Unit 205 Materials Arising from the Recycling Industry

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  • 1. 7517 Principles of Sustainable Resource Management Unit 205 Know the materials arising within the waste and recycling industry
  • 2. Outcome for the unit  Just one... Know the materials arising within the industry
  • 3.  Types of waste:  Controlled, e.g. household, commercial  Hazardous  Biological  Biodegradable  Active  Inert Waste types
  • 4. Controlled waste:  Household materials  Dry recycled  Paper and cardboard  Garden material  Residual waste  Commercial material  Same as above
  • 5. Hazardous materials:  Materials that could cause harm to peoples health or the environment, either immediately or over a period of time  E.g. Lead acid batteries, fluorescent tubes, some paints, inks, powders, chemicals, radioactive material...
  • 6. Biological material:  Material that contains or has been contaminated by a biohazardous agent.  Biological waste includes:  surgical dressings  Syringes & needles  blood vials  absorbent material  personal protective equipment
  • 7. Biodegradable material:  Broken down by micro organisms into its base compounds.  Foods  Organic waste  Biodegradable plastics  Human waste Ideal treatment is composting rather than landfill
  • 8. Active and Inert materials:  Active materials normally from the building trades and include:  Piping and plastics  Wood an ductwork  Products which will continue to decay but not break down  Inert materials are normally from the building trade:  Most forms of concrete  brick  glass  soil  clay and gravel
  • 9. Waste facilities  Not all sites can accept all types of waste  Site permit will restrict the types of material for disposal, for example:  Gypsum/plasterboard (high sulphate content)  Asbestos  If in doubt, check...
  • 10. Waste Hierarchy  Prevention  Using less material in design and manufacture.  Keeping products for longer; re-use.  Using less hazardous material.  Preparing for re-use  Checking, cleaning, repairing, refurbishing, repair,  whole items or spare parts.  Recycling  Turning waste into a new substance or product.  Includes composting if it meets quality protocols.  Other Recovery  Including anaerobic digestion, incineration with  energy recovery, gasification and pyrolysis which  produce energy (fuels, heat and power) and  materials from waste; some backfilling operations.  Disposal  Landfill and incineration without energy recovery.
  • 11. Research exercise:  Group 1  Research the Household Waste Recycling Act 2003  EU Landfill Directive  Group 2  Research what can be produced from recycling: paper, cardboard, cans, plastic containers, glass and tyres  Group 3  Research: In-vessel composting, Windrow composting and anaerobic digestion
  • 12. Recycling..  Household Waste Recycling Act 2003  Waste collection authorities to collect at least two types of recyclable waste from all households  To increase recycling rates  Contributed to the rates we have today
  • 13. EU Landfill Directive  The Directive's overall aim is "to prevent or reduce as far as possible negative effects on the environment, in particular the pollution of surface water, groundwater, soil and air, and on the global environment, including the greenhouse effect, as well as any resulting risk to human health, from the landfilling of waste, during the whole life-cycle of the landfill".
  • 14. EU Landfill Directive  Change in the way we dispose of waste in this country and will help drive waste up the hierarchy through waste minimisation and increased levels of re-use, recycling and energy recovery.
  • 15. Recycling materials into..... Paper  More paper, depending on quality – 7 times Cardboard  Paper, jiffy bags, loft insulation, car bodies, packaging, animal bedding, coffins Cans  New cans, car and aviation , bike frames, train tracks, pipes. Never loses quality Plastics  new bottles, car parts, bins, home composters . It can also be used to make clothing such as fleece jackets and hats or fibre filling for sleeping bags and duvets. Plastic milk bottles are used in street and garden furniture Glass  Reused where possible (brown, clear) or crushed and turned into fine sand to be used as building sand, if processed further can be used as floor and wall insulation and lightweight construction aggregate. Tyres  Surfaces for playgrounds, shock absorption, car parts, retreads, fuel, mulch for landscaping, 3G sports pitches
  • 16. In-vessel Composting  Used to treat food and garden waste mixtures  Closed environment, temperature controlled  Introduced to ensure that all meat and other products of animal origin meet the treatment standard required to guarantee the protection of the environment and human health.  Natural bacteria breaks down the material
  • 17. Windrow Composting  Open air composting  Garden waste  Mainly of organic and biodegradable materials associated with the agricultural industry  Cannot be used for organic materials generated by the catering trade or from animal waste by law
  • 18. Anaerobic Digestion  Break down of biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen  Methanogen micro-organisms break down the garden and food waste  Source of renewable energy – Biogas  Biofertiliser, which is rich in nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and other elements required for healthy plant growth and fertile soil.