The Virtuous Republic

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The Virtuous Republic

  1. 1. The “Virtuous Republic” Classical view of a model republic “ City on a hill” [John Winthrop] Ideal citizen [Cincinnatus] <ul><li>Govt. gets its authority from the citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>A selfless, educated citizenry. </li></ul><ul><li>Elections should be frequent. </li></ul><ul><li>Govt. should guarantee individual rights & freedoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Govt.’s power should be limited [checks & balances]. </li></ul><ul><li>The need for a written Constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>“ E Pluribus Unum.” [“Out of many, one”] </li></ul><ul><li>An important role for women  raise good, virtuous citizens. [“Republican Womanhood”]. </li></ul>Enlightenment Thinking
  2. 2. Daniel Shays
  3. 3. Shays’ Rebellion Springfield, Mass. 1786-87
  4. 4. Articles of Confederation Government: 1781-1789
  5. 5. Federalist vs. Anti-Federalist Strongholds at the End of the War
  6. 6. Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation <ul><li>A unicameral Congress [9 of 13 votes to pass a law]. </li></ul><ul><li>13 out of 13 to amend. </li></ul><ul><li>Representatives were frequently absent. </li></ul><ul><li>Could not tax or raise armies. </li></ul><ul><li>No executive or judicial branches. </li></ul>
  7. 7. State Constitutions <ul><li>Republicanism. </li></ul><ul><li>Most had strong governors with veto power. </li></ul><ul><li>Most had bicameral legislatures. </li></ul><ul><li>Property required for voting. </li></ul><ul><li>Some had universal white male suffrage. </li></ul><ul><li>Most had bills of rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Many had a continuation of state-established religions while others disestablished religion. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Disputed Territorial Claims Between Spain & the U. S.: 1783-1796
  9. 9. State Claims to Western Lands
  10. 10. Northwest Ordinance of 1785
  11. 11. The United States in 1787
  12. 12. James Madison “Father of the Constitution” One of the authors of The Federalist Papers
  13. 13. Ben Franklin - Champion of Compromise
  14. 14. Articles I, II, III <ul><li>Article I - Bicameral Congress – Virginia Plan, New Jersey Plan, Connecticut Plan(Great Compromise) </li></ul><ul><li>Article II – Executive – electoral college, impeachment, no term limit </li></ul><ul><li>Article III – Judiciary – shortest article, only Supreme Court mentioned </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery – 3/5 clause </li></ul>
  15. 15. Constitutional Convention - Philadelphia 1787 Those in attendance included Madison, Franklin, Washington, Hamilton. Those not attending included Jefferson, Henry, J. Adams.

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