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7517 Principles of
Unit 205 Know the materials
arising within the waste and
Outcome for the unit
Know the materials arising within
Types of waste:
Controlled, e.g. household, commercial
Paper and cardboard
Same as above
Materials that could cause harm to
peoples health or the environment,
either immediately or over a period of
E.g. Lead acid batteries, fluorescent
tubes, some paints, inks, powders,
chemicals, radioactive material...
Material that contains or has been
contaminated by a biohazardous
Biological waste includes:
Syringes & needles
personal protective equipment
Broken down by micro organisms
into its base compounds.
Ideal treatment is composting
rather than landfill
Active and Inert materials:
normally from the
building trades and
Piping and plastics
Wood an ductwork
Products which will
continue to decay but
not break down
Inert materials are normally
from the building trade:
Most forms of concrete
clay and gravel
Not all sites can accept all
types of waste
Site permit will restrict the
types of material for disposal,
(high sulphate content)
If in doubt, check...
Waste Hierarchy Prevention
Using less material in design and manufacture.
Keeping products for longer; re-use.
Using less hazardous material.
Preparing for re-use
Checking, cleaning, repairing, refurbishing, repair,
whole items or spare parts.
Turning waste into a new substance or product.
Includes composting if it meets quality protocols.
Including anaerobic digestion, incineration with
energy recovery, gasification and pyrolysis which
produce energy (fuels, heat and power) and
materials from waste; some backfilling operations.
Landfill and incineration without energy recovery.
Research the Household Waste Recycling Act 2003
EU Landfill Directive
Research what can be produced from recycling: paper,
cardboard, cans, plastic containers, glass and tyres
Research: In-vessel composting, Windrow composting
and anaerobic digestion
Household Waste Recycling Act 2003
Waste collection authorities to collect at least two
types of recyclable waste from all households
To increase recycling rates
Contributed to the rates we have today
EU Landfill Directive
The Directive's overall aim is "to prevent or reduce
as far as possible negative effects on the
environment, in particular the pollution of surface
water, groundwater, soil and air, and on the global
environment, including the greenhouse effect, as
well as any resulting risk to human health, from
the landfilling of waste, during the whole life-cycle
of the landfill".
EU Landfill Directive
Change in the way we dispose of waste in this
country and will help drive waste up the hierarchy
through waste minimisation and increased levels of
re-use, recycling and energy recovery.
Recycling materials into.....
More paper, depending on quality – 7 times
Paper, jiffy bags, loft insulation, car bodies, packaging, animal bedding, coffins
New cans, car and aviation , bike frames, train tracks, pipes. Never loses quality
new bottles, car parts, bins, home composters . It can also be used to make
clothing such as fleece jackets and hats or fibre filling for sleeping bags and duvets.
Plastic milk bottles are used in street and garden furniture
Reused where possible (brown, clear) or crushed and turned into fine sand to be
used as building sand, if processed further can be used as floor and wall insulation
and lightweight construction aggregate.
Surfaces for playgrounds, shock absorption, car parts, retreads, fuel, mulch for
landscaping, 3G sports pitches
Used to treat food and garden waste mixtures
Closed environment, temperature controlled
Introduced to ensure that all meat and other products
of animal origin meet the treatment standard required
to guarantee the protection of the environment and
Natural bacteria breaks down the material
Open air composting
Mainly of organic and biodegradable materials
associated with the agricultural industry
Cannot be used for organic materials generated by
the catering trade or from animal waste by law
Break down of biodegradable material
in the absence of oxygen
Methanogen micro-organisms break
down the garden and food waste
Source of renewable energy – Biogas
Biofertiliser, which is rich in nutrients
such as nitrogen, phosphorus and
other elements required for healthy
plant growth and fertile soil.