Basics Of Tool Steels
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Basics Of Tool Steels

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Introductory presentation on the types, applications and heat treatment of tool steels used by various industries.

Introductory presentation on the types, applications and heat treatment of tool steels used by various industries.

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Basics Of Tool Steels Basics Of Tool Steels Presentation Transcript

  • BASICS OF TOOL STEELS Types and Applications
    • Raymond F. Mignogna, MS, PE
    • Metallurgical Engineer
    • Email: [email_address]
    • Telephone: 352-259-2938
    • Cell: 352-638-2072
    • Website: www.mignogna.net
  • TYPES OF TOOL STEEL
    • High Speed Steels
      • Group M – Molybdenum
      • Group T – Tungsten
    • Hot Work Steels
      • Chromium
      • Tungsten
      • Molybdenum
    • Cold Work Steels
      • Air Hardening
      • High Carbon, High Chromium
      • Oil Hardening
  • TYPES OF TOOL STEEL
    • Shock Resisting Steels
    • Low Alloy Special Purpose Steels
    • Mold Steels
    • Water Hardening Steels
  • GROUP M HIGH SPEED
    • Used for High Speed Cutting Tools – Account for Over 95% Of Total Useage
    • Contain Mo, W, Cr, V, Co
    • Superior Toughness
    • Maximum Hardness Ranges from HRC 65 to HRC 70 – Depending Upon Grade
    • Type M-2 Has Best Resistance to Softening at Elevated Temperatures
  • GROUP T HIGH SPEED
    • First Developed in Early 1900’s
    • Contain W, Cr, V
    • Extremely Deep Hardening
    • High Red Hardness (Similar to Group M)
    • High Wear Resistance
    • More Expensive Than Group M Steels
  • CHROMIUM HOT WORK STEELS
    • H10 – H19
    • Medium Carbon Content
    • High Toughness @ HRC 40-55
    • Deep Hardening – up to 6” in Air
    • Low Distortion During Hardening
    • Used for Tooling at Elevated Temperatures – Same as W, Mo Grades
  • TUNGSTEN HOT WORK STEELS
    • H21 – H26
    • Extra Resistant to Softening
    • More Prone to Brittleness
    • Working Hardness Range is HRC 45-55
    • Quench in Oil or Salt to Minimize Scaling
  • MOLYBDENUM HOT WORK STEEL
    • H42 is Only Grade in Current Use
    • Low Carbon Content
    • Greater Toughness Than Tungsten Grades
    • Lower Cost
  • AIR HARDENING COLD WORK STEELS
    • Air Harden Up To 4” Thick Sections
    • Minimum Distortion
    • Least Tendency to Crack During Hardening
    • Used for Shear Knives, Punches, Blanking/Trimming Dies, Forming Dies, Coining Dies
  • HIGH C, HIGH CR COLD WORK STEELS
    • Group D Steels – Carbon From 1.50/2.35%
    • High Softening and Wear Resistance
    • Susceptible to Edge Brittleness
    • Dies For Long Runs – Blanking, Forming, Thread Rolling, Deep Drawing, Shear and Slitter Knives
  • OIL HARDENING COLD WORK STEELS
    • Group O Steels
    • High Carbon Contents – 0.85-1.55%
    • Quench in Oil
    • High Wear Resistance
    • Hardness Ranges From HRC 56-62
    • Used for Punches and Dies, Machinery Components, Gages
  • SHOCK RESISTING STEELS
    • Group S - Medium Carbon – 0.40-0.55%
    • High Strength, Toughness
    • Good Wear Resistance at Low /Medium Temperatures
    • Used for Chisels, Rivet Sets, Driver Bits
    • Also Considered for Some Structural Applications
  • LOW ALLOY SPECIAL PURPOSE
    • Group L – Types L2 and L6 Currently Available
    • Usually Oil Quenched
    • Can Be Water Quenched
    • L2 – Hardness – HRC 57
    • L6 – Hardness – HRC 64
    • Used for Machine Parts – Arbors, Cams, Chucks, Collets
  • MOLD STEELS
    • Group P – Low Carbon Steels
    • P2 – P6 Are Carburizing Grades
    • Can Achieve Surface Hardness of HRC 58
    • P20, P21 – Hardened to HRC 30-36
    • Used for Low Temperature Die Casting Dies and Plastic Mold Dies
    • Electric Furnace Melted, Vacuum Degassed, Deoxidized
  • WATER HARDENING STEELS
    • Group W – Medium to High Carbon
    • Shallow Hardening
    • Hard Case Over Tough Core
    • Used for Cold Heading, Striking, Embossing, Woodworking, Taps, Reamers, Machine Tool Components
  • HEAT TREATMENTS
    • Most Tool Steels Require Heat Treatment After Fabrication
    • Generally Respond Best To Slow Heating Rates – Promotes Uniformity
    • Groups M, T, and H Are Exceptions
    • Quench Media Need To Be Clean and At Uniform Temperature
    • Consult Steel Suppliers For Specific Recommendations
  • RESOURCES
    • ASM Metals Handbook – 9 th Ed., Vol. 3
    • Tool Steels – A.I.S.I., 1978
    • Tool Steels – Roberts & Cary; ASM, 1980
    • Heat Treatment of Ferrous Alloys – Brooks; McGraw-Hill 1979
    • Distortion In Tool Steels – Lement; ASM 1959