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The Great War

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Mr. Foster's US History 2 Presentation on World War I

Mr. Foster's US History 2 Presentation on World War I


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  • 1. World War I U.S. History 2 College Prep ELL American Studies 2 Mr. Ryan L. Foster Red Bank Regional H.S. Created: 11/1/2007 Revised:
  • 2. The Goals…
    • Identify the key causes leading to World War I
    • Explain the significance of each cause as it relates to the War
    • Identify the countries of the Central Powers
    • Identify the countries of the Allied Powers
  • 3. THE KEY CAUSES
    • Events that SHOOK the world…
  • 4. There are at least 5…
    • Nationalism
      • 2 Types
        • Each country acts in own interest
        • Ethnic minorities fight for independence
    • Imperialism
      • Nations fight for remaining uncolonized land
    • Militarism
      • Build up of arms
      • Military gains more gov’t power
    • Alliances
      • Complex and fragile
    • Assassination
      • Death of Archduke Francis Ferdinand ultimately leads to war.
  • 5. Sequence of Events (1914)
    • June 28: Archduke Ferdinand Assassinated at Sarajevo
    • July 28: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
    • July 30: Russia begins mobilization of military
    • August 1: Germany declares war on Russia
    • August 3: Germany declares war on France
    • August 4: Britain declares war on Germany
    • August 6: Russia & Austria-Hungary at war
    • August 12: Britain declares war on Austria-Hungary
  • 6. U.S. PARTICIPATION
    • The Groups Who Opposed…
  • 7. Naturalized Citizens
    • This group opposed U.S. involvement primarily because of past conflicts in Europe, especially involving Great Britain.
    • Many newly arrived immigrants were also concerned with the affairs and welfare of their homelands.
  • 8. Socialists
    • They believed that this war was a battle between nations who were imperial capitalists.
  • 9. Pacifists (The Peace Movement)
    • They believed that citizens would end up paying more for the war through higher income taxes.
  • 10. Parents
    • The most critical objection for parents involves the safety and welfare of their children.
  • 11. U.S. PARTICIPATION
    • The Nations Who Encouraged…
  • 12. Great Britain
    • Cut the transatlantic cable connecting German and United States
      • Affects news and media reports reaching the United States
  • 13. Russia
    • The Russian Revolution of 1917
      • Czar Nicholas II is thrown out of power
      • Establishes a republican government
  • 14. Germany
    • Submarine Warfare
      • Repeated sinking of Allied and American ships
        • Passenger
        • Merchant
  • 15. TRENCH WARFARE
    • War Techniques and Technologies
  • 16. How Does it Take Place?
  • 17. From the Trenches…
    • To get a “cushy” one is all the old
    • hands think about. A bloke in the
    • Camerons wanted a “cushy” bad!
    • Fed up and far from home he was.
    • He puts his two fingers over the
    • top and gets his trigger finger
    • taken off and two more besides.
    • “ I’m off to bony Scotland!” he says
    • laughing. But on the way to down
    • to the dressing station, he forgets
    • to stoop low where an old sniper is
    • working. He gets it through the
    • head.
    • ~Robert Graves
  • 18. From the Trenches… If you have never had trench foot described to you, I will explain. Your feet swell to two to three times their normal size and go completely dead. You can stick a bayonet into them and not feel a thing. If you are lucky enough not to lose your feet and the swelling starts to go down, it is then that the most indescribable agony begins. I have heard men cry and scream with pain and many have had to have their feet and legs amputated. I was one of the lucky ones, but one more day in that trench and it may have been too late. ~Harry Roberts
  • 19. Where was it Used?
    • The Western Front
    • The Eastern Front
  • 20. The Western Front
    • Key Battles
    • Marne- Sept. 1914
      • Allies stop German advance on Paris
    • Ypres- May 1915
      • Germans use chemical weapons for the 1 st time
    • Verdun- Feb. thru July 1916
      • French hold the line in longest battle of war
    • Somme- July thru Nov. 1916
      • Disastrous British offensive
  • 21. The Eastern Front
    • Key Battles
    • Tannenberg- August 1914
      • Russian push into Eastern Prussia (Austria-Hungary)
    • Gorlice-Turnow Offensive- May 1915
      • Turn around for Germany; ultimately leads to Russian retreat
    • Gallipoli- Apr. 1915-Jan. 1916
      • Allies are defeated while trying to create supply route to Russia
  • 22. U.S. ENTRY INTO THE WAR
    • April 1917
  • 23. U.S. Entry into WW I
    • German Provocation
      • Began sinking all British ships on sight (U-Boats)
      • The Zimmermann Note
    • The Russian Revolution removes America’s last obstacle from entering the war
    • April 1917- Congress passes President Wilson’s War Resolution
  • 24. Mobilization Efforts
    • May 1917- Congress passes the Selective Service Act
      • November 1918: 24 million men registered for draft
      • Lottery chose 3 million to serve in the war
    • Volunteers and National Guardsmen made up the American Expeditionary Force.
  • 25. The Cultural Connection
    • African-Americans
      • 400,000 served during the war in segregated units
        • The majority served fighting for the French
      • Many were assigned non-combative duties
    • Puerto Ricans
      • 235,000 registered for the draft
      • 18,000 were called into active duty
    • Mexican-Americans
      • Many were seen as suspicious because of an alleged connection to Germany
  • 26. Funding the War Effort
    • Liberty Bonds
    • War Industries Board
    • Price controls and food rationing
  • 27. THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES
    • The Great War Comes to a Close…
  • 28. Europe at the End of WW I
  • 29. Newly Formed Nations
  • 30. German Losses
  • 31. Treaty Provisions
    • Signed in March 1919
      • Germany threatened w/ French invasion if they did not sign agreement
    • Nine new nations established
      • Including Poland and Yugoslavia
    • Germany is barred from maintaining its own army
    • Germans required to pay reparations ($33 billion worth) to Allied nations
  • 32. Major Flaws
    • Germany was humiliated
      • Forced to take the blame for starting WW I
    • Russia was left out of treaty negotiations
      • Lost more territory than Germany
    • Treaty ignored claims of colonized people for self-determination
      • Much of Southeast Asia saw fights for same political rights as the Western world
  • 33. FINAL SUMMARY
    • The Big Picture…
  • 34. World War I
    • CAUSES
    • European powers compete for colonies
    • Nationalism increases in Europe
    • Arms race develops
    • Hostile alliances form
    • EFFECTS
    • Allies defeat Central Powers
    • Old empires break up
    • Europe is economically devastated
    • League of Nations is formed
    • U.S. becomes economic giant
    • Treaty’s harsh treatment of Germany helps lead to WW II
  • 35. Human and Financial Costs of WW I
    • Casualties
    • Russia- 9.3 million
    • Germany- 7.21 million
    • France- 6.22 million
    • Austria- 4.65 million
    • Britain- 3.43 million
    • Turkey- 2.2 million
    • Italy- 2.19 million
    • United States- 325,326
    • Financial and Economic Costs
    • Germany- $58.07 billion
    • Britain- $51.98 billion
    • France- $49.88 billion
    • United States- $32.32 billion
    • Austria- $23.71 billion
    • Russia- $21.60 billion
    • Italy- $18.14 billion
    • Belgium- $10.20 billion