classification 5.5 Classification Presentation Transcript

    • 5.5: Classification Topic 5: Ecology & Evolution Miss Friedman
    • 5.5.1: Binomial system of nomenclature
      • Designed by Carolus Linneaus in 18 th century
      • Based on idea that every species has a Latin name, made up of two parts
      • First part is the name of the genus
      • Second part specifies the species
      • Name should be printed in italics (underlined if hand written) and first part capitalized
      • Example
      • Humans are Homo sapiens
    • 5.5.2: Hierarchical system of classification
      • Organisms that share characteristics are placed into similar groups
      • The more similar their characteristics, the closer the grouping
      • The purpose of classification is to:
        • Clearly identify an organism with a name that is unique to the species and avoids confusion with local naming
        • Show evolutionary links
        • Allow us to predict anatomical, physiological and genetic characteristics it may share with other organisms
      • The Hierarchical system has seven levels called taxons (plural: taxa)
      • Each taxon can contain one or more of the sub-group below it
      • The seven level hierarchies of taxa are:
          • Kingdom
          • Phylum
          • Class
          • Order
          • Family
          • Genus
          • Species
    • 5.5.3: Plant Phyla
      • Kingdom: Plantae
      • Characteristics:
          • Photosynthetic
          • Chlorophyll
          • Cellulose cell wall
          • Permanent vacuoles
          • Stores starch
      • Classification of the major plant phyla is based on external observables structures
      • Need to know:
        • -Bryophyta -angiospermophyta
        • -Filicinophyta -Coniferophyta
    • Phylum: Bryophyta (Mosses, Liverworts, Hornworts)
      • Small terrestrial plants
      • Do not have true roots, stems or leaves but they must have structures resembling them
      • Leaf-like structures are often arranged in a spiral
      • Usually have live in clusters which act like sponges holding water
      • No cuticle
      • Reproductive structures are called sporangium which is on long stalks with capsules on end.
    • Phylum: Filicinophyta (ferns)
      • Have true leaves
      • New leaves unroll
      • Divided leaves
      • Have an underground creeping stem (rhizome)
      • Height up to 20m
      • Reproduction: sporangia (sori) contain reproductive spores
    • Phylum: Coniferophytes (conifers & pines)
      • All conifers are woody plants, most are trees with a single wooden trunk with side branches
      • Leaves are waxy, long thin needles, often arranged in spirals, often a dark green colour
      • Produce seeds found in cones
      • Vascular system (tracheids)
    • Phylum: Angiospermophyta (flowering plants and grasses)
      • Have flowers, although they may be small in wind-pollinated angiospermophyta
      • Seeds are ovaries which become the fruit
      • Leaves usually as leaf blade and leaf stalk, with veins visible on the lower surface
      • Leaves have waxy cuticle
      • Vascular bundles (veins) are made
      • up of xylem & phloem
    • 5.5.4: Animal phyla
      • The kingdom of animals is classified according to these characteristics:
          • Heterotrophic
          • No cell walls
          • No vacuoles
          • No chlorophyll
          • Store glycogen
      • The syllabus specifies 6 of the 30 or more phyla from the animal kingdom that you are responsible for knowing
      • The ones selected are what might be called invertebrates (lack of a spinal cord)
      • The six phyla are classified according to features such as:
        • Number of layers in the body plant
        • The opening for mouth and anus
        • Method of support
      • Phylogenic studies (evolutionary relationship) relies on more genetic studies to support the modern classification of these groups.
    • Phylum: Porifera (sponges)
      • No body layer, rather there is an aggregate of different cell types
      • Support is from either silica or calcium based spicules which link together to provide some support
      • Body plan is built around water canals that circulate nutrients through the sponge for ingestion by specialized cells
      • There is no mouth or anus
    • Phylum: Cnidaria (Jelly fish, Sea anemones, Corals)
      • They have two layers in the body plan
      • There is radial symmetry
      • Jelly fish are mobile organisms. Sea anemones are sessile organisms
      • Single entrance that serves the cavity that functions as circulation of respiratory gases and nutrients
      • These organisms are secondary consumers and posses stinging cells with toxins called nematocysts to disable prey
      • Corals secrete a CaCO 3 skeleton
    • Phylum: Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
      • 3 layers in the body plan
      • One entrance to “gut” which can have many folds to increase surface area.
      • Largely parasitic, includes flukes
    • Phylum: Annelida (segment worms)
      • 3 layers to the body plan
      • Bilateral symmetry
      • Body is divided into ringed segments with some specialization of segments
      • Mouth is connected via gut to a separate anus
      • Skin surface is used for gas exchange
      • Many marine forms but also terrestrial species, usually soil burrowing
    • Phylum: Mollusca (Snails, Slugs, Octopus)
      • Bilateral symmetry with significant modification
      • Body plan has three major features
        • Foot, a muscular structure used for movement and burrowing
        • Central visceral mass, contains all the organ structures (separate mouth & anus)
        • Mantle, a folded membrane structure that can surround other tissues and create a cavity containing ag ill. The mantle frequently secretes a calcareous shell.
    • Phylum: Arthropoda (Insects, Crustaceans, Spiders, Scorpions, Millipedes)
      • 3 layer body plant with bilateral symmetry
      • Hard exoskeleton composed of chitin
      • Jointed body segments
      • Jointed appendages to each segment
      • At least 3 pairs of jointed legs
      • Some flying organisms in the class Insecta
      • Separate mouth and anus
      • Many free-living but also some parasitic
    • 5.5.5: Dichotomous Keys
      • Each questions divides the group of organisms into two smaller groups based on a pair of alternative characteristics
      • Subsequent groups may focus on more minor details
      • In most cases the characteristic will be readily observed or measurable
      • It is better to choose characteristics that are uninfluenced by environmental variation
      • Shape and number are often good characteristics on which to base alternative pairings
      • A complete key will have each type of organisms being classified separated with a final identifying name