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Mental Health Nursing
   Historical Beliefs     Demonology requiring exorcism, beating, torture     Middle Ages associated mental illness wit...
 American    Psychiatric Association  A state of being that is relative rather than   absolute  Shown by productive act...
 American Psychiatric Association   A clinically significant behavioral or    psychological pattern, associated with    ...
 Members of the community define norms Relatives typically determine “normalcy”and  define when state has changed Class...
   Stressor     Any factor that causes emotional or physical      tension; may be a responsible factor in certain      i...
   Primary                          Secondary     The person asks                  The person assesses      themselves...
 Predisposing   Factors  Genetic influences: temperament, family   history of mental illness, personality  Past Experie...
 The  use of coping strategies in response to  stress   Adaptive or Maladaptive Specific Strategies   Awareness - reco...
 Anxiety  Vague apprehension associated with feelings   of uncertainty  Levels of anxiety   ▪ Mild – tension, prepares ...
 Defense Mechanisms   Protective devices used to alleviate anxiety    ▪ Compensation – covering up a weakness by      em...
 Defense    Mechanisms con’t   ▪ Projection – attributing unacceptable self-feelings to     another   ▪ Rationalization –...
   Dia g no s tic a nd Sta tis tic a l M nua l o f M nta l                                         a           e    Dis o...
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Historical and theoretical concepts rf order 1

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Mental Health Fall '12

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Transcript of "Historical and theoretical concepts rf order 1"

  1. 1. Mental Health Nursing
  2. 2.  Historical Beliefs  Demonology requiring exorcism, beating, torture  Middle Ages associated mental illness with witchery  Asylums emerged in the 1800s – institutionalized Evolution of Nursing  Linda Richards – First psychiatric nurse  Est’b psychiatric hospitals and schools of nursing (asylums) Contemporary Approach  Mid 1900s – shift to community care, psychiatric nursing added to nursing curricula  National Mental Health Act – post WWII
  3. 3.  American Psychiatric Association  A state of being that is relative rather than absolute  Shown by productive activities, fulfilling relationships, ability to adapt to change and cope with adversity Lisa Robinson (Psychiatric Nursing Expert)  Dynamic state in which thought, feeling, and behavior is age appropriate and congruent with local and cultural norms
  4. 4.  American Psychiatric Association  A clinically significant behavioral or psychological pattern, associated with distress, disability, or risk of suffering  Not an expected cultural response to an event Townsend  Maladaptive responses to s tre s s o rs , AEB thoughts, feelings, behaviors that are not congruent with c ulture and interferes with functioning
  5. 5.  Members of the community define norms Relatives typically determine “normalcy”and define when state has changed Class and Education  Lower - high incidence; low recognition  Higher - high recognition and self labeling Gender  Women are more likely to recognize symptoms of MI and seek treatment
  6. 6.  Stressor  Any factor that causes emotional or physical tension; may be a responsible factor in certain illnesses Stress Response - General Adaptation Syndrome  Alarm-Resistance-Exhaustion (review N101 lecture)  Adaptation – responses preserve integrity and equilibrium  Maladaption – responses that result in disruption
  7. 7.  Primary  Secondary  The person asks  The person assesses themselves is this event: their skills, resources, ▪ Irrelevant – the and knowledge to deal outcome is with the situation insignificant  Determines coping ▪ Benign-positive - the strategies available outcome is  Considers options pleasurable ▪ Stressful – the outcome is harmful, threatening, challenging
  8. 8.  Predisposing Factors  Genetic influences: temperament, family history of mental illness, personality  Past Experiences: learned patterns of coping due to past experiences  Existing Conditions: Current health status, developmental maturity, financial and educational resources, support system
  9. 9.  The use of coping strategies in response to stress  Adaptive or Maladaptive Specific Strategies  Awareness - recognition  Relaxation/Meditation  Communication – talking it out; support systems  Problem Solving – view situation objectively, analyze, act, evaluate  Alternative Resources ▪ Pets/ music/ dance/ art/ exercise
  10. 10.  Anxiety  Vague apprehension associated with feelings of uncertainty  Levels of anxiety ▪ Mild – tension, prepares for action/response ▪ Moderate –heightened tension; cognition impaired and individual needs assistance ▪ Severe – Difficulty functioning even simple tasks ▪ Panic – terror, desperate, out of touch with reality
  11. 11.  Defense Mechanisms  Protective devices used to alleviate anxiety ▪ Compensation – covering up a weakness by emphasizing something more desirable ▪ Denial – refusal to acknowledge ▪ Displacement – transfer of feelings from target to another ▪ Identification – increase self worth by acquiring attributes of a positive role model ▪ Intellectualization – avoid emotions by focusing on analysis ▪ Introjection – integration of others values into self ▪ Isolation – separating the event and emotion
  12. 12.  Defense Mechanisms con’t ▪ Projection – attributing unacceptable self-feelings to another ▪ Rationalization – making excuses ▪ Reaction – avoids thoughts, feelings by expressing opposite ▪ Repression – blocking unpleasant feelings ▪ Sublimation – direct impulses into constructive activities ▪ Suppression – avoiding unpleasant thoughts, feelings ▪ Undoing – symbolically cancels out an unpleasant experience
  13. 13.  Dia g no s tic a nd Sta tis tic a l M nua l o f M nta l a e Dis o rd e rs – Fo urth Ed itio n – Te x t Re v is io n This is a tool provides guidelines and diagnostics criteria for mental illness It is a multi-axial system  Axis 1: All psychiatric disorders except personality d/o and MR  Axis 2: Personality disorders and MR  Axis 3: Medical conditions  Axis 4: Environmental issues or psychosocial problems that may impede treatment  Axis 5: Global Functioning Scale – Townsend, page 26
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