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World Bank Generic Data Collection Equipment Spec - 07 01 09 Road Data Collection Equipment Generic Specificationv1.1
 

World Bank Generic Data Collection Equipment Spec - 07 01 09 Road Data Collection Equipment Generic Specificationv1.1

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    World Bank Generic Data Collection Equipment Spec - 07 01 09 Road Data Collection Equipment Generic Specificationv1.1 World Bank Generic Data Collection Equipment Spec - 07 01 09 Road Data Collection Equipment Generic Specificationv1.1 Document Transcript

    • Generic Equipment Specification Multi-Function Road Data Collection System Version 1.1 – 9 January 2007 East Asia Pacific Transport Unit The World Bank Washington, D.C.
    • The World Bank East Asia Transport Unit 1818 H Street NW Washington, D.C. 20433, U.S.A. Tel: (202) 458-1876 Fax: (202) 522-3573 Email: cbennett2@worldbank.org Website: www.worldbank.org A publication of the World Bank East-Asia Transport Unit sponsored by the Transport and Rural Infrastructure Services Partnership (TRISP). The TRISP-DFID/World Bank Partnership has been established for learning and sharing knowledge. This specification is a product of the staff of the World Bank assisted by independent consultants. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the views of the Board of Executive Directors of the World Bank or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply any judgment on the part of the World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. Quality Assurance Statement Report Name: Prepared by: Pavement Condition Data D. Brown and T. Thomsen Collection System Generic Reviewed by: Specification W. Herr, P. Hunber, R. Fox-Ivey, B. Jan, K. Wang Project Manager: Approved for issue by: C. Bennett C. Bennett Cbennett2@worldbank.org 9 January 2007 Revision Schedule Rev. Prepared Reviewed Approved Date Description No by by by Updated to make consistent with other 1.1 1/9/07 specifications and to incorporate CRB DB CRB additional reviewer comments.
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment INTRODUCTION This document presents a generic equipment specification to be used for the procurement of vehicle mounted road survey equipment. It details the requirements for equipment designed to measure pavement roughness, rutting, texture, skid resistance, road geometry, crack detection using video logging, and right-of-way (ROW) video. Not all systems will collect all these data items, so the specification is designed to only have clauses included reflecting the data the Agency requires. It is intended that data collected will be used for pavement management and should meet or exceed the specific requirements as detailed in Information Quality Level Two (IQL2) 1 . IQL2 provides a level of detail sufficient for comprehensive programming models, for standard design methods, and to distinguish the performance and economic returns of different technical options with practical differences in dimensions or materials. It calls for automated acquisition methods for network surveys. The automated equipment must be capable of surveying a minimum of 10,000 km per year, surveyed over a three to four month period. This generic specification can be used by any Agency as a basis for developing a detailed set of equipment specifications that meet their particular network or survey requirements. The user may select all equipment types and/or options, or only those deemed necessary for the particular network or Agency. This generic specification contains the minimum equipment specifications required to achieve the level of accuracy and repeatability for the user to have the necessary confidence in the data collected to facilitate the ongoing analysis for network maintenance and upgrading. It builds on the experience of the World Bank on a number of different projects to help facilitate sustainable data collection. It was developed with feedback from a number of consultants and equipment vendors. Accompanying notes provide additional background information, discussion, and typical solutions that may assist the Agency in preparing the detailed specification for procurement. The Agency may decide to include some of these notes in an actual specification. However it is generally considered better to let the Supplier elaborate on their understanding and approach in the bid, and to suggest alternative solutions, rather than to be too proscriptive in the specification on the actual solution, approach or methodology. This generic specification does not include details of the Database/Road Management System (RMS) or end use for the collected data. The Agency will therefore need to be aware of data format, data reporting intervals, and requirements for data that a particular RMS may require when specifying a particular equipment type2. If the Agency does not have an RMS, the World Bank has developed a generic Terms of Reference for the Supply and Installation of an RMS which can be downloaded from www.road-management.info or www.worldbank.org/transport. Prior to any procurement, it is important that the Agency has an understanding of their needs as well as what technologies are available. The Agency should review the report “Data Collection Technologies for Road Management” which describes the different types of available technologies and how to select the most appropriate technology for a given situation. The site 1 See ‘Guidelines on Calibration and Adaptation of HDM-4’ for a description of the IQL concept. Available for download from www.road-management.info. 2 See McPherson and Bennett (2005): ‘Success Factors for Road Management Systems’ for a discussion on RMS and their data requirements. Available for download from www.road- management.info. Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 i
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment www.road-management.info contains the contact details for some vendors, as well as brochures and equipment specifications. Comments and suggestions on this document should be sent to: Christopher R. Bennett The World Bank 1818 H Street NW Washington, D.C. 20046 +1-202-473-0057 cbennett2@worldbank.org Updates will be posted to www.road-management.info as well as the World Bank’s transport web site www.worldbank.org/transport. Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 ii
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment Notes on the Format 1.1 Section / Clause Heading Yes Text in boxes with blue shading is intended for client staff preparing the Specification. It includes background explanation on the purpose of the clause, and additional discussion as appropriate. Text in gray boxes indicates actual text that may be included in a Specification. <Text included in italics provides optional selection depending on client requirements. Select the appropriate option> White boxes are spaces for Client notes while planning the Equipment Specification Terminology Agency The agency procuring the equipment RMS Road Management System Supplier The supplier providing the equipment Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 iii
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment Table of Contents INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................i 1 OBJECTIVES...........................................................................................................1 1.1 Objectives of the Client.....................................................................................1 1.2 Summary of Equipment Needs...........................................................................1 1.3 Procurement Process.........................................................................................2 2 COMMON EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATIONS....................................................................4 2.1 General Survey Conditions.................................................................................4 2.2 Survey Computer and Operating System............................................................5 2.3 Data Processing................................................................................................5 2.4 Survey Vehicle ................................................................................................6 2.5 Data Display....................................................................................................7 2.6 Storage Device – Data Backup...........................................................................7 2.7 GPS................................................................................................................8 2.8 Location Markers..............................................................................................8 2.9 General Equipment Specifications.......................................................................9 2.10 Data to be Recorded and Stored.......................................................................9 2.11 Data Format.................................................................................................10 3 EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................12 3.1 Roughness – Laser Profilometer........................................................................12 3.2 Roughness – Response Type Roughness............................................................14 3.3 Rutting..........................................................................................................15 3.4 Texture.........................................................................................................17 3.5 Skid Resistance..............................................................................................18 3.6 Road Geometry..............................................................................................19 3.7 Crack Detection..............................................................................................21 3.8 Right of Way Video.........................................................................................22 4 EQUIPMENT VALIDATION.......................................................................................24 4.1 Calibration and Validation – General..................................................................24 4.2 Calibration and Validation – Methodology...........................................................25 4.3 Roughness.....................................................................................................26 4.4 Rutting..........................................................................................................27 4.5 Texture.........................................................................................................28 4.6 Skid Resistance..............................................................................................29 4.7 Road Geometry..............................................................................................29 4.8 Crack Detection..............................................................................................31 4.9 Right of Way Video.........................................................................................31 4.10 100 km Field Validation..................................................................................31 4.11 Acceptance Certificate...................................................................................31 5 EQUIPMENT TRAINING, WARRANTY AND ONGOING SUPPORT....................................33 5.1 Warranty and Ongoing Support........................................................................33 5.2 Training.........................................................................................................33 Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 iv
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment 1 OBJECTIVES 1.1 Objectives of the Client Yes Common objectives of clients purchasing road-monitoring equipment are listed below.  Implementing efficient data collection processes that provide the required data to the specified accuracy.  Establishing well-defined responsibilities for all aspects of road data collection and data management  Facilitate the justification for budget, and help direct limited funds towards those areas where the return on investment will be greatest.  Develop a road survey team within a wider asset management group who can successfully collect pavement condition data for use in a Road Management System The equipment will provide a means for the collection of accurate pavement condition data which will assist the Client in defining the true condition of the road network. The equipment will be used to:  Provide network condition data to facilitate year on year comparisons and to define and track changes in the network condition.  <Include others as appropriate> 1.2 Summary of Equipment Needs Yes The equipment types selected by the highway agency must be determined before the specification is prepared. The paper “Data Collection Technologies for Road Management”3 published by the World Bank provides details on the types of data used for road management and the different technologies available to collect the data. The issues discussed in this report should be fully understood before developing the procurement specification. Questions which should be utmost in the mind when preparing an equipment specification are:  What is the end use for the data  What type of network is being measured  Is the equipment selected applicable to this network  What do we need to measure 3 Available for download from www.road-management.info. Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 1
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment Among the factors that should be considered are:  Where the network is very rough or is unsealed then laser technology for measuring roughness is not appropriate.  Where a network is primarily concrete and is less susceptible to rutting, do you need to measure transverse profile?  Where the network is small has low volume traffic and the maximum speed on the network is 50km/h is there a need to measure skid resistance? From the following list, include only those equipment types deemed necessary for your particular network. One (1) <define appropriate number> set of equipment for the measurement of the following pavement condition data is required:  Roughness derived from the Longitudinal Profile <delete if not required>  Roughness using response-type instrument <delete if not required>  Rut Depth derived from Transverse Profile <delete if not required>  Texture as Mean Profile Depth <delete if not required>  Skid Resistance <delete if not required>  Road Geometry <delete if not required>  Right of Way (ROW) video <delete if not required>  Crack Detection – Video Logging <delete if not required> 1.3 Procurement Process Yes This specification calls for the procurement only to be completed after the system has been validated (see Section 4). Validation is essential as it ensures that the supplier’s equipment fully conforms to the client’s specification. Unfortunately, this has not always proved to be the case. The validation also confirms that the equipment can measure the required parameters on the network and under the conditions where it is intended. The procurement process shall be as follows:  The bids shall be opened and reviewed in accordance with the bid evaluation process and a notification of award shall be issued.  The supplier shall supply the equipment as per the terms of the contract of supply. Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 2
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment  Upon receipt of equipment a validation study shall be undertaken to confirm that the equipment meets this specification.  As part of the validation study, 100 km of surveys shall be conducted to confirm that the data can be processed and entered into the client’s system.  An acceptance certificate for the equipment shall only be issued after successfully completing the validation study. Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 3
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment 2 COMMON EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATIONS When measuring a number of different pavement condition parameters there are equipment and operational specifications common to all measurement equipment. These common specifications are grouped together here. 2.1 General Survey Conditions Yes This is where a detailed description of the network to be surveyed should be included. This should list all factors that might influence the survey equipment. For example if the network is residential, or has significant volumes of slow moving traffic (horse drawn carts) then the minimum survey speed may be a consideration. The length of the network should be broken down by surface type and/or road classification. The equipment must be of a robust design capable of operating under the expected local conditions by local survey technicians trained in its operation. Data collection activities should be restricted when the road surface is wet, contaminated with debris or when the temperature is outside the specified limits. The following is the distribution of the road network by pavement type: <modify to suit>  Bituminous 10,000 km <modify to suit>  Portland Cement Concrete 3,000 km <modify to suit>  Unpaved Roads 22,000 km <modify to suit>  TOTAL 35,000 km <modify to suit> In terms of road classes, the following is the distribution of the network: <modify to suit>  Urban 7,000 km <modify to suit>  Expressway 3,000 km <modify to suit>  Rural – Paved 3,000 km <modify to suit>  Rural - Unpaved 22,000 km <modify to suit> All survey equipment should be specifically designed for operation at normal local highway speed on both Urban/rural roads and expressways/highways included in the network, and be capable of measuring on both bituminous and concrete pavements where the predominant pavement type will be bituminous roads. <modify to suit> <Provide a general description of the network terrain.> Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 4
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment  For rural and urban roadway applications, the minimum valid operation speed is 25km/h unless a lower speed specified by the equipment manufacturer meets the validation criteria.  Repeatability and accuracy at the minimum speed will be confirmed during qualification verification.  Maximum vehicle acceleration/deceleration limited to 2m/s2 or flagged in the reported data when these limits are exceeded.  Vehicle speed outside the specified limits should be flagged in the reported data.  A minimum start-up and termination length of 50m is required. The start- up length data should be excluded from the reported data.  The ability to Flag recorded data and record specific road furniture and pavement inventory which may affect or influence the data collected. 2.2 Survey Computer and Operating System Yes Computer and operating software continue to rapidly develop and change. Therefore it is prudent to ensure the survey equipment has as long a service life as possible by ensuring that current software and hardware are used and that backup/support will be maintained. For example until 2003 data acquisition systems operating only under Windows 98 were common-place, but by 2006 this operating system was no longer supported by leading computer manufacturers. This creates a risk to the Agency in the event of hardware failure. The operating system must therefore be currently supported by its supplier and provide the full functionality for operating the equipment. Typically, this means that it is one which has been released or updated in the last 2-3 years.  The survey computer should use an operating system currently supported by the industry.  The computer should be equipped with a storage drive capable of storing the network survey data covering a 30 day period <modify to suit>. 2.3 Data Processing Yes Many equipment suppliers license the software used to collect and process data, and charge excessively for additional copies, so it is advisable to determine in advance the number of copies likely to be required when reviewing system requirements. The key issue is the number of concurrent users. Agencies tend to think in terms of the total number of people who might eventually make use of the software. On the other hand, some software packages are licensed up to a maximum number of “concurrent users”, meaning the maximum number of people who can access the system at the same time. It is often difficult for an Agency to estimate the number of concurrent user licenses they need. A rule of thumb is that the number of concurrent users would be at most around 20 - 30% of the total users. Additional licenses can always be Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 5
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment purchased at a later date if required so it is better to estimate at the lower end of the number of users. Future ongoing maintenance and support fees need to be clearly identified. During the procurement. Typically, these can be some 10-20% of the software cost, on an annual basis.  The supplier shall provide a complete library of data collection and processing software with the equipment as a back-up in the event that there is a need for re-installation.  The equipment will be supplied with a minimum of three (3) <specify requirements> licenses to operate all data collection and or processing software for a period of five (5) <specify requirements> years without additional fees. 2.4 Survey Vehicle Yes This clause is only required if the equipment is to be procured either installed in a vehicle or if a vehicle is to be procured at the same time. It is necessary to ensure that the survey vehicle is appropriate for your network:  Where possible, ensure that locally manufactured vehicles are used for the platform. These vehicles will be easier to service and have spare parts readily available.  Where an imported vehicle is recommended by the equipment supplier, ensure that there are no import restrictions, parts are readily available, and that the vehicle can be serviced locally throughout the entire country, not just In major centers.  Ensure that the fuel type is also appropriate. For example, there is no use having a petrol vehicle if petrol is more expensive and only available at the major centers.  The vehicle should be large enough to accommodate all the required equipment without major structural modifications, including a water tank of sufficient capacity to survey at least 200km where skid resistance is to be measured.  The engine, steering mechanism, and suspension components should be adequate to allow smooth maintenance of speed and direction of travel.  The interior temperature and humidity of the vehicle should be maintained within the tolerable limits of the instrumentation and operators.  The vehicle should be Right/Left <delete as appropriate> hand drive.  Have an automatic transmission  Have cruise control <delete if not desired>  Have a petrol/diesel <delete as appropriate> engine Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 6
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment  The engine shall have a minimum displacement of 2.5 L <change as applicable> and minimum power of 85 kW <change as applicable> to allow the vehicle to survey at a maximum speed of 100 km/h  Have a drive train operating on 4 x 4/4 x 2 <delete as appropriate>  Be designed so that the operator is not exposed to noise levels above 85 dBA  Shall comply with <specify country> national emission exhaust standards  Shall comply with <specify country> national vehicle crash safety standards 2.5 Data Display Yes Displaying the condition data in real time while it is being collected aids quality control. The surveyor/operator will over time be able to view the data and confirm that it is a good reflection of the actual pavement conditions. Furthermore, when faults or equipment failures occur a visual display of the data will aid detection of the fault, thus ensuring that the network survey is stopped as soon as possible.  Some form of data display is required that allows visual monitoring of the system outputs in real time to ensure data is being collected and that the system is operating correctly  The computer screen should as a minimum display all processed outputs as a function of distance, along with recorded events. A graphical display is preferred as it is easier to see and interpret in a moving vehicle. 2.6 Storage Device – Data Backup Yes Retaining all raw data so that post processing/reprocessing can be undertaken if required, necessitates large storage capacity—especially when video is being captured. Furthermore, regular backup to enforce data checking and thus avoid data loss due to equipment failure should be part of the normal Quality Assurance (QA) procedures developed by the survey team. Therefore it is essential to have a fast robust independent backup medium for all data.  A DVD-RW/USB Drive/IEEE 1392 Firewire Drive <delete what is not appropriate> storage device shall be provided for the recording and long- term storage of raw data and processed data.  The system shall have the capability for uploading data to an intranet Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 7
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment Data backup and quality control (QC) checking is paramount in surveying. Extra redundancy, for example by using multiple hard drives which simultaneously record the data in this area can be invaluable. This can also provide a means for independent QC of the data in the office. 2.7 GPS Yes Location referencing is a problem experienced in almost all network surveys. Texture, roughness, curvature, terrain and operator variability all influence the measured distance. GPS coordinates linked directly to the data can assist to minimize these effects. Since the marginal cost of GPS data collection is low, it is recommended that all systems have GPS data collection. Horizontal resolution is of primary importance so only it is specified.  The equipment shall include GPS data capture, collected simultaneously and linked to all other pavement condition and inventory data collected.  The GPS measurements shall have a corrected/uncorrected horizontal accuracy of 1m/3m/other <specify as appropriate> Note 95% of the readings should achieve the specified accuracy.  This shall be achieved by having the data uncorrected/differentially corrected using post-processing/corrected in real-time using RTCM/corrected in real-time using NAVCOM Starfire/corrected in real-time using Omnistar/other <specify as appropriate> In specifying GPS accuracy it needs to be recognized that there is a cost/performance trade-off. Uncorrected GPS will typically have +/- 3.3 m accuracy 95% of the time, while differentially corrected will be much more accurate. 2.8 Location Markers Yes All networks are defined through a series of Location Reference Points. These points define where particular events or road furniture are, and therefore need to be defined very accurately during the surveys.  Section start, intermediate feature location(s), and section end, identified by location marks shall be accurately recorded either by surveyor/user input or by an automated means, such as a magnetic or optical detection process.  The equipment must have a means to record event location data within the data records.  The data collection software must accommodate location-referencing identification, and distance reset. To minimize location referencing measurement errors, the data acquisition system must allow for the segment survey distance to be reset to 0 at Network Reference Locations, while retaining the cumulative distance traveled. Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 8
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment 2.9 General Equipment Specifications Yes Other items not included specifically above. Note if there are items which are specific to the network and are required for all selected condition parameters then these should be included here. For example specific road inventory items.  The distance measurement instrument (DMI) shall be capable of longitudinal measurements within 0.1% of true distance.  The system shall have an operating temperature range of 0-50 degrees C  The roughness, texture and skid resistance sensors shall be spaced at an interval of <Select the appropriate spacing from Table 1 below> The sensor spacing is selected to maintain consistency between measuring systems. The survey vehicle measures roughness, texture and skid resistance at the location where the vehicle tire/roadway interface for the majority of the network fleet occurs. Typical values are 1.65m or in the range 1.3m to 1.8m. Where the network vehicle fleet is heavily biased toward a particular vehicle type then a different spacing may be more appropriate. Table 1 details the approximate wheel spacing for different vehicle types. Table 1: Vehicle Wheel Path Measurements Vehicle Class Approximate Wheel Spacing (m) Sub Compact Car 1.30 – 1.40 Mid Size Car 1.40 – 1.50 Full Size Car 1.50 – 1.60 Mid Size Pickup or Van 1.50 – 1.65 Large Pickup or Van 1.65 – 1.80 Light Truck 1.70 – 1.80 Heavy Truck 1.80 – 1.85 2.10 Data to be Recorded and Stored Yes The following items must be recorded with or linked to each of the specific condition data items detailed in the equipment specific requirements detailed below.  Date and time of day  GPS co-ordinates (X, Y, Z) <delete if GPS data not collected> Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 9
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment  Location reference and description of section  Vehicle ID, Crew ID  Weather conditions  Surface description  Run number  Measuring speed and instantaneous acceleration/deceleration  Direction of survey relative to reference direction (increasing/decreasing)  Lane number or transverse position on road  The following road furniture items <specify as required> • Number of Lanes • Pavement Type • Shoulder Type • Pavement Width • Shoulder Width • Visual Condition Rating • Etc. 2.11 Data Format Yes The particular requirements for each road management system (RMS) can be quite different and therefore it is best to specify a particular data format so that the data from the equipment are compatible with the Agency’s system. There may also be some accumulated result or specific statistical results that are peculiar to the RMS requirements (e.g. data averaged per 100 m) and this is where these items can be defined. If possible, the specification should include precise details on the RMS or database that will be used to store the data. The more information provided, the easier it will be for the supplier to ensure that they can successfully interface with the RMS. The Agency must also recognize that, depending on the RMS in use, it may be necessary for the RMS supplier to modify or update their system to make use of the data from the equipment. It is not always practical for the equipment vendor to tailor their system to every RMS. if the Agency does not have an existing RMS it is useful for the specification to include the provision of, as a minimum, a simple database program for storing and using the data. Should the Agency be interested in a full RMS, reference should be made to the generic Terms of Reference for the Supply and Installation of a Road Management System available for download from www.road-management.info. Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 10
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment  Data should conform to <specify any particular requirements for data>.  The equipment shall be able to produce export files in an industry standard format (e.g. comma separated values) so that the files can be read by other applications such as spreadsheet programs.  The equipment shall be provided with data viewing software to allow the Agency to review all data collected by the equipment in an integrated manner. <Optional – may not be required if Agency is using its own RMS> If the Agency has an existing RMS:  The data will be stored in the Agency’s road management system (RMS). This RMS is was supplied by <enter the vendor’s name and contact details>. The current version of the software is <enter the version number> and includes the following modules <enter the name of the modules available>. The software is/is not <select which is appropriate> under a current maintenance and support agreement with the software vendor.  Data should conform to <specify any particular requirements for data>. Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 11
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment 3 EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATIONS 3.1 Roughness – Laser Profilometer Yes These are the minimum requirements for vehicle mounted inertial profilers designed to record the longitudinal profile using an accelerometer/laser sensor combination to establish an inertial reference from which the longitudinal profile is measured. Furthermore it establishes equipment verification standards and procedures for the calculation of roughness in accordance with the International Roughness Index (IRI) from the measured profile. The preferred measuring system will utilize a single accelerometer/laser combination for each wheel path with both the accelerometer and laser mounted directly above the wheel path measurement location. A single inertial reference may be utilized provided the equipment can satisfy the validation criteria detailed below. Note a scanning laser is an acceptable alternative to the single wheel path laser. Measurement System:  In addition to the specifications detailed below the equipment must also be compatible with ASTM standard E950 (2004) ‘Standard Test Method for Measuring the Longitudinal Profile of traveled Surfaces with an Accelerometer Established Inertial Profiling Reference’,  Number of measurement locations – two; one in each wheel path  Note a scanning laser is an acceptable alternative provided it meets or exceeds the accuracy and resolution specifications detailed for the single wheel path laser and has a minimum scan rate of 25kHz. Lasers  Minimum No. of Sensors 2 - one in each wheel path  Minimum Sampling Frequency 16 kHz  Minimum Bandwidth 2 kHz  Spot Size 0.2-5mm  Minimum Resolution 0.2mm  Accuracy ± 0.5mm  Measuring Range ± 100mm  Stand Off ≥300mm Accelerometers  No of Sensors 2 - one with each laser;  Minimum Measuring Range ±2G  Minimum Resolution 10µG  Minimum Bandwidth DC -300Hz Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 12
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment For pavements with speed humps and/or other large pavement irregularities a standoff greater than 300mm may be required. For roads with average roughness IRI > 5m/km a minimum measuring range of ±3G will be required. Profile Sampling and Recording Intervals:  Longitudinal Profile should be spatially sampled i.e. measured at a constant distance interval along the road  Maximum profile sampling interval - 5mm (the largest distance between successive profile samples)  Maximum recorded interval - 100mm, (the largest distance between successive profile heights permanently stored by the survey computer.  Base length for the IRI moving average filter - 125mm or less. Data to be Recorded and Stored: The profile data collection should record data on the following items:  Profile data for both left and right wheel paths  Wheel path and Lane IRI accumulated at 10m, 20m, 50m, and 100m intervals. <select as appropriate>4 Note: the lane IRI is calculated as the average of the left and right wheel path. Effects of Pavement Distress and Surface Texture: Pavement surface properties such as alligator cracking and texture can have a large influence on transverse variability. This can result in difference between the maximum and minimum IRI values from 0.2 to 0.5m/km therefore the data collection system must have the ability to identify sections where extensive cracking and changes in texture occur.  Transverse cracking - data must be flagged manually where serious cracking occurs.  Surface type and texture affect the measurement repeatability of the profile and roughness. Accordingly all equipment must demonstrate measurement accuracy and repeatability on a range of surfaces through a validation exercise. The accuracy and repeatability of the 100m IRI data for five individual runs must not exceed the mean of the runs by more than the following limits: Asphalt Concrete 2.0% Fine grade chip seal 2.0% ± 0.05m/km Coarse grade chip seal 2.0% ± 0.1m/km 4 The reported roughness interval will in part be determined by the requirements of the Road Management System using the data. Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 13
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment 3.2 Roughness – Response Type Roughness Yes These are the minimum requirements for the use of response-type roughness meters. This consists of a mechanical or accelerometer based instrument which measures the response of the vehicle chassis or axle to the road. The data are then processed to establish the IRI, often via a calibration equation. The preferred measuring system will measure roughness in each wheel path using two sensors. A single measurement location (one wheel path or the centre of the axle) may be utilized provided the equipment can satisfy the validation criteria detailed below. Note: Specifications for the two most common systems are detailed below, however, alternative systems may be included as long as they meet the validation criterion detailed in Chapter 4. Motion Encoder Bump Integrator Type Systems: (e.g., CSIR LDI, ROMDAS BI, TRL BI)  No of Wheel paths 2/1 <select as required>  Minimum Measuring Range 0.8mm  Resolution 1.0mm Accelerometer Type Systems: (e.g., AL-Engineering Roadman, ARRB Roughometer)  No of Wheel paths 2/1 <select as required>  Minimum Measuring Range +2G  Resolution 10mG  Minimum Bandwidth DC - 100Hz Data to be Recorded and Stored:  The raw response data for both left and right wheel paths accumulated at 10m, 20m, 50m, and 100m intervals. <select as appropriate>  Wheel path and Lane IRI accumulated at 10m, 20m, 50m, and 100m intervals. <select as appropriate> Note: the lane IRI is the average of the left and right wheel path. Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 14
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment 3.3 Rutting Yes These are the minimum requirements for vehicle-mounted equipment designed to measure the pavement transverse profile. Three possible systems are considered, these are:  A single or multiple scanning laser system which measures the full transverse profile  A multi laser or ultrasonic sensor system complete with inertial platform to measure discrete distances from the road surface to the inertial platform across the traveled lane.  A multi laser or ultrasonic sensor system to measure discrete distances from a rut bar to the pavement surface across the traveled lane. As described in the report ‘Data Collection Technologies for Road Management’, the accuracy of rutting is dependant on the number of sensor sampling points across the road and the longitudinal sampling. Due to the large variations in cost between different rut depth devices, it is recommended that users consider all three types of systems above. As long as they meet the validation requirements the data will be acceptable. The number of measurements per profile is the minimum that will give appropriate results and the optimal spacing of sensors varies depending on the number5. The more measurements the more accurate the results, although there is a decrease in the accuracy with increasing measurements above around 206. Measurement System:  Minimum Spot Size (lasers only) 0.2-5mm  Minimum Resolution 0.5mm  Accuracy ± 1.0mm  Minimum Measuring Range ± 100mm  Stand Off ≥300mm  Minimum number of measurements/profile 13*  Minimum measurement width: 3200mm *  Maximum distance between sensors 200 - 400mm* * The transverse profile is measured to determine the extent (both width and depth) of wheel path rutting. The maximum distance between measurements is 5 See “Harmonising Automated Rut Depth Measurements” available from www.ltsa.govt.nz/research/reports/277.pdf for a discussion on sensor spacing and numbers. Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 15
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment 200mm where there is a significant vertical rut transition point i.e. outside/inside edge and middle of the rut, elsewhere the maximum distance is 400mm. For pavements with speed humps and/or other large pavement irregularities a standoff greater than 300mm may be required. As the rutting extent is dependent on both the lane width and the network vehicle fleet, the number and spacing of sensors can only be fully defined once the network requirements are established. Profile Sampling and Recording Intervals:  Maximum profile sampling interval - 5m, (the smallest distance between successive profile samples)  Maximum recorded interval - 5m, (the smallest distance between successive profile heights permanently stored by the survey computer) Data Collection Speed Restrictions:  Repeatability and accuracy at the minimum speed should be confirmed during validation. Calculation of Rut Depth:  The left and right wheel path rut depths calculated as the rut depth under a 1.2m/2m/3m straight-edge <select as appropriate> or under a string line. <or other user defined method> Data to be Recorded and Stored: The profile data collection should record data on the following items:  Raw Transverse Profile Data  Left and right wheel path Rut Depth and Rut Width under a 2m straight edge reported at 10m, 20m, 50m, and 100m <select as appropriate – see roughness >  Other system specific measurement options Inertial Sensors - Accelerometers/Gyroscopes <only applicable for inertial platforms>  Minimum Number of Sensors - 1  Minimum Measuring Range +2G  Minimum Resolution 10µG  Minimum Bandwidth DC -300Hz. Note for roads with roughness >5IRI a minimum measuring range of +3G may be required. Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 16
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment A straight-edge simulation is the standard rut depth calculation methodology, if a different method is used locally to calculate rut depth then it should be clearly defined. 3.4 Texture Yes This specification is intended to provide the minimum requirements for vehicle mounted laser profilers designed to record the pavement texture. Furthermore it establishes equipment verification standards and procedures for the calculation of Mean Profile Depth (MPD) and/or RMS Texture from the measured texture profile. Measurement System: Equipment must be compatible with ASTM standard ‘E1845-01 Standard Practice for Calculating Pavement Macrotexture Mean Profile Depth’ Lasers  Minimum No. of Sensors 2 - one in each wheel path6  Minimum Sampling Frequency 32 KHz  Minimum Bandwidth 10kHz  Minimum Spot Size 0.45mm  Minimum Resolution 0.05mm  Accuracy ± 0.1mm  Measuring Range ≥ ± 100mm  Stand Off ≥300mm Profile Sampling and Recording Intervals:  Texture Profile should be sampled at constant distance intervals along the road  Maximum profile sampling interval – 1.0mm. i.e. The largest distance between successive profile samples7. Data to be Recorded and Stored: The texture data collection equipment should record the following data items:  Raw texture data in both left and right wheel paths8 <optional>  Wheel path texture as MPD and RMS data measured/accumulated at 10m, 6 Note to minimize costs and or ensure compatibility with other measuring equipment a single texture laser may be specified. 7 See ISO 13473 and ASTM E950. 8 The recording of raw texture data will result in a significant volume of data. The need for this should be carefully assessed. Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 17
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment 20m, 50m, and 100m intervals <select as appropriate – see roughness> 3.5 Skid Resistance Yes Friction is defined as the resistance to relative motion between two bodies in contact, while Skid Resistance is defined as the property of the trafficked surface that develops friction between a moving tire and the pavement surface. Skid resistance can be considered as a characteristic of friction. The devices can collect data at user defined intervals or in continuous fashion. Physical properties that affect the measured skid resistance are:  Pavement temperature  Slip speed and slip angle  Surface texture  Film thickness of the water applied to the pavement surface  Contact area and tread pattern of the measuring wheel. This dependence is directly related to the specific device used to measure skid resistance, therefore the validation exercise will need to incorporate specific measurements to demonstrate that any correction applied to compensate for changes resulting from these affects are correctly applied. Pavement temperature is not required to be recorded with all systems. The measuring systems can measure either yawed (at an angle to the direction of travel) or in line skid resistance. The Devices can record the skid resistance using a locked wheel, or at different slip speeds. However in all cases the measuring device must have a traceable path to the Skid Resistance Index as defined in the European Committee for Standardization Technical Committee CEN227 in report prEN13036-2, or an equivalent index, which is independent of the device. Measurement System: Skid Resistance is recorded simultaneously with pavement texture and road geometry to enable the International Friction Index (IFI) to be calculated and investigation levels applied as required.  Sample Interval 20m  Resolution 0.1% of scale appropriate to device  Load Cell Bandwidth 0 - 1kHz  Thermometer Accuracy 0.5°C  Repeatability Refer to validation criteria Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 18
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment  Survey Speed Dependence: to be defined by equipment manufacturer and confirmed in validation exercise.  Pavement Temperature Correction: to be defined by equipment manufacturer and confirmed in validation exercise.  Skid Resistance Recording Interval: the smallest distance between successive data permanently stored by the survey computer should not be greater than 50m.  The data acquisition system will accommodate the input of investigatory levels where road geometry (curvature and grade) and furniture require different levels of skid resistance.  Data Collection Speed Restrictions: Survey equipment should be operated at the speed that maintains the optimum slip ratio for the specified equipment type, as defined by the manufacturer. Data to be Recorded and Stored: The data collection system should record the following items:  Raw friction data and processed skid resistance for each wheel path tested  SP and IFI for each wheel path and lane in two wheel paths tested  Investigatory levels as required  A rolling average is used to report data at 100m intervals 3.6 Road Geometry Yes The horizontal curvature and vertical grade should be considered an optional item for standard centerline surveys. Significant cost savings can be realized by having the curvature and grade extracted from the GPS data If very accurate curvature and grade data are required, the data should be collected utilizing an accelerometer/gyro combination. Data can be corrected through post processing or directly recorded with differential correction provided in real time. For a vehicle traveling at 75km/h a sample rate of 10Hz will provide coordinate data every 1m. Road Centerline: The road centerline is a nominal line representing the middle of the road or carriageway on multi-lane roads. It will be measured using a GPS Receiver configured to provide either uncorrected GPS or DGPS in real time.  Positional Accuracy (Corrected/uncorrected) <1.0m/3.0 <select>  Sample Interval 0.1S (10Hz) Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 19
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment  Tracking 12 Channel L1/CA code  System Outputs NMEA-0183 or equivalent  Initialization Time <20 Sec  WGS84 coordinate standard data or as specified Offset of the coordinate data should ensure that the centerline (between increasing and decreasing lanes) is reported. Horizontal Curvature and Vertical Grade: <delete if using accelerometer/gyro systems> The GPS data will be analyzed to determine the horizontal curvature and the vertical gradient. The curvature in meters and gradient values in degrees will be given for 100 meter <define as appropriate> homogeneous sections of the road. Horizontal Curvature: <delete if to be calculated only from GPS data>  Zero Offset (stationary) 0±0.1%FSD  Accuracy 0.1Rad/km  Angular Rate 50º/sec  Resolution 0.05º/sec  Bias < ± 20º/hr Vertical Grade: <delete if to be calculated only from GPS data>  Range (minimum) ±2g  Resolution Range (minimum) 100ug  Frequency Response 0-100Hz Data to be Recorded and Stored: The road geometry data collection system should record the following items:  Raw Road Geometry Data  Road Centerline, Vertical Grade, and Horizontal Curvature reported at 10m <if using accelerometer/gyro combination> 100 m <if interpolating from GPS data> intervals. Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 20
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment 3.7 Crack Detection Yes Crack detection is not a standard item on equipment systems and is still an evolving technology. Some automated crack detection software is available but would need to be proven on a particular network and pavement type before it is adopted. Most current practice is to video the pavement using a high-speed high-resolution camera mounted on a boom attached to the survey vehicle such that the pavement surface detail is recorded along with location referencing information. The recording method can be based on area scanning or, more recently, line scanning. Crack identification and recording can be undertaken in real-time during the survey by analyzing the images as they are collected, or as a post- survey activity using the captured image data. For post-processing one of two methods is used:  The reviewer manually views the images and uses software to record the various pavement distress types through keyed/mouse entry onto a computer; or  Software automatically recognizes and detects cracks, often with manual assistance. Due to the evolving nature of crack detection hardware and software, these crack detection specifications are limited to specifying the resolution of the camera system. Minimum Equipment Requirements: Camera  Image Position Error 1m  Camera Type area or line camera  Number of cameras 1 or 2  Color 8-bit gray scale  Minimum Resolution 2mm/pixel  File Format JPEG, JPG, AVI, any industry standard  Minimum Coverage 100% - 3m wide  Survey Speed 20 – 80km/hr  Camera Enclosure IP 65 Review Software Software will facilitate full condition rating of the video to produce an inventory of pavement defects that can be integrated with other condition data. Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 21
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment 3.8 Right of Way Video Yes Right of way video is a useful network review tool and can be used to resolve anomalies with location referencing etc. It can also be used to record road inventory and road furniture information. The current practice is generally to video the right-of-way pavement using a high-speed high resolution camera mounted to the survey vehicle such that the forward or driver view of the pavement is recorded along with location referencing information. The system should be specified with 1 – 3 cameras, If only the right-or- way in front of the vehicle is desired, then a single camera system is adequate. Additional cameras may be included to record to the side view from the vehicle. Due to the size of the files, it is recommended that images be sampled at regular intervals, such as 10 m. This significantly reduces the size of the images while providing sufficient data for road management purposes. Minimum Equipment Requirements: Camera  Image Position Error 1m  Camera Type IEEE –1394 Firewire or equivalent  Picture Size 800 by 600 pixels9 <minimum>  Color 24-bit Color  Minimum Sampling Interval 5m at 80km/h <define>  Frame Capture Rate Distance based  File Format JPEG, JPG, AVI, any industry standard  Survey Speed 20 – 80km/hr  Exposure range 1/10000 F1.4 The camera shall be mounted inside the vehicle/on the roof of the vehicle in a waterproof enclosure <delete as appropriate>. Overlay Software Software will facilitate overlay of positional data including Distance, GPS, Road and LRP ID. Video data must be integrated with other condition data. 9 This is the minimum resolution which meets the needs of many applications. Higher resolution up to 1280 x 960 pixels may be used for some applications, although this increases the cost of hardware and storage requirements. Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 22
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 23
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment 4 EQUIPMENT VALIDATION The purpose of the equipment validation is confirm the proposed methodology, the data collection, data processing, and reporting processes meet the required standard, while maintaining consistency between different data collection equipment. It also ensures that the data produced by the equipment can be imported and used by the Agency’s RMS. Validation also demonstrates that the equipment can operate under the expected conditions of the network. Therefore in addition to meeting the equipment specification detailed above, each equipment type must also meet the validation requirements detailed below. There are two issues addressed during the validation process—calibration and validation:  Calibration of the equipment confirms that measurements can achieve a measurable/specified tolerance. Calibration does not confirm that the equipment can measure the required parameter from a moving vehicle. Data is filtered and processed to achieve the desired output.  Validation demonstrates that the survey equipment can be operated by local surveyors on roads that are characteristic of their particular network, and provide meaningful data of sufficient accuracy to meet its intended use. Validation therefore confirms that the data capture, associated filtering and data processing work on the client’s network. An important part of the validation exercise is the field trial. Once the equipment is calibrated and validated, it should be used to undertake a minimum of 100 km of surveys. The data from these surveys should be processed and entered into the Agency’s RMS. Depending upon the design of the RMS, it may be necessary to modify either the RMS or to have the equipment supplier produce a custom data format. 4.1 Calibration and Validation – General Yes  Calibration by correlation with other vehicle mounted survey equipment should not be used10.  All measuring equipment must have calibration certification to an international standard.  Calibration certification will confirm individual equipment accuracy as defined above for the measuring components of the system, the accelerometers the lasers and the distance measuring system etc.  Validation should be recognized as separate processes within the overall objective of obtaining accurate and reproducible roadway profilers.  A validation program should be carried out prior to acceptance of the equipment and /or before the start of data collection activities; this must include operator validation. 10 The exception to this is when the equipment being validated is less accurate than the vehicle mounted system it is being validated against. For example, a response-type roughness meter can be validated against a laser profilometer. Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 24
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment  Continued measurement validation must be carried out during and at the completion of data collection activities.  A minimum of 6 sites, each 300m long, should be used for roughness, and 5 sites each 200m long for both texture and rut depth, selected to reflect the full range of operating conditions likely to be encountered in the surveys. 4.2 Calibration and Validation – Methodology Yes Validation Approach: The survey equipment must be validated at each site against a reference measurement. This is done by measuring sections of roads with the reference instrument, and then the same sections with the survey equipment. For roughness calibration the reference calibration equipment must be compatible with ASTM standard E950 (2004) ‘Standard Test Method for Measuring the Longitudinal Profile of Traveled Surfaces with an Accelerometer Established Inertial Profiling Reference’, Class I. The survey equipment must make at least five repeat runs over each of the validation sections at 4 nominal speeds of 25, 50, 75, and 100km/hour or within the limits specified by the manufacturer. The results must be averaged to give the profile at each of the nominated speeds. The line of best fit between the reference measurement and the survey equipment using least squares regression is then established: RM = SE x A + B Where: RM = The measurement from the reference equipment SE = The measurement the survey equipment A = slope of line of best fit B = intercept of line of best fit (regression offset) The equipment is considered validated when A and B, and R2 (the coefficient of determination) are within the specified parameter ranges detailed in Table 2 below for all sites combined. Repeatability – this is the expected standard deviation of measurements obtained in repeat tests, using the same survey equipment on a single randomly selected road. The standard deviation of measurement on each segment must be within the tolerance defined for the different surface types from the mean for each of the 5 repeat runs. Assuming a normal distribution then the 95% confidence intervals for the s roughness is given by data ± t . n Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 25
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment s The error limit is defined by – β = t . n Where: data = the data measured by the instrument (e.g. IRI m/ km, mm rut depth, etc.) s = the standard deviation of the data in the same measurement units n = the number of runs t = 2.776. This is the critical value for the t Distribution for a Critical t Confidence Interval of 95%  The equipment is considered to be repeatable when β is within the specified percentage of the mean, refer Table 2 below11. Table 2: Validation Limits Parameter Slope Intercept Correlation Acceptance (A) (B) R2 Limit β Roughness 0.98–1.02 0.05IRI 0.99–1.00 < 0.030 IRI Response Not 0.5IRI 0.93–1.00 < 0.30 IRI Type Applicable Roughness Rutting 0.98–1.02 0.2mm 0.97–1.000 < 0.050 RD Texture 0.98–1.02 0.05mm 0.98–1.00 < 0.030 MPD 4.3 Roughness Yes Setting Reference Profile – The base road surface profile over the validation sections must be measured using a reference Class 1 profiler. The reference profiler is used to record the profile of each wheel path over the full validation length. Each wheel path must be measured at least three times. The reference profile must be taken as the average of the individual readings measured in each wheel path. Spectral Density - The ability of the survey equipment to measure the broad range of wavelengths that constitute the road’s longitudinal profile can be demonstrated through the equipment’s frequency response or transfer function characteristics. It is therefore recommended that the spectral density be measured and plotted along with the reference site spectral density measured. This is not applicable for response type roughness measuring systems. Interrupted Data Collection – interrupted data must be validated by:  driving over the validation sections at varying speeds during each run and achieving the same repeatability when compared to the constant speed run  demonstrating the effects of stopping and starting and the effectiveness of the equipment for handling survey interruptions (slow traffic etc.) Autospectral density functions can be determined using the RoadRuf Public 11 These levels are designed for roads in good to fair condition (e.g., IRI<5m/km). If the roads are in poor condition then the tolerances may be relaxed. Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 26
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment Domain Software. This software is available at the UMTRI Road Roughness User Site at http://www.umich.edu/erd/roughness/ Examples of reference profilers are the ARRB TR Walking Profiler, the Face Dipstick, the ROMDAS Z-250. A comparison of the spectral density of the survey profiler and the reference profiler is used to demonstrate that the profiler can measure the range of wavelengths that constitute the road’s longitudinal profile. Ideally the two should be identical. 4.4 Rutting Yes The transverse profile and rutting validation process is undertaken on sections that are representative of the network and covering the full range of rutting expected on the survey network. The sections chosen must as a minimum cover a range of rut depths in both left and right wheel paths of 0 up to 40mm. The validation of the reference profile is the preferred method of validation, however, this either requires specialized equipment or is very time consuming. Most validations are therefore done by measuring the rut depth with a straight-edge and wedge and comparing the surveyed rut depth with that from the measurement system. Rut Depth - Is defined as the height between the pavement and a user defined straight edge placed across the rut, i.e. the distance obtained from the manual straight edge and wedge method. Measurement Location – Profile and/or Rut Depth <select as appropriate> measurements are taken at 5m intervals along each 200m section. Using Reference Profiles Setting Reference Profile – The reference transverse profile on each of the validation sections must be measured using either a reference profile beam or surveyor rod and level or other approved method. The method adopted must be capable of measuring the transverse profile at 100mm intervals to a vertical accuracy of ±0.25mm. Reference Profile Validation - Transverse Profile graphs for both the reference profile and the survey equipment for each speed must be provided to demonstrate that the equipment is measuring the true pavement transverse profile. Using Straight-Edge and Wedge Establishing the Reference Rut Depth – The rut depth on each of the validation sections is measured in both left and right wheel paths to an accuracy of ±0.5mm at 5 m intervals along each 200 m section. Rut Depth Validation – The survey equipment must be validated at each site Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 27
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment against the reference rut depth derived from the straight edge and wedge or, where a reference profile beam is used, from the rut depth calculated from the reference profile. A visual review of the reference and survey profiler transverse profiles is the easiest way to confirm that the survey profiler is able to define the pavement transverse profile. 4.5 Texture Yes The validation of texture depth is often impossible due to the absence of available equipment for using in the validation process. The texture validation process is undertaken on pavement sections that are representative of the survey network. The range of Texture Depth required for this validation should be determined from the characteristics of the network. For example, surface treatment sections can have a range of texture depth from 1mm to 4mm, while an asphalt surface may only have a range of 0.5 to 2mm. Setting Reference Profile: The base road surface profile over the validation sections must be measured using a reference texture device. Factors to be considered include:  The reference device is used to record the texture profile in each wheel path over the full validation length. The entire profile length in each wheel path must be measured at least once.  The ability of the survey equipment to measure the broad range of wavelengths that constitute the road’s texture (0.5mm to 5m) can be demonstrated through the equipment’s frequency response or transfer function characteristics. It is therefore recommended that the spectral density be measured and plotted along with the reference site spectral density measured by the reference device.  Autospectral density functions can be determined using the RoadRuf Public Domain Software. This software is available at the UMTRI Road Roughness User Site at http://www.umich.edu/erd/roughness/  Texture Depth Validation: Texture Depth (MPD) is derived from the raw texture profile as defined in ISO Standard 13473-1. The survey equipment must be validated at each site against the reference texture derived from the reference profiler. Note where a reference device is not available the reference texture can be measured using the manual Sand Patch Method. The texture depth is determined by spreading a known volume of sand over the test site and measuring the area covered. Refer ASTM Standard E965. Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 28
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment Examples of texture reference measuring devices are the Swedish Road Traffic Research Institute (VTI) Stationary Laser Profiler selected as the reference texture device for the PIARC experiment and the Transit NZ Stationary Laser profiler or other equivalent reference devices. 4.6 Skid Resistance Yes The validation of skid resistance is often impossible due to the absence of available equipment for using in the validation process. The validation is therefore limited to ensuring that the measurements are repeatable. Calibration and validation will be undertaken in accordance with the European Committee for Standardization Technical Committee CEN TC 227. Detailed in report No. prEN 13036-2. The purpose of this calibration and validation is to confirm that the measurement of skid resistance is independent of equipment type. The skid resistance validation process is undertaken on pavement sections that are representative of the network to be surveyed, and cover the expected network range of texture depth and skid resistance. Repeatability and bias will be determined by driving the survey equipment in normal survey mode over five calibration sites. A minimum of ten runs at each calibration site will be undertaken over two days with five runs on each day. The skid resistance of the 20m values will be averaged and the standard deviation calculated. Operational speed dependence will be determined through a series of repeat runs at three different speeds on at least two of the sites. Validation will be confirmed when:  The standard deviation for the 10 runs on any one section is less than 3% of the mean of the ten runs.  The speed characteristics are defined and repeatability is not compromised by speed variation such that the above limits are not exceeded. 4.7 Road Geometry Yes Road Centerline: The road centerline should be validated both statically and dynamically.  Static Validation: Static validation is determined by taking stationary measurements at a location which has been accurately established by registered surveyors, such as a local datum. A minimum of ten measurements are taken and compared to the true location.  Dynamic Validation: The survey equipment should be driven at normal survey speed and survey mode, while recording road centerline coordinate Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 29
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment data through a loop section of not less than 5km containing at least five of the ten reference locations. Coordinate data for each reference point should be flagged as the vehicle passes the reference point and extracted from the data stream. The loop runs should be made over two days at different times. The equipment operator must also demonstrate that the inertial system can compensate for loss of GPS signal. Validation will be confirmed when:  All static measurements are within 0.5m of the true location  All dynamic measurements are within 5m of the true location.  The equipment must also demonstrate that loss of GPS signal does not degrade data quality from that specified above.  Repeat loop runs demonstrate that the spread of data is not greater than 5m at any one location within the loop. Horizontal Curvature: Validation sites will be selected as representative of the network to be surveyed, and validation is undertaken by conducting a normal survey through the selected sites containing curves of known radii. A minimum of ten sites with radii covering the expected range of the network and/or the range from 50 to 300m should be selected. Note both right and left hand curves should be selected. Data from a minimum of five runs at each of three speeds covering the network speed range or the equipment manufacturer specified range, at each test curve should be collected, and the average curvature for each of the 10 curves reported. A 30m moving average should be applied to the data and equipment should demonstrate validation acceptance when the average of the five runs at each section is within 5% of the actual curve radii, and the standard deviation of the five repeat runs does not exceed 5% of the mean. Vertical Grade: Validation sites should be selected as representative of the network to be surveyed, and validation is undertaken by driving the survey equipment over the selected sites. A minimum of ten sites with grade covering the expected range of the network and/or the range from zero to a grade of 10%. Data from a minimum of five runs at each test site for three speeds applicable to the network or the equipment manufacturer specified range should be collected, and the average grade for each of the 10 sections reported. A 30m moving average should be applied to the data and equipment will demonstrate validation acceptance when the average of the five runs at each section is within 5% of the actual grade, and the standard deviation of the five repeat runs does not exceed 5% of the mean. Note grade should be measured using a reference inclinometer or through standard survey techniques. Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 30
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment 4.8 Crack Detection No No definitive method is readily available for validating this parameter. Therefore it is recommended that the client review the system proposed to see if it meets specific requirements. 4.9 Right of Way Video No Right of way video has no definitive method for validation. Therefore it is recommended that the client review the system proposed to see if it meets specific requirements. 4.10 100 km Field Validation No The final validation exercise consists of undertaking an actual survey on at least 100 km of roads. This will ensure that the equipment is operating correctly, that the operators are able to operate the equipment correctly, and that the data can be used after the survey. It is only upon completion of this 100 km field validation that the ‘Acceptance Certificate’ should be issued. Upon completion of the operator training, calibration and validation, each system shall be used to execute 100 km of field surveys. These field surveys will cover the full range of roads and operating conditions that the surveys will be undertaken on. There will be urban/rural/paved/unpaved roads <selected as appropriate> in the field validation. The field validation shall include the following:  The equipment shall be operated in the same manner as when actual surveys will be undertaken.  The data from the equipment will be processed by the operators to produce the outputs consistent with the requirements of this specification.  The processed data shall be imported to the Agency’s RMS/viewed in the supplier’s data view software/imported to a database <define as appropriate based on Clause 2.11>. If the Supplier can show that their equipment is exporting data in a open format which is consistent with Clause 2.11 and that the problem with entering the data into the Agency’s RMS is due to an RMS problem outside of the control of the Supplier (e.g. cannot be resolved by simple reformatting of an export file) then the Agency will accept that this requirement has been met. The Agency will work with the RMS supplier to resolve data import problem. 4.11 Acceptance Certificate No The ‘Acceptance Certificate’ is the formal notification of the Supplier that the Agency accepts that the equipment is performing to specification. Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 31
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment The ‘Acceptance Certificate’ shall be issued within 24 hours <select appropriate value> once the equipment has been successfully calibrated, validated and the 100 km field survey data collection trial in Clause 4.10 has been successfully completed. The equipment warranty shall be effective starting from the date of the issuance of the Acceptance Certificate. Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 32
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment 5 EQUIPMENT TRAINING, WARRANTY AND ONGOING SUPPORT 5.1 Warranty and Ongoing Support Yes As some sub-components which make up the final system may come from different suppliers, is it important that the warranty applies to the system as a whole. For example, the computers may have a different manufacturer’s warranty to the laser sensors. A warranty period of minimum two (2) years is recommended for all components. This will mean that the supplier will need to make support visits to ensure that the equipment is being properly maintained and operated. If including the cost of the site visit is not acceptable then only specify a one (1) year warranty. Limited warranty on sub-components should be avoided as much as possible. The supplier should warrant that the supplied equipment is free from defective material and agrees to remedy any such defect or to furnish a new part in exchange for any part of its manufacture which under normal installation, use and service discloses such defect, provided that the unit is examined by the factory or authorized agent. All transportation charges should be refunded. The client should review the suppliers warranty very carefully before accepting the equipment. The most common used spare parts for a value of 5% of the total value of the equipment’s price for the first two years of operation should be included in the overall bid price. Regular support visits from the supplier for a period of three years should be included but as optional and only paid for when the support visits take place. Minimum Equipment Requirements: Warranty 2 years <specify as appropriate> starting from the issuance of the Acceptance Certificate. Spare parts included for 5% of the value of the equipment <specify as appropriate> Support visits 2 visits per year over a 3 year period <specify as appropriate> <optional> 5.2 Training Yes The Training shall be completed within 30 days of the initial commissioning of the equipment. The Supplier shall propose a timeline for the training together with subject matter to be covered by the training. The training should include all aspects of the operation and maintenance of the equipment in the field, transfer of data to a central data base, to be prepared by the Agency, and operation and maintenance of the data to provide the results in a format acceptable to the Agency. This training shall be sufficient so that the staff members are competent in all procedures involved. A certification of competence of staff at the Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 33
    • Generic Equipment Specifications for Road Data Collection Equipment completion of the training period shall be issued for each staff member trained. The Supplier shall provide sufficient copies of brochures, operation and maintenance manuals so as to ensure that a copy is available at each set of equipment, with three (3) additional copies to be provided to the Agency. Training should be an integrated part of the delivery of the equipment. The cost of the equipment should include training of the Agency’s staff in use and maintenance of the equipment and analyzing the results. Detailed training materials should be part of the overall package so that the Agency later can train replacement staff on their own. The training should include formal training as well as on-the-job training. Each system shall be provided with one training and maintenance manual for each system, as well as three (3) spare copies. A comprehensive training program for 2 weeks <specify as appropriate> shall be conducted within 30 days of the initial commissioning of the equipment. Version 1.1 - 9 January 2007 34