Tibetan Buddhism for Dharma Dummies


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A brief introduction to Tibetan Buddhism with a focus on iconography and religious symbolism.

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  • The Six Perfections: Generosity, Ethics, Patience, Effort, Concentration, WisdomBodhicitta – awakened compassionate mindEightfold path: Right view/intention/speech/action/livelihood/effort/mindfulness/concentration
  • Paramitas – perfections: Generosity, morality, patience, vigor, advanced meditation, understanding, [skills in means] conviction, strength, knowledge
  • Mahamudra Yogis – supposedly have all sorts of extraordinary powersSarvastivada - Sarvastivada is an early school of Buddhism that held to 'the existence of all dharmas in the past, present and futureSutrayana – a sub-sub-classification used in Dzogchen practice used to realize emptiness. Combines both Hinayana and Mahayana. Some accounts say Dzogchen plus “Tantrayana” = Vajrayana. Consistency is not a Tibetan Buddhist strongpoint.
  • Heavy on classification systems – “the 5 this, the 7 that, etc”
  • All Tibetan schools follow the MulasarvastivadeVinya (Monk’s Orders)
  • DrikungKagyu Lineage DrikungKagyu or DrigungKagyu (Wylie: 'bri-kung bka'-brgyud) is one of the eight "minor" lineages of the Kagyu school of Tibetan BuddhismKarmapa - Karmapa (officially His Holiness the GyalwaKarmapa) is the head of the Karma Kagyu, the largest sub-school of the Kagyupa (TibetanBka' brgyud), itself one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. Currently two pretenders (in despute)
  • Dharmaraja- an emanation of a Buddha or a Bodhisattva whose main functions are to avert the inner and outer obstacles that prevent practitioners from gaining spiritual realizations, and to arrange all the necessary conditions for their practice.think of a buddha form not as a external being but as an internal container
  • Emptiness = shunyata
  • Triyaka doctrine in Lotus Sutra:Dharmakaya – Truth body;Buddhas manifestations of thisNirmakaya – physical bodySambhogakaya – heavenly body that teaches bodhisattvas in a pure landThe 5 aggregates that make up a person: form, sensations, discernment (recognition), formation (primary consciousness), consciousness (compositional factors)The 12 sense sources (first six inner, next six outer 1) Eye 2) Ear 3) Nose4) Tongue 5) Body 6) Mind 7)Form 8) Sound 9) Smell 10) Taste 11) Touch 12) PhenomenaThe 18 elements are the 12 sense sources plus the 6 consciousnesses (e.g.) “eye consciousness”)7thconsciousnessLKlesha mind – 8th Consciousness is the “absorbing” or all base consciousness
  • Assistants Avalokiteśvara (right) & Mahāsthāmaprāpta (left)When standing, Amitābha is often with left arm bare & extended downward, thumb and forefinger touching; right hand facing outward with thumb and forefinger Seated, displaying meditation mudrā (thumbs touching & fingers together or the exposition mudrā. Lives in the Land of Bliss (Sukhavati )
  • Boddhisattvas are saints who have “woken up”Don’t make ignorance your greatest discover – i.e. just because you don’t know the answer doesn’t mean the answer is unknowable
  • Avalokiteshvara vowed to remain in the mortal world and not reach Buddhahood until all sentient beings were enlightened. After helping hundreds of thousands of people for countless years to reach enlightenment, Avalokiteshvara saw no decrease in suffering, but rather an increase in defilements. He then became discouraged. As soon as he had that thought, his head immediately split into a thousand pieces. Amitabha, one of the five transcendent Buddhas, put the pieces back together and made eleven heads, telling Avalokiteshvara to make the same promise again but to keep it better. Accordingly out of Avalokiteshvara’s eleven faces, ten are peaceful, but one is wrathful, representing Mahakala.
  • They display sixteen items, each a faculty for overcoming obstacles to Awakening. They are: a hook, trident, staff, cup, wheel, arrow, sword, vajra, lasso, gesture of subjugation (tarjanimudra), jewel, skull cup, ceremonial staff, bow, lotus, and bell.
  • Shambala is the mythical perfect city somewhere near Tibet
  • Attachment, hatred, ignorance, pride, envy
  • Sadhana - spiritual exertion towards an intended goal
  • DamchenDorje – protector of blacksmiths, rides a goat, originally a Bon diety
  • Najaruna (150-250 CE) – founder of the Madhyamaka school
  • Kagyé - the eight sets of Mahayoga transmissionsMandarava – consort of Padmasambhava; 8th Century Indian princess who gave up her royalty to practice the Dharma; sometimes considered a deity in her own right
  • Abhidharmakosa - Buddhist scholarly work that provides an introduction & digest to the seven Abhidharma treatises in the Sarvastivada canon
  • Death – when our vital energy returns to its source; course and subtle bodies separate, prana (energy) withdraws, knots of chakras fall apart, elements dissolve
  • Passion/Agression/Delusion = Attract, Reject, Ignore = I want to fuck you/ Fuck you!/Fuck that!This image – could spend years just studying it - Wish fulfilling tree – roots in the jealous gods realm, leaves and fruits in the god realmBuddhas are shown outside the wheel (except for the ones in the worlds – they show how even in each realm, a buddha shows the way out)The 12 links of dependent origination – each one causes the other to arise.Ignorance dependent origination – blind person with stickMahayana teaching & the three bodiesBuddhas exist in three different dimensionsDharmakaya – Dharma bodyHell – both hot and cold; 8 gradations of suckage, King of Hell5/6 Desire Realms – God, Jealous demigod, Human (Precious Human Rebirth), Animal (ignorance), Hungry ghost, HellOutside the wheel - Form Realm: is achieved when one has attained high levels of concentration with which one focuses on clarity and nonconceptual awareness. Formless Realm: The highest state within cyclic existence (samsara in Sanskrit), achieved when one has attained high levels of concentration with which one focuses on nonconceptual awareness. Human realm good for liberation as it is balanced and less extreme. Buddha on each level to show that compassion/liberation can occur on all levels of existenceInner circle outside the three poisons- your actions determine your karmaPassion – cock, Aggression – snake, Delusion – PigThere are 6 heavens in the God realm; complex cosmology; 4 Kings rule on 1st level, 2nd level supposde to be the slopes of Mt. Mery and the abode of the 33 Vedic gods
  • Breathe left nostril (block right), breathe right nostril (block left) repeat three times; reverse process, repeat again three times; then both nostrils three times
  • Many written between 600-1100CEPerformance Tantra (you’re buddies with the diety) Yoga Tantra (you are the diety)First generation stage – visualizations & mental exercizesSecond generation stage – destroying the ego, managing chakra energyPuja – an offeringTsog – ritual bountiful feastTorma - a sculpted cone of toasted barley meal and butter
  • Tibetan Buddhism for Dharma Dummies

    1. 1. Tibetan Buddhism for Dharma Dummies<br />
    2. 2. Tibetan Buddhism for Dharma Dummies<br />As I have grown older, I have become more drawn to the Dharma. <br />For a Western “book Buddhist” like myself, its hard to get a clear understanding of Tibetan Buddhism from the hippy-dippy gobbledegook that often gets published. <br />Its often very difficult to figure out how to practice.<br />I wanted a CLEAR, concise, no bs, instruction guide.<br />I couldn’t find one, so I made one<br />Part I: Introduction<br />
    3. 3. I am completely unqualified to teach<br />Not a Buddhist<br />Not officially trained in Buddhism<br />Don’t speak Tibetan<br />Don’t read Sanskrit<br />Don’t meditate enough<br />Am not enlightened<br />Everything here I found on Wikipedia<br />Or I made it up<br />Part I: Introduction<br />
    4. 4. Buddhism in 30 seconds<br />The Buddha (Mr. With-It)<br />The 4 Noble Truths <br />Life is pain. <br />Pain is want. <br />Get rid of pain by <br />Following the path <br />Taking Refuge<br />The Buddha (the example)<br />The Sangha (the community)<br />The Dharma (the teaching)<br />The 8-fold path (do the right thing)<br />Mindfulness, meditation, compassion<br />Buddhism has a real see for yourself, results-may-vary approach<br />But what’s the point?<br />Stop endless suffering<br />Enlightenment<br />End Reincarnation (the cycle of ignorance, pain and hatred)<br />Nirvana (no pain, no rinse-repeat, awake and happy)<br />Part I: Introduction<br />
    5. 5. Approaches to Buddhism <br />The Buddha didn’t write any of his teachings down; consequently, up to 18 different “schools” sprang up over the years to transmit and explain their interpretation of his teachings.<br />Some of these schools included<br />Sarvastivada – a variant that eventually made its way to Tibet<br />Therevada – one of the oldest Buddhist schools of thought and one that still exists in Sri Lanka.<br />There are basically three great “vehicles” (approaches or traditions) to Buddhism. By “approaches” I mean both <br />a) a body of doctrine<br /> b) philosophical outlook and <br />c) way to practice. <br />They are often called “The Three Yanas”<br />Part I: Introduction<br />
    6. 6. Approaches to Buddhism (cont.) “The Three Yanas”<br />Part I: Introduction<br />Hinayana – “smaller boat” or “lesser vehicle” or “the narrow way”. <br />Tends to see the goal of Buddhist practice as individual salvation, and by salvation it means extinction with the person no longer being reborn but reaching Nirvana. <br />Only for expert monks<br />The label “lesser vehicle” is an insult by the Mayahana folks.<br />Mayahana – “bigger boat,” “greater vehicle,” “the open way,” etc. <br />Tends to see all living beings as interrelated and so the goal of practice is the salvation of all beings. <br />Open to anyone<br />This doctrine is the basis for such Buddhist schools as Pure Land, Zen, etc.<br />Introduces concept of Bodhisattvas & doctrine of emptiness (shunyata)<br /><ul><li>Vajrayana - A subcomponent of Mayahana Buddhism aka The Indestructible Way, Diamond Vehicle
    7. 7. The mystery tradition of Mayahana, also known as a Tantra
    8. 8. Mystical, hands on, esoteric, hard-core type of practice that has levitating monks, monks living in caves alone for 35 years, monks disappearing into rainbows. These guys are dharma commandos.
    9. 9. Vajrayana is supposed to be the fastest way (the one-lifetime fast lane) to become a Buddha.</li></li></ul><li>Vajrayāna Buddhism(a.k.a. Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayāna, Mantrayāna, Secret Mantra, Esoteric Buddhism and the Diamond Vehicle) <br />Part I: Introduction<br />WARNING:<br />All the concepts expressed here have multiple translations in different languages (Sanskrit, Tibetan, etc.)<br />The spelling is consistently inconsistent<br />The doctrines are needlessly complex & consistently inconsistent, depending on what you read. <br />Don’t worry about it.<br />The fifth & final period of Indian Buddhism (6-7th cent CE)<br />Complex, multifaceted system evolved over centuries <br />Inconsistent and a variety of opinions. <br />Scriptures called the Tantras. <br />Heavy on ritual<br />Combined with indigenous beliefs (Bon) became basis for Tibetan Buddhism<br />Complexity of Tibetan Buddhism drawn comparisons to Roman Catholicism<br />Taxonomy as mnemonics<br />
    10. 10. History of Tibetan Buddhism (in a nutshell)“One is all for religion until one visits a really religious country. Then, one is all for drains, machinery and a minimum wage.” - Aldous Huxley<br />Part I: Introduction<br />NyatriTsenpo - supposedly first king of Tibet circa 200BCE. Roughly 42 Tibetan emperors (“Tsenpo”), of which only a dozen can be historically verified.<br />7th Cent: King SongtsenGampodevelops Tibetan writing system & may have established the first Buddhist monasteries. After his death associated with the bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara.<br />King TrisongDetsey (TrisongDetsen) founds Samye, the first monastery in Tibet<br />First Tibetan Buddhist teacher is Padmasambhava (a.ka. Padmakara) he established the Nyingma school. First Transmission – Nyngma school<br />Rough patch: King Langdarma (Lang Darama)(838-42) tried to suppress Buddhism & reinstitute Bon. Assassinated by a Buddhist monk (with the murder considered compassionate since it prevented the King from acquiring any more negative karma! Event celebrated by the “Black Hat” dance.<br />However, the Tibetan empire falls about for roughly 400 years<br />13th Cent: Tibet becomes part of Mongol Empire; Emperor Kublai Khan very taken by Tibetan Sakya clan<br />17th Century: Tibet unified under the Geluk Dalai Lama<br />18th-20th Centuries: Complex politics with Chinese, British & Russian empires; semi-vassal to China; lots of infighting among 4 major schools<br />1912-1949 Independent nation but closed off theocracy;<br />1950: Chinese invasion; loses independence with 17 Point Agreement in 1951<br />Diaspora & genocide<br />
    11. 11. Tibetan Buddhist Schools - Nyingma<br />Part I: Introduction<br />Nyingma – “old school” <br />Traces its roots to founding of Buddhism in Tibet. <br />Relies on “termas” (hidden teachings) which apparently can literally be teachings hidden under a rock somewhere but are usually just somebody claiming that they received the “hidden teachings” in their head.<br />Wear red hats. <br />Most non-political; into Dzogchen<br />Uses scriptures from the “first diffussion/tranmission”<br />The school most closely affiliated with Bon, the previous religion of Tibet.<br />
    12. 12. Tibetan School #2 - Kagyu<br />Part I: Introduction<br />Kagyu – a “new school” - oral language school of second diffussion<br />Multiple branches and subsects (too many to count)<br />This school is into oral traditions, guru transmission, mahamudratantra & Primordial Buddha<br />Use the “new translation” and wear red hats.<br />Spiritual leader is the Karmapa (currently in dispute)<br />Many Tibetan Buddhist sects place primary importance on the guru-student relationship as essential to spiritual attainment and frown upon just relying on scriptures. Consequently, oral transmission lineage (so-and-so taught so-and-so) is very important . It’s also usually made up.<br />The student is supposed to follow the guru’s instructions unquestioningly. The student is encouraged to think it’s his imperfections and not the guru’s shortcomings that cause problems in the relationship, sort of a “Daddy drinks because you cry” logic.<br />
    13. 13. Tibetan School #3 - Sakya<br />Part I: Introduction<br />The“Gray Earth” “new school” <br />Founded by KhonKonchogGyalpo in the 12th Century. <br />Gained prominence under Kublai Khan<br />Into scholarly traditions, especially the HevajraTantra<br />Uses the “new translation” and wear red hats. <br />They have (or had) six main monasteries, including DorjeDrak.<br />
    14. 14. Tibetan School #4 - Geluk/Gelug/Gelukpa<br />Part I: Introduction<br /><ul><li>A“new school”
    15. 15. GandenTripa = spiritual head
    16. 16. Dalai Lama = temporal leader.
    17. 17. Order was founded in the 14th century by Je Tsongkhapa (TsongKhapa), based on a school of teaching called the Kadampa.
    18. 18. Into Madyamaka & Prajnayaparmita texts
    19. 19. Use the “new translation” and wear yellow hats.</li></ul>An Alternate Approach<br />“Rime” – a non-secretarian movement of late 19th Century with a universalist approach to the doctrines. Non-dogmatic. Created to counter the “my teaching is better than your teaching” rivalries of major Tibetan schools<br />
    20. 20. Part II: Who’s Who<br />A Who’s Who of Tibetan Buddhism:Part II: Buddhas<br />
    21. 21. Shakyamuni Buddha<br />THE Buddha – i.e. Mr. With-It who lived in India in 600 B.C.<br />“Sakya” – his clan name; “Sakyamuni” – sage of the Sakyas<br />Touching mudrā (right hand pointed downward over the right leg, palm inward) is reserved for a seated Śākyamuni alone.<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Buddhas<br />
    22. 22. Maitreya- The Future Buddha<br />Will arrive after the present Buddha cycle dies out<br />Dwells in Tushita heaven<br />Usually drawn sitting down<br />Hands usually in teaching mudra<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Buddhas<br />
    23. 23. Samantabhadra – “The Primordial Buddha”(Kagyu and Gelug schools = Vajradhara) a.k.a. Adibuddha, Vajrasattva<br />Primordial Buddha; also considered a Boddhisattva<br />Patron of the Lotus Stutra<br />Girlfriend is Samantabhadri (Sambatabadri) ; together they are wisdom & selflessness<br />Essence of our own <br />Adi-Buddha of Indestructible Blue Light <br />Lord of all mysteries & master of all secrets; purified of emotional defilements; ultimate personification of all the Buddhas<br />Conquers all evil spirits who are the enemies of Buddhism<br />Manages the 8 Dharmapalas<br />Usually depicted naked because he is beyond all attributes<br />Manifestation of Padmasambhava<br />Associated with Vairocana<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Buddhas<br />Vajradhara means “Thunderbolt holder”<br />
    24. 24. Buddha Vajradharma/Varjadharma<br />Represents the speech of the Buddhas<br />Hands crossed at the heart holding a vajra and bell<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Buddhas<br />
    25. 25. The Medicine Buddha<br />Also comes in 8 flavors<br />Embodies healing qualities of all the Buddhas; conquers disease and delusion<br />Right hand holds myrobalan plant, which can heal both physical and mental ailments<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Buddhas<br />
    26. 26. The 5 Buddhas/Buddha Families (A.k.a. the 5 Wisdom Buddhas, Dhyani [Esoteric or Meditation] Buddhas, etc.)<br />Used in Buddhist psychology<br />Represent mental constructs, emotions and physical aspects<br />Considered related – “the principles are relatives, and the relatives are principles” – C. Trungpa.<br />Each has a different gang sign, direction, animal, color & specific moment in the Buddha’s life<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Buddhas<br />Amitabha<br />Ratnasambhava<br />Akshobhya<br />Amoghasiddhi<br />Vairochana<br />
    27. 27. The 5 Buddhas – 1. Vairocana/VairochanaThe Illuminator, Queen of Space<br />Buddha Family: Buddha<br />Allows the true nature of things to appear<br />Wisdom: Accommodating<br />Neurosis: Ignorance<br />Aggregate (Skanda): Form<br />Action: Teaching<br />Symbol: Wheel<br />Element: Space<br />Color: White (sometimes blue)<br />Season: N/A<br />Direction: Center<br />Mudra: Teaching wheel<br />Lover: Locana or Dhatvishvari (space)<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Buddhas<br />Represents the first time the Buddha taught – “setting the dharma wheel in motion”<br />Note: The <br />correspondences at right may vary depending on the tradition and the specific tantra<br />
    28. 28. The 5 Buddhas – 2. Akshobya(Akshobhya) The Unshakable One or Soul Mirror<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Buddhas<br />Buddha Family: Vajra<br />Purpose: Transforms anger into wisdom<br />Wisdom: Reflective<br />Neurosis: Hatred<br />Aggregate (Skanda): Consciousness<br />Action: Protecting/destroying<br />Symbol: Vajra<br />Element: Water<br />Color : Blue<br />Season: Winter<br />Direction: East<br />Mudra: Earth touching (except apparently in this picture)<br />Girlfriend: Mamaki (water)<br />
    29. 29. The 5 Buddhas – 3. Amitabha Buddha Infinite Light, Discriminating Wisdom<br />Buddha Family: Lotus or Padma<br />Purpose: Transforms desire, empowers<br />Wisdom: Discriminating awareness<br />Neurosis: Desire<br />Aggregate (Skanda): Perception<br />Action: Magnetizing<br />Symbol: Lotus flower<br />Element: Fire<br />Color: Red<br />Season: Spring<br />Direction: West<br />Mudra: Dhyanai.e.Meditation (thumb-touching)<br />Lover: Pandara/Pandaravasini<br />Main Buddha worshipped by the Pure Land sect; bestows long life; represents gentleness, purity, etc. ; lives in Sukhāvatī realm<br />Used to be a bodhisattva named Dharmakāra.<br />Throne supported by peacocks, who can supposedly swallow poisonous snakes without harm<br />
    30. 30. The 5 Buddhas – 4. RatnasambhavaSource of Preciousness, Buddha Gem, Born from the Jewel or Giving Buddha<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Buddhas<br />Each Buddha may also have a set of attendants. For example, Ratnasambhava attendants are Samanthabhadra, <br />Akashagarbha, <br />Mala & Dhupa<br />Buddha Family: Ratna<br />Purpose: Transforms pride into equinamity<br />Wisdom: Equanimity<br />Neurosis: Greed/Pride<br />Aggregate (Skanda): Feeling<br />Action: Enriching<br />Symbol: Jewel, Wish-fulfilling gem<br />Element: Earth<br />Color: Yellow<br />Season: Fall<br />Direction: South<br />Mudra: Giving<br />Lover: Vajradhatvisvari or Buddhalochana or Mamaki<br />Throne supported by horses<br />
    31. 31. The 5 Buddhas – 5. AmoghasiddhiLord of Karma, Buddha of Unfailing Success <br />Buddha family: Karma<br />Purpose: Transforms jealousy<br />Wisdom: Accomplishing<br />Neurosis: Envy<br />Aggregate (Skanda): Action<br />Symbol: Sword/Double vajra<br />Element: Air/Wind<br />Color: Green<br />Season: Summer<br />Direction: North<br />Mudra: Fearlessness<br />Lover: MahaArya Tara or Samayatara<br />Spiritual Emanation is Visvapani<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Buddhas<br />Rides on Garuda, the half-man, half-eagle creature who eats snakes<br />
    32. 32. BodhisattvasOne who is awake<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Bodhisattvas<br />Metaphor for Buddhist qualities<br />Vows to postpone enlightenment until all beings are free<br />Classified according to various gradations of enlightenment<br />Object of veneration, aspiration, etc.<br />Approachable; can intercede on behalf of humans<br />Sometimes fuzzy distinction with Buddhas<br />
    33. 33. Amitayus<br />Related to Amitabha (Infinite Light Buddha)<br />A.k.a Buddha of Eternal Life<br />Holds vase with elixir of life<br />Lives in Sukhavati, the Pure Land in the west<br />Often used as a Yidam<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Bodhisattvas<br />Buddhas/Bodhisattva clothing & jewelry are based on ancient Indian royalty costume; Buddhas are portrayed as kings and boddhisattvas as princes/princesses<br />
    34. 34. Avalokiteshvara (a.k.a. Chenrezig)Lotus Holder, Lord of World, Lord of Six Syllables, Lord of Speech, Lord who Looks Down, etc.<br />Bodhisattva that embodies the compassion of all the Buddhas. <br />Holds a lotus. <br />Postponed his own enlightenment until all sentient beings are liberated. <br />Mantra is Om Mani Padme Hum. <br />Sometimes depicted with 11 heads (so he can see in all directions) and a thousand arms (so he can lend a helping hand to everyone).<br />Goddess Guan Yin sometimes describes as female form<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Bodhisattvas<br />Standing means he operates in our world<br />Has different manifestations, depending on the realm:<br />God: IndraShatakratu<br />Jealous God: Vemachitra<br />Human: Shakyamuni<br />Animal: Dhruvasimha<br />Ghost: Jvalamukha “Flame Mouth”<br />Hell: Dharmaraja (“Dharma King”)<br />
    35. 35. Manjushri<br />Bodhisattva of wisdom<br />Sword cuts through ignorance<br />Holds lotus containing book Prajnaparmita Sutra<br />Also comes in white flavor<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Bodhisattvas<br />
    36. 36. NamgyalmaThe Crowned Mother Buddha<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Bodhisattvas<br />Three faces and eight arms<br />White body represents protection from disasters<br />Blue face – defeat of devils; Yellow face longevity<br />What’s up with the ’70’s rainbow tights?<br />Symbolizes the ability to manifest in this world, or multiple worlds; also probably relates to the concept of a multi-elemental “rainbow body”<br />
    37. 37. Prajnaparamita<br />Not just a sutra, but a goddess of wisdom<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Bodhisattvas<br />
    38. 38. TaraMother of Protected Wisdom; Mother of the Buddhas, Mother of Liberation<br />Origins in Hindu mythology as a mother goddess<br />Approachable; could be prayed to without the help of a lama or monk<br />Feminine enlightenment<br />Bodhisattva, comes in several forms<br />Female aspect of Avalokitesvara, born of his tears<br />Compassion & action<br />Om Tare TuttareTureSoha (mantra)<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Bodhisattvas<br />
    39. 39. Tara – Green TaraMother of Liberation<br />Buddha of enlightened activity, the energy of compassion<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Bodhisattvas<br />Notice that right leg extended? Symbolizes the readiness to spring into action<br />
    40. 40. Tara – White Tara<br />Compassion, long life, healing and serenity; also known as The Wish-fulfilling Wheel, or Cintachakra<br />Maternal compassion<br />Healing<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Bodhisattvas<br />
    41. 41. Tara – Black Tara<br />Associated with power<br />Guardian of “the void”<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Bodhisattvas<br />
    42. 42. Tara – Yellow Tara<br />Wealth & Prosperity<br />Increases positive qualities<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Bodhisattvas<br />
    43. 43. Tara – Red Tara<br />Fierce, magnetizes things<br />Turns desire into love and compassion<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Bodhisattvas<br />
    44. 44. Tara – Blue Tara<br />Represents the transmutation of anger<br />Evokes for luck and quick spiritual awakening<br />Affiliated with Ekajati<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Bodhisattvas<br />What’s up with all the arms? Multiple appendages (arms, heads, etc.) symbolize sets of qualities & are a mnemonic device<br />
    45. 45. Tara - Cittamani Tara<br />Form used at the level of Highest Yoga Tantra in the Gelug School<br />Painted dark green<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Bodhisattvas<br />
    46. 46. Tara - The 21 Taras<br />Prayer/poem “In Praise of the 21 Taras” spoken each AM at all 4 Tibetan schools<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Bodhisattvas<br />
    47. 47. Tara - Khadiravani TaraTara of the Teak Forest<br />The “22nd Tara”<br />Appeared to Nagarjuna in the Khadiravani forest, south India <br />Part II: Who’s Who: Bodhisattvas<br />
    48. 48. VajrapaniHand Diamond, The Immovable One<br />One of the first bodhisattvas<br />Guardian of the Buddha; represents his power (Manjushri represents his wisdom and Avalokitesvara his compassion)<br />Also described as a manifestation of Vajradhara<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Bodhisattvas<br />
    49. 49. VajrasattvaBuddha of Diamond Wisdom<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Bodhisattvas<br /><ul><li> Associated with Samantabhadra
    50. 50. Lives in the Diamond Realm
    51. 51. Helps with preliminary practices
    52. 52. Popular in Nepal
    53. 53. Sometimes describes as the chief
    54. 54. of the 5 Buddha families</li></li></ul><li>Yidams, Herukas & Dharmapalas(oh my!) <br />Part II: Who’s Who: Yidams, Herukas & Dharmapalas<br />Yidam<br />Spiritual guide, Holy Guardian Angel, psychological archetype, personal protector, personal Buddha form, muse etc.<br />Used as a point of entry for a person’s practice into a specific tantra, e.g. a meditation focus<br />Guru will often assign a Yidam to a student based on their personal psychological makeup<br />Specific set of practices (sadhana) associated with each Yidam<br />Heruka:<br />“Wrathful diety” i.e. angry gods or manifestations of Buddhas/Bodhisattvas; The nuclear power of enlightenment<br />Mean’s “blood drinker” (blood usually a defilement)<br />Usually have 3 heads, 6 arms, 4 legs; each limb represents a power; also 9 moods<br />58 Variants in The Book of the Dead<br />The 5 main herukas have consorts & correspond to the 5 Buddha families<br />Also used as yidams<br />There are also “semi-wrathful” (moody?) variants<br />Represent compassion’s fierce determination to help people overcome obstacles.<br />Heruka is a being beyond conventional cause & effect<br />
    55. 55. Dharmapalas(and other Protectors)<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Yidams, Herukas & Dharmapalas<br />Basically 3 variants:<br />Dharmapalas/Dharmarajas – very enlightened, represent activities of the Buddhas, protect the Dharma; also described as mountain spirits tamed by Padmasambhava<br />Mahakala (many forms; a manifestation of Avalokiteshvara)<br />Yama – Lord of Death<br />Yamantaka(angry Manjushri)<br />Hayagriva(angry Avalokiteshvara with 108 flavors) <br />Vaisravana<br />Shri Devi (Manifestation of Manjushri)<br />Changpa<br />PranaAtma<br />(alternates: PaldenLhamo , Tshangs pa , Begtse, Kubera)<br />Lokapalas – protect teachers, monasteries, etc. Can exist in peaceful & wrathful forms; may also include the Four Guardian Kings (cardinal points)<br />Ksetrapalas – protect specific locations (a mountain, a house, etc.)<br />Evoked (invoked?) to assist us with certain practices<br />Also seen as aspects ouf our own mind<br />Note: There’s lots of cross-pollination between Herukas and Dharmapalas & variation in the list of protectors (e.g. some include Begtse, the God of War)<br />
    56. 56. ChakrasamvaraThe Great Defender; Shastradhara (Weapon Wielder) <br />Consort: Vajravarahi (or Nairatmya? )<br />4 faces; some accounts give him 17 heads in 5 rows<br /> 2, 12 or 70 arms<br />Often part blue, part green<br />Evokes to exorcise inner demons<br />The “Swiss Army Knife” of Tantric tools<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Yidams, Herukas & Dharmapalas<br />Note the “alidhasana” leg pose – one straight & one bent. Comes from classical Indian dance<br />
    57. 57. Kalachakra<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Yidams, Herukas & Dharmapalas<br />Yidam; also a complex form of Vajrayana practice; supposedly the practices Buddha gave to the “King of Shambala” DawaSangpo<br />Also refers to the scripture KalachakraTantra and its commentaries. <br />Incorporates astrology<br />Initiation ceremonies hosted by Dalai Lama<br />Most Tibetan initiation ceremonies are one-on-one affairs with the exception of the Kalachakra – in which literally thousands of initiates may be inducted at one time!<br />
    58. 58. Guhyasamaja<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Yidams, Herukas & Dharmapalas<br />Bodhisattva/” Tathagata Buddha” of the “GuhyasamajaTantra, Esoteric Community Tantra, one of the the 18 major Tantras of the Nyingma School and one of the oldest tantras ever<br />Girlfriend is Sparshavajra/Adhiprajna<br />Both have 1 blue, 1 red, 1 white head (3 heads can represent the 3 gateways to liberation, the 3 aspects of wakefulness, the transformation of the three poisons, etc)<br />Note the third eye; symbolizes spiritual awakening; insight that cuts through delusion; seeing into the past, present or future, etc.<br />
    59. 59. Samayavajra<br />Associated with Guhyasamajatantra<br />Supposed to purify one’s relationship with one’s spiritual guide<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Yidams, Herukas & Dharmapalas<br />Six arms can represent the 6 perfections<br />
    60. 60. Vajrayogini<br />“Diamond Female Yogi”<br />Generic Yidam/Female Buddha<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Yidams, Herukas & Dharmapalas<br />
    61. 61. YamantakaDeath Destroyer or Death Terminator<br />Aka Vajrabhairava<br />Emanation of Manjushri; myth of Man-j scaring death to death<br />A Dharmapāla (law protector)<br />Guardian of the south<br />Represents the courage to face death – both outer (physical) and inner (realization of non-dual reality) <br />Part II: Who’s Who: Yidams, Herukas & Dharmapalas<br />4 legs represent the trampling of the 4 maras<br />Note the skull filled with brains & eyes – represents the delusion of the senses<br />
    62. 62. Vishudda/Sri Samyak/Yangdak<br />Used in Tantric practic<br />Similar to Chakrasamvara<br />Associated with the 5th chakra (energy point)<br />Affiliated with Vajrapani<br />Also known as wrathful diety of mind<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Yidams, Herukas & Dharmapalas<br />
    63. 63. MahakalaThe Big Black One<br />A Dharmapāla (law protector); affiliated with Avalokiteshvara<br />Protects Buddhist monasteries and tents! <br />Has at least 3 variants (2,4 & 6 arms – depends on school)<br />Wears a skull crown<br />Mythology written by KhedrupKhyungpopa of the ShangpaKagyu tradition in the 11th century<br />Personal tutelary deity for the Mongol ruler Kublai Khan<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Yidams, Herukas & Dharmapalas<br />The 6 arms represent the 6 perfections<br />
    64. 64. Chodrygal (aka Kalarupa )<br /> King of the Dharma<br />Angry version of Manjushri<br />Conquers hindrances & removes inner or outer obstacles<br />Invoked in VajraVairabTantra practices in Highest Wisdom (Anuttarayoga) Tantra, used by the New Translation (Sarma) Schools<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Yidams, Herukas & Dharmapalas<br />
    65. 65. Yama(Tibetan: Gshin-rje) <br />Part II: Who’s Who: Yidams, Herukas & Dharmapalas<br />Lord of Death & Dharmapala<br />Keeps the wheel of life (samsara) spinning<br />Protector of the VajraVairab (Yamantaka) cycle of tantras<br />Buffalo head, 3 eyes, two horns; severed head necklace, etc.<br />Lives seven stories underground in Hell<br />Consort is Chamundi; offers him demon blood<br />First mortal to die, now guide and judge of the dead<br />Defeated by Yamantaka (Manjushri) <br />
    66. 66. Vaishravana<br />Chief of the Four Heavenly Kings; Guardian of the north<br />God of wealth<br />A Dharmapāla (law protector) but never presented in an angry form<br />Sits on blue snow lion<br />Holds mongoose spitting wish-fufilling jewels<br />Attendants: 4 queens, 4 princes, 8 mountain spirits (Yakashas), 8 nagas, 8 demons<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Yidams, Herukas & Dharmapalas<br />
    67. 67. Dakinis(Sky Walkers)<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Dakinis<br />Red Dakini - The Crimson Rose Skydancer<br />Black Dakini - The Dark Face of the Void <br />Blue Dakini - The Dancer on Ocean and Sky <br />White Dakini - The Snowflake of Shining Radiance <br />Golden Dakini -    The Golden Waterfall of Peace and Blessings <br />Emerald Dakini -   The Shining Green Star of Power <br />Vajrayogini - The Trauma Goddess <br />A Dakini is a female persona of enlightened energy; can also represent a type of consciousness<br />
    68. 68. More Wrathful Dakinis(cont.)<br />
    69. 69. Kurukulla (Rigjyedma)<br />Name means “The cause of knowledge”<br />Both 4 and 8 armed variants<br />Associated with a king of Uddiyana; also associated with Tara; possibly a pre-Buddhist goddess<br />Goddess of love, sex, & enchantment<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Dakinis<br />
    70. 70. Simhamukha a.k.a. SengeDongmaThe Lion-Faced Dakini<br />Manifestation of Padmasambhava<br />Associated with Nyingma, Dzogchen & Book of the Dead<br />Possibly considered a Bodhisattva<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Dakinis<br />Type of skirt:<br />Elephant skin – Strength overcoming delusion<br />Human skin – Compassion<br />Tiger skin – Taming aggression<br />
    71. 71. ThromaNagmo<br />Wrathful dakini<br />Feminine personification of wisdom<br />Associated with Chod<br />Possibly the Black dakini<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Dakinis<br />Five skull headdress:<br /><ul><li>Knowledge of the 5 buddhas
    72. 72. Liberation from the 5 poisons</li></li></ul><li>Lokpalas - The 4 Heavenly Kings<br />Buddhist superheros – fight evil, protect the world and the dharma<br />Also guard the cardinal points<br />Vaiśravaṇa (Vaishravana) Green; holds umbrella, snow weasel (see previous slide)<br />Virūḍhaka (Virudhaka) south<br />Dhṛtarāṣṭra (Dhritarashtra) East, white; plays lute<br />Virūpākṣa (Virupaksha) west – with snake<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Lokpalas<br />Virūḍhaka<br />Dhratastra<br />Virupaksa<br />
    73. 73. Yet more/alternate Gate Guardians<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Lokpalas<br />The eight guardians illustrate that there is no escaping the true nature of our own mind<br />There’s no escaping the fact that there are multiple variations in guardian sets!<br />
    74. 74. Dzambhala<br />Embodies the Wealth aspect of all the Buddhas<br />Name from “jambhara” (lemon!)<br />Grants longevity and prosperity in daily life<br />His pet mongoose spits out jewels<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Lokpalas<br />
    75. 75. Ekajati<br />Protector of secret mantras<br />Maternal grandmother of the Buddhas<br />Painted with only one breast<br />Guardian of the Dzogchen teachings<br />Associated with Blue Tara<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Lokpalas<br />Severed head necklace – usually 50 or 52 heads, represents 50 letters in Sanskrit, 52 mental factors, etc.<br />
    76. 76. The Cast of 1,000sBut wait! – there’s more…<br />Damchen - Tibetan mountain-spirits bound under oath to protect the Dharma by Padmasambhava; also known as a blacksmith protector<br />Vajra Maidens – <br />Vajramrita -  The Essence of Flowing Nectar <br />Vajralasi -   The Essence of Laughter and Wonder <br />Vajradhupa - The Essence of Clear Sweetness Amidst Clouds <br />Vajravarahi - The Essence of Abundance and Fertility <br />Vajragiti - The Essence of Crystalline Song <br />Rakshasa – flesh eating, blood drinking spirit<br />Gandharvas– supernatural beings affiliated with moon. Have strange powers over women. From Indian mythology.<br />Yakashas– mountain spirits<br />The Three Worldly Deities - MamoBötong , JiktenChötö , MöpaDrakngak<br />PaldenLhamo - Protectress of Tibet; sometimes described as a Dharmapala<br />Part II: Who’s Who: Various<br />GarwaiNagpo – Damchen/worldly protector<br />
    77. 77. People“A one-l lama is a priest, a two-l llama is a beast”<br />Lama means “guru” or spiritual master<br />Rinpoche – means “precious one” or “dear” – similar to “Mr.”<br />Geshe –Tibetan Buddhist advanced degree title; similar to “Professor” or “Dr.”<br />Siddha – a perfected master<br />Tulku – a reincarnated master (or bodhisattva)<br />Part III: People<br />
    78. 78. Atisha(980-1054)<br />Buddhist teacher from the Pala Empire; former Abbot of Vikramashila Monastery<br />Along with KonchogGyalpo and Marpa, was one of the major figures in the re-establishment of Buddhism in Tibet<br />Created method of attaining enlightenment called Lamrim<br />Part III: People<br />
    79. 79. Dalai Lama<br />Name means “Ocean of Wisdom”<br />The embodiment of the Bodhisattva of Compassion. <br />DrepungMonastery is supposed to be his seat<br />Current is the 14th (b.1935)<br />Part III: People<br />
    80. 80. Panchen Lama<br />Second highest llama in the Gelupa sect<br />Responsible for finding the reincarnation of the Dalai Lama<br />10thPanchen Llama attempted to accommodate Communist China (thus we don’t hear much about him)<br />11thPanchen Lama is in dispute; the Dalai Lama-appointed version is MIA since 1995. The Chinese appointed their own version (See left)<br />Part III: People<br />10thPanchen Lama<br />11thPanchen Lama<br />(missing; in “protective custody”)<br />11thPanchen Lama<br />(appointed by Chinese <br />Communists)<br />
    81. 81. Gampopa(1079-1153)<br />Physician from Dagpo region in Kham<br />Top student of Milarepa. <br />Established the Kagyu school<br />Author of the Samadhiraja Sutra<br />Part III: People<br />
    82. 82. JigtenSumgon(1143-1217)<br />Founder of the DrigungKagyu School<br />Part III: People<br />
    83. 83. Je Tsongkapa(1357–1419)LobsangDrakpa a.k.a. Je Rinpoche i.e. The Man from Onion Valley<br />Helped found the Geluk school<br />Teaching emphasis on<br />Union of Sutra & Tantra<br />Monastic vows (Vinaya)<br />Part III: People<br />
    84. 84. LongchenRabjampa(1308 – 1369) <br />Nyingma school teacher<br />Associated with Manjushri<br />Abbot of Samye<br />Wrote book “The Seven Treasures,” a distillation of 600 years of Buddhist thought<br />Part III: People<br />
    85. 85. MachigLabdron(1055- 1149) <br />Famous female Buddhist yogi who created the Chod practices<br />Part III: People<br />
    86. 86. Marpa(1012-1097)<br />Monk who translated the Vajrayana and Mahamudra texts into Tibetan<br />Part III: People<br />
    87. 87. Milarepa(1052—c. 1135)<br />Bad dude; killed his family with black magic; then had a change of heart<br />Milarepa taught by Marpa, who was taught by Naropa<br />Marpa made him to physical labor before giving him teaching<br />Practiced alone in a cave for 11 months<br />Practiced alone for 12 years; skin turned green from eating nettles.<br />Famous for his poetry<br />Part III: People<br />
    88. 88. Nagarjuna(ca. 150-250 CE)<br />Indian monk<br />Founder of Mahayaha Buddhism<br />Not much known about him<br />Name of famous Bollywood actor (b.1959)<br />Part III: People<br />
    89. 89. Naropa(1016-1100 C.E.)<br />Kashmiri Bramin convert to Buddhism; Professor at Nalanda University<br />Studied under Tilopa<br />Monk who created the crash-course, single-lifetime accelerated method of enlightenment, described in his Six Yogas of Naropa.<br />Part III: People<br />
    90. 90. GarabDorje(184 BC – 57 AD)<br />- An early yogin and tantric <br />His life story full of miraculous events and powers; Tibetans think of him as a historical figure<br />Part III: People<br />
    91. 91. Padmasambhava(Guru Rinpoche, Lotus Born)8th century<br />From Swat Valley, Pakistan<br />Brought Tantric Buddhism (Vajrayana) to Tibet & Bhutan; father figure to Tibetan Buddhism<br />Founded the Nyngma school & Samye monastery<br />Convinced local Bon deities to serve the Dharma<br />Created practice of Dzogchen<br />Has 8 manifestations (plus others), for the 8 important things he did/stages of psychological preparation<br />Vajradhara of Urgayana (Oddiyana) <br />King Padmaraja<br />King LodenChogsay<br />Suryaprabha<br />Rdor-je-gro-lod (Vajradamodara) <br />Guru Drakpo<br />The monk Indrasena<br />Buddha Shakyasimha<br />Supposedly foretold that Tibet would be overrun by the Chinese<br />Part III: People<br />
    92. 92. Padmasambhava(as Guru Vajradhara Father-Mother, i.e. Guru Vajradhara of Urgayana [Oddiyana] )<br />Urgayana [Oddiyana] = area of Afghanistan/Pakistan <br />Blue body, portrayed as Bodhisattva in Yab-Yum pose<br />Right hand embraces girlfriend & holds a Vajra; left hand holds a vajra-ghanta<br />Wears Bodhisattva outfit<br />Part III: People<br />
    93. 93. Padmasambhava(as King Padmaraja)<br />King of Oddiyana<br />Red body, holds drum (damarau, symbolizes impermanence) and mirror (sight)<br />Royal cloths & horses head<br />Note auspicious offerings at his feet, boneyard, wild animal surrounded by disciples<br />Part III: People<br />
    94. 94. Padmasambhava(as King LodenChogsay)<br />Mirror in right hand, skull cup in left<br />Phurpa (dagger) tied on his stomach<br />Pink halo & golden crown<br />Throne covered in flowers<br />Conveyor of knowledge to all worlds<br />Part III: People<br />
    95. 95. Padmasambhava(as Suryaprabha, i.e. Rays of the Sun)<br />Illustrates his life as a yogi who practiced in a graveyard<br />Mt. Potalastupa in background<br />His staff (khatvanga) has a trident (control over 3 channels of nervous system) 3 heads (transmutation of death)<br />Left hand in threat mudra<br />Surrounded by Nyngma lamas (bottom right & top) Chinese flying god (upper right) two seated siddhas and a consort<br />Part III: People<br />
    96. 96. Padmasambhava(as Rdo-rje-gro-lod [Vajradamodara] )<br />Form he took in Bhutan to subdue the local demons<br />Affiliated with Vishnu<br />Consort is the Mon princess TashiKyidren, portrayed as a flying tiger <br />Note vajra, dagger, severed head necklance and appearing on a river of blood<br />Part III: People<br />
    97. 97. Padmasambhava(as Guru Drakpo/DorjeTrolo)<br />Fierce manifestation of Guru Rinpoche, represents “crazy wisdom”<br />Often painted holding a black scorpion, symbol of neurotic sin<br />Stands on two corpses on lotus throne, holds a holds a vajra; tiger belt, skull garland, etc.<br />Part III: People<br />
    98. 98. Padmasambhava(as OrgyenMenlha)<br />The “Unsurpassable Great Healer of Mind”<br />Affiliated with the Medicine Buddha<br />Manifestation as healer<br />Part III: People<br />
    99. 99. Tilopa(988 – 1069)<br />Indian yogi who experienced original transmission of the Mahamudra (“Great Seal” advanced meditation practice)<br />Helped found Karma Kagyu school<br />Part III: People<br />
    100. 100. YesheTsogyal(757-817)The Great Bliss Queen<br />Semi-mythical<br />Yab-Yum consort to Padmasambhava<br />Important to the Nyingma school<br />Part III: People<br />
    101. 101. Scriptures<br />Sutra – originally meant a saying by the Buddha<br />Lotus Sutra<br />Wisdom Sutra<br />Diamond Sutra<br />Heart Sutra<br />Tantra – Ritual instructions<br />Commentaries, rituals, instructions, observations<br />Fourfold Innermost Essence (for Dzogchen)<br />Estimated 4,800 Indian Buddhist texts translated into Tibetan (a number that means “a whole lot”)<br />Part IV: Scriptures<br />
    102. 102. Prajnaparamita SutrasThe Perfection of Wisdom in 8,000 Lines<br />Part IV: Scriptures<br />One of the earliest sets of Mahayana sutras<br />Manjushri holds a copy<br />Heart Sutra & Diamond Sutra are subcomponents<br />Lots of variations; more of a class of literature than a single text<br />
    103. 103. The Book of the Dead“a.k.a. Liberation through Hearing”<br />One of first Tibetan religious books published in West<br />Describes the death process and what to do in order to use it as a method to reach enlightenment<br />One of various methods = “Liberation through Wearing,” etc.<br />Part IV: Scriptures<br />Mind<br />I. DharmakayaBardo<br />II. SambhogakayaBardo<br />Vairochana<br />Akshibhya<br />Ratnasambhave<br />Amitabha<br />Amoghasiddi<br />57 deities of mental formations<br />III. NirmanakayaBardo“The Bardo of Becoming”<br />Collapse &<br />Separate <br />at death<br />Body<br />
    104. 104. Symbolism & Holy Objects<br />Part V: Symbolism & Holy Objects<br />Dorje (Bell): Wisdom/Truth of/in emptiness/Female<br />Vajra: Short metal weapon that has the symbolic nature of a diamond-thunderbolt. Symbol for method, clarity, stability, male, but overall enlightenment<br />Double-vajra: change<br />Drum (often a skull) <br />Crowns, necklaces, etc.<br />Mudra – position of hands<br /><ul><li>Sword - Cuts through delusion.
    105. 105. Flags, standards and banners : Victory of Buddhist teaching over ignorance
    106. 106. An elephant goad or ankh: Taming desires.
    107. 107. Spears: Pins down.
    108. 108. Club/Mace: Crushes opposition
    109. 109. Bow & arrows: Causing action at a distance
    110. 110. Trident: Three Jewels.
    111. 111. A lasso: Constrain negative forces. </li></li></ul><li>The 8 Auspicious Symbols<br />Parasol – protection from suffering<br />Wheel – 8-fold path; the dharma<br />Endless knot – the truth of dependent origination<br />Victory banner – triumph over ignorance<br />Two fishes – liberation from the sea of Samsara<br />Treasure vase – endless spiritual jewels<br />Lotus – Compassion & purity<br />Conch shell – proclaims the Buddha’s awakening<br />Part V: Symbolism & Holy Objects<br />
    112. 112. The 8 Offerings<br />Wheel (8-fold path)<br />Jewel (true wealth, generosity)<br />Queen<br />Minister<br />Elephant<br />Horse<br />General<br />Treasure Vase<br />Part V: Symbolism & Holy Objects<br />
    113. 113. Stupa (Chorten)<br />Originally a monument that held a Buddhist relic (Buddha’s toe bone, etc.)<br />Symbol of wisdom<br />The compassionate eyes of the Buddha watching the world — &quot;We cannot hide from our karma.&quot;<br />Part V: Symbolism & Holy Objects<br />
    114. 114. Yab Yum<br />Part V: Symbolism & Holy Objects<br />Sexual union<br />Combination of wisdom & compassion (or method & wisdom), awareness and voidness; the union of complimentary states<br />Father/Mother as opposed to lover/lover<br />However, the inspiration for lots of Western projections about “Tantric Sex!”<br />
    115. 115. Mandala<br />Part V: Symbolism & Holy Objects<br />Means Circle; sacred image of the universe<br />Architectural blueprint of 4 Island continents/palaces with Mt. Meru at center<br />Our bodies/minds are mandalas<br />Used in ritual or as a meditation object; also symbol for alms boxes, mudras, sand paintings etc.<br />Sand Mandalas most famous<br />Ring of fire: Prevents the uninitiated entry into the mysteries; also represents the burning away of impurities<br />Ring of diamond thunderbolts: Cuts through ignorance<br />Ring of lotus petals – Spiritual vision<br />A Mandala has 4 sides, each with a specific color, palace, etc.<br />
    116. 116. The Gelupa Refuge Tree<br />Basically it’s a “family tree” or a genealogy chart of past spiritual teachers<br />Represents the “mindstream” of a lineage<br />Tsongkapa (founder of the Gelug Order) in the center<br />Madhyamika and the Yogacara sub-schools from the rainbows; <br />Bodhisattvas and tulkus directly above Tsongkapa<br />Below Tsongkapa, from bottom to top: the four lokpalas (guard cardinal points) dharampalas (Teaching Protectors) dakinis, 35 confessional buddhas, then 4 rows of Tantradieties<br />Top of picture are Shakyamuni and MaitreyaBuddhas, each in their respective heaven<br />Sort of a continuum/unity in diversity theme<br />Part V: Symbolism & Holy Objects<br />
    117. 117. Wheel of Life<br />Part V: Symbolism & Holy Objects<br />Buddhist Cosmology<br />Foundation of dualistic/ego thinking<br />Yama’s job is to keep the wheel of Samsara spinning. Note how he is holding up a mirror to your karma<br />Yama, Lord of Death<br />The three poisons <br />5/6 realms of existence<br />Cycle (12 stages) of dependent origination<br />
    118. 118. Practices<br />Prayer wheels<br />Prayer Flags “the wind horse with a wish-fufilling jewel on its back”<br />Prostrations – method to overcome negative karma (climb a mountain by doing 100,000 prostrations)<br />Tonglen – “in with the bad air, out with the good air”<br />Mantra Om Mani Padme Hum (“The Jewel in the Lotus”)<br />Meditation – helps you abandon delusion<br />Calm abiding meditation (still the mountain lake) then <br />Insight Meditation (clear the muck out)<br />Mahamudra (“Great Seal”)<br />Mahasandi (“Great Perfection”)<br />Bodhichitta – awakened heart<br />Retreats – some lasting up to three years!<br />Part VI: Practices<br />
    119. 119. Part VI: Practices<br />Tantra<br />Basically, “practice” – a Grab-bag of esoteric ideas & activities (many based on Hindu rituals) about how to communicate with the divine – lots of different versions in India and throughout Asia<br />System based on series of initiations given by a Guru – not supposed to practice without guidance; supposed to be secret & esoteric<br />Infuse reality with the divine rather than reject it<br />Practices include mantras, breath control, visualization, chakras, mandalas, ritual (including sex), possibly use of hallucinogens<br />Also described as practice plus insight plus compassion<br />Can also be classified as “father,” “mother” or “non-dual” tantras – the latter use anger and desire to eliminate delusion<br />Written in “SandhyaBhashya” – twilight language or metaphor code, similar to alchemy<br />“New School” Tantras:<br />Kriyayoga (Ritual)<br />Charyayoga (Conduct)<br />Yogatantra (Union)<br />Anuttarayogatantra (highest yoga “aware of the body’s winds” or “unexcelled, continuous union”)<br />Guhyasamaja (Esoteric Community)<br />Yamantanka (Death Conqueror) a.k.a. Vajrabhairava (Diamond Terrorist)<br />Hevajra (O Diamond)<br />Mahamaya (Great Play of Illusion)<br />Cakrasamvara (Wheel of Great Bliss)<br />“Old School” Tantras<br />Outer<br />Kriyayoga<br />Charyayoga<br />Yogatantra<br />Inner<br />Mahayoga (visualization) <br />Anuyoga<br />Atiyoga (Tib. Dzogchen) subcomponents Mental, Spatial & Esoteric<br />Lots of differing yanas and yogas, depending on the material<br />
    120. 120. DzogchenThe Great Perfection, Supercompleteness<br />Practice introduced by Padmasambhava<br />Purpose is to get one to the “primordial state” of awareness, i.e. remain “in the clear” in “non-dual contemplation”<br />Doesn’t require special place or equipment<br />Includes activities such as sky gazing, active dreaming & lots of silent meditation<br />Usually done in context of the guru-disciple relationship<br />Part VI: Practices<br />
    121. 121. ChodCutting through the Ego<br />Based on the Prajnaparnita Sutra<br />Set of practices around dissolving the ego via self sacrifice<br />Hang out in graveyards & imagine yourself being eaten by ghosts in a “tantric feast” (ganachakra)<br />Citti Patti death dance – about the impermanence of life<br />Part VI: Practices<br />
    122. 122. Chakras<br />Spiritual/Physical energy points in the body<br />Four main chakras (as opposed to Indian 7) with complex set of correspondences<br />Related to 5 elements (earth, air, fire, water, spirit)<br />System used in both spiritual practices and traditional healthcare<br />Part VI: Practices<br />
    123. 123. Thank You!<br />May all sentient beings enjoy happinessand the root of happiness. <br />May they be free from sufferingand the root of suffering. <br />May they not be separatedfrom great happiness free of suffering. <br />May they dwell in great equanimity, free from passion, aggression and prejudice.<br />